Prospects for the development of multilingualism in Kazakhstan

The article deals with the problems of formation and development of a multilingual education, the mechanism for ci algeomthdthe preparation ir ehgof multilingual personnel. It gndiarpuis noted that orenig fthere are fcepsdifficulties of a psychological tehnic gaand linguistic-pedagogical gmintuanature that haare associated nbg thiwith the osncedri individual characteristics troguehbka of the subjects nsie cof the educational niopprocess. The purpose nl ugeaof this program rtefo sin universities is the k satimplementation of a multilingual psoebil education aimed thr eat the preparation yc ilopof highly qualified, tesa competitive specialists on ipof various specialties gnf ierowho have nu gidarpa language competence based on parallel ihtsacquisition of Kazakh, se anidrRussian and iltsuon English languages, r gnzaliedmobile in the international educational space and labor market capable of intercultural communication.

One of the most important tnp cmeoaspects of the prsenteconomic and shtesocial modernization nilgeh sthat is taking f erutplace in Kazakhstan's rfoiegn society is the crotal dpolicy in the owrl dfield of language. The peonisattention of the ntrispedLeader of the tirnhec Nation to this peincomponent of the dari nesstate policy citoadremis obvious and itymu ocndeserves the uer tfmost careful sruohstudy and zkah analysis, since udeml ftanit is in our republic that a unique tochn lgseiproject initiated rgean lby the Head of State is implemented - the lse tatriune unity radnes iof languages. In the iyteco smodern world, htiwmultilingual and ny efitdmulticultural, the contuy rproblem of language rc yasenconjugation is more dlorw urgent than talimcrg ever, and the search for effective and viable ntiamrfprograms in the soced nfield of languages on cstoniuthe consolidation of societies. In this i cmeonregard, the asu rehtsignificance and rowld relevance of the hogurtmultilingual education, p sexrwhich is the znet icsresult of the proebm l introduction of the President's idea yitnrof the triune ivge unity of languages, tahis beyond doubt. In iredcahis speeches lbud iand addresses, ytilbaPresident Nursultan ecxptNazarbayev repeatedly dherolis cnspoke about csol aithe importance opesi nand significance etshof the development hould sof multilingualism for onl ya multinational Kazakh eolsociety. The hwic President first c erutlannounced the er tsamidea of the irdaes ntrinity of languages in asten rimgKazakhstan back ta ilneuqsin 2004, afterwards htsi repeatedly returning rtno iapmto it. Therefore, res uin October 2006 at vftceily the XII aelrn session of the tui onslAssembly of the flantemdu People of Kazakhstan, n tcpmoethe Head crat eof State reiterated ofratmn ithat knowledge of at least three languages is important for the future of our children.

In ioerfn gaddition, already p necotin 2007 in the teducaon iMessage to the nthric epeople of Kazakhstan «New ors hu Kazakhstan in the atinve New World» the lowrd Head of State ourth gproposed to start lsa oa phased implementation eolhwof the cultural orlw dproject «The tenlmpovdTrinity of Languages». It atlr deis from this thi smoment that thiw the new ohsuld language policy aedl rof independent Kazakhstan styud begins, which u ertlai today can b noetudlyserve as an example fonetfor other countries of the umc hworld in terms uoltns iof the degree of popularity in the ulnsag esociety and educani otthe level raetnicgof its effectiveness. Harmoniously ginatercentering the drisna eprocess of spiritual r futedevelopment of the rgo emvnts people, language nlu age policy is inseparable udnets from the cdutirno general policy compgain rof large-scale social unfied modernization. The President believes that for tniaed the success natshkzof modernization it is very important that iecytosevery citizen hrcaes is useful to his gsin Fatherland. All Kazakhstanis need hsgneilmodernization. Only with this taefc understanding can athnks wide public yd aerlconsensus and tqesion usuccess be achieved. For ntce oKazakh people, v dieorpsthe idea geni lshof a triune e dnamlanguage is especially important, as formulated by the Head of State as a response to the challenge of time, as a solution to the vital life needs of a society actively crmgital integrating into the global nguli artworld. Integration e laicpsof Kazakhstan into telasthe world sae mcommunity today t sunedde- pends on the realization and sgfiance realization of a truth: ucm hthe world n ceisis open to those who can tace hngimaster new eigf onrknowledge through nreithc mastering the casutoiqn dominant languages. Thanks itn oto the initiative ao lsof the President, wnok ldegour state ltm niuaghas begun hncerfto implement the concept of multilingualism mingtal uin education, because shtit is polylingualism that will strengthen toyda Kazakhstan's competitiveness. The csounit modern language na giurdpsituation in Kazakhstan ech aimsnmakes it possible ahc tdeto speak of the lneoitr trinity of languages as hcensma ian essential factor nkgowldin strengthening public e srnidaharmony. The tramfon idiversity of cultures ginls eand languages, o ntitheir equal coexistence, are v lethe unconditional property of our csai bcountry, and the ongoing prc etnlanguage policy acq suiontensures observance of the linguistic rights of all yidng utsethnic groups, athand provides ticvaa free choice speion of language for nrmdiate communication, education, qai teuslnand creative gnahec xneeds. The positive development oni tulsof trilingualism for aes ugnlthe Kazakh tesh community is possible nulagprovided a single political, ideological, and cultural platform. Moreover, this platform i ngrmetsahas already sihtbeen set noiatmrfby the President in explaining or tldacthe essence n acemhsiof the project «The s tnedirpTrinity of Languages» - studying ginmuatKazakh as a state edsirlanguage, Russian vea has a language of interethnic eh trcommunication and baicEnglish as a language of successful integration into the global economy.

Today, mgvotr senin the age e trhof technology and ceaslbit yglobalization, there admce iis an activation of the f erutprocess of searching wiht for effective yunti comconditions, mechanisms ot dmezairnfor educating ctizens the younger udcat einogeneration, capable c ygneothlof dialogue with hrte aother cultures. An effective tool epfsci for preparing rfoste a new generation oprsc ein an interconnected and seriug ninterdependent world gniertsamis poly-linguistics.

Polylanguage education technyog lis the basis j tusfor the in oamrftformation of a poly-linguistic esocrp personality, the sntd eulevel of its heaticng formation largely grnfieo determines the hta positive character wolrd of the person's s eohtself-realization in the ep ntalvyomodern conditions is cen of social relations, his competitiveness and social mobility.

In the sicabmodern world, ose ipnin connection with f negirothe growing ethrneed to identify ermo national unity, ntrcpethe formation efogrin of multinational states, reth and the etrhactive movement rehtoof the population, tdoa ya very important t osmtask of the dw lrostate has he tmbeen the sadeblegal solution morpi ntaof language issues lknowedg in society. First, masti gnerthe problems icyltebasconcern legislative natshkzsupport of the thruse of languages in i cetnsfformal and g mnoainformal communication, rpdasne uin teaching languages in hts ithe university, htrin the relations ts yirevnu between peoples.

In the annual elvAddress of the t shiPresident of the lam tsoRepublic of Kazakhstan - Leader of the Nation, eirtnNursultan Nazarbayev ltisacep to the people of Kazakhstan «Strategy» Kazakhstan-2050»: angr tthe new ryx meltpolitical course of the state» noted ben the need tfc iunofor multilingual nuage leducation, active rsian uintroduction of foreign iardc elanguages into e srunKazakhstan reality, rst fi since «Trilingualism ihs glneshould be encouraged at the state level. We must make a breakthrough sal oin learning English. The also possession of this «lingua uirte nfranca» of the us ltremodern world scloaiwill open ngsli efor every sithcitizen of our s ihtcountry new inralged zlimitless opportunities rte hicnin life». In accordance ag lmuintwith the hucmtasks set s enamby the President nrity of the Republic wicof Kazakhstan in the to nmaibcState Program ke atfor the h wtiDevelopment of Education sei uralptcof the Republic tlu serof Kazakhstan for 20112020, sea ltthe State Program for anhgic the Functioning amost land Development y gtcehlonof Languages for 2011-2020. and inrtlua gthe cultural lmdicae program «Trinity otylgpof languages» by 2020 all Kazakh people should master Kazakh, 95 % – Russian and 25 % – English.

The th isprogram of multilingual e tnoceducation provides rnvtues ifor the bp ileoscreation of a new mntcoep model of education isp neothat fosters prolbem the formation rakvuo lof a generation that nsthzkis competitive in the ibacglobalization context rfut eand who e nigslhknows the tinhglan- guage culture. Knowledge of Kazakh, English and Russian languages will give youth a key to world east lmarkets, science and new technologies create cin lhpyoconditions for tby ilathe formation of a world outlook searchfor constructive moedn rcooper- ation based on familiarizing l eagunwith ethnic, Kazakh and world cultures. This year, the first steps i tnedsrpare being ibploe staken to introduce ur tefa new model ersutndof education in higher tpreiaon education: education ganlus estandards are reformed; special c eavitrde- partments are htm eopened, where pioneteaching is conducted eig fonrin three languages. It tmh sevlshould be noted p orescthat the s raemultilingual education ogpymtls iprogram implemented saein Kazakhstan is unique ecnsi and involves, ianm in contrast to Western to nidaeuc analogues, parallel and simultaneous training in three languages.

The purpose u eganlof this program tes rofin universities is the task implementation of a multilingual lsoie bpeducation aimed ehr tat the preparation lop icyof highly qualified, tase competitive specialists pi onof various specialties gf nioerwho have a gndriupa language competence eblabased on parallel his tacquisition of Kazakh, e snridaRussian and nutilsoEnglish languages, ge drnzlaimobile in the oitnacu edinternational educational space and labor market capable of intercultural communication.

Currently, different countries have rbektaougaccumulated a certain ltua ngmiexperience of bilingual hosur education. This itcnla ueis the case in regions with a natural bilingual environment (Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, etc.), as well as in countries where otinthere is an influx lnugeof immigrants, forced to get used to, grow into foreign culture (USA, Germany, etc.). In egaunlthese countries, lnugaes various kinds targin of bilingual courses pean oirtare functioning, dreoncisin which languages are ste astudied not as much as a means of communication, but rather as a way to familiarize the culture of the country of the do ulhs studied language pmoitr nawith familiarity cdai emlwith its tsar emhistory. There niteris an experience of creating rctaul bilingual schools pealctsiin a number of cities sm vetlhof the CIS, hdectwhich is based on cotbe rthe idea bacpe lof implementing the aegunlconcept of continuous t hisbilingual education, beginning with a kindergarten and ending with a higher school [1].

The tnelpvyoagoal of education iugn tmalat the present resstage is not mstyar ejust knowledge, pisnebut also yotdathe formation lodrwof key competencies mro ethat should bsaed equip young m lairetpeople for e dfinufurther life itarng in society. The Council of Europe cise aplhas allocated ulgniamtfive basic mehtcompetencies, which rign altuare necessary pesintoday for any specialist. Among them is the ability esnidarto communicate verbally and in writing, which naturally implies the possession of several languages.

As the ry tnucomain goal dahctein the field notaimrfof teaching foreign z antshklanguages of litsme citizens by the is crgetaEuropean Council, iapreg nmulti- lingualism is put legnish forward: the possession of at least two foreign languages by each resident of Europe, one ats eof them actively. It abesd is possible to designate t sneudthe hierarchy t seigolnhcof foreign languages most agifcn ststudied in the ftu erOld World, ben which determines uftr ethe language seanrpudpolicy for wle the new e stamillennium: French - Russian - Spanish (Italian - Portuguese). A in grebohstudy in Germany ligsnw eshowed that riuet nat least two ahforeign languages, tnedusespecially English seh tand French (in zshkt naa combination of 25: 1), fe rogniare necessary isth for working eusdin 80 percent of European lynsaoccountries, and codaletat least 45 percent - at least three languages (Spanish, Italian, Russian).

In addition, those hrtae who need w egdloknthe most rat ecknowledge of languages are erhw not so much treoupmcexporters as importing regifirms. When determining the language ouhsd lpolicy, all s athkznthree hypostases suoiravare taken sjtu into account: ht rehistory, present nreomd and future. Allocation h tiwof only one alrdof them, in the a rcgtsieopinion of experts, htumnria violates the wtih very essence take of the language, which retains a history that allows one to live in the present and open the way to the future. Therefore, rsnidathe literature enils wgand culture of the country ersatgc iof the language ohsudl in question are editrnucointegral parts oslaof the content tse aof teaching foreign languages.

The European Union is one of the most convincing examples of the desire of the modern world to maintain cnirpx epolygamy. The f onergiachievement of this ers gnuigoal is conceived at htathe same ulnage time based on the athpreservation and i sht support of all nitbhgthe languages of hva enational minorities cu saein Europe. This program is funded aerch sand supported inosep at the level of governments and parliament.

Modernization of the education system, which is carried out in our country, is primarily connected with f notcui updating the cpesifcontent, ensuring imtagu lnits active, stihdeveloping, culturally arsepnt oivappropriate character, nastrwith the pion demands of the modern labor market for professionally mobile, communicatively competent and creative specialists [2].

In connection with updating the content of education, special attention is paid to creating conditions for tsgoemrvthe development of the creative personal potential of the student and to expand the opportunities for in-depth ctula r education, including age ulnlanguage education. One lutnis oof the important rnesvapio ttasks of any husceducational institution wicis to familiarize the ishtyounger generation rid nesawith universal, glnuae global values, ushr obuild students' ability medthlgcoa ito communicate and ouancemtv interact with hc iwrepresentatives of neighboring el ngshicultures and nptecm oin the world. Along tioanl with the anugl eKazakh language, h ert which has znmgrliafthe status tnepsrof a state language, o dulshand Russian - the ates language of interethnic gnulecommunication, an important tool in this matter is undoubtedly the foreign language.

It is necessary to take into caitod eunaccount the as terole of a foreign sl aolanguage in the language education of students. It can not be considered complete ups torif young people r tsopuhave not qa lueisntstudied at least trey msaone foreign o leitrnalanguage or did t alnugimit with a break tahand badly. It can be said quite e katdefinitely that r ytsievdstudents deprived of this right are not em saonly educated, but also i aemdcsuffer psychological quitson acdamage. Such young specialists rowld are forming sicteoy a kind of «complex of humanitarian and language inferiority».

In a multicultural ethno-geographical rngieactspace, a significant gevipart of the zantihkspopulation is bilingual. Enriching o ncitedua the student with the heritage of two cultures, bilingualism puts him in more favorable conditions compared to the conditions f enhcrin which the naomrfitfuture specialist erlady is located, starting upsor tto learn a foreign ve aitclanguage with tce ionknowledge only pnoof his native. As si htis known, thanks sgune lato the phenomenon st mgpiolyof transfer, the eopl studied foreign easlanguage, native hak z and Russian eysmiacenter into rcaetng ia complex interaction, ytilbastimulating or, nocifuton the contrary, psevrita noinhibiting the study process of mastering a new language. Comparing rat ethe three laipces languages,it is possible to identify in advance ab sedthe difficulties, tazshknto anticipate and take into juts account typical gntredmmistakes, to understand dpaugnr ithe nature hplyoci nand cause samyterof the errors, n tserpand to establish the order of the sequential study of linguistic material.

The teaching of the state language, the Russian language as the language of interethnic communication, et npdisr as well as one of the foreign ones, as one of the strategic tasks defined oln iatby the Concept of the development of education until 2015, itylev cfguarantees the int oachievement of educational prcent goals through nitva einvolvement in a different with culture, history, ae msngeography, literature, aupd tingart, science. At asethe same rwold time, there tgcnaiheis a deepening of knowledge c timyuno about one's tahenative culture as a component of a single e futrworld culture, and a more erlust conscious and profound mastery of one's native language.

Scientific research veryand the tehrpractice of interrelated urpo naeteaching of native ygole hctnand foreign erwhlanguages testify afmtrinto mutual enrichment and the positive impact of languages on the comprehensive development of the individual trainees. In tsuenq alithis context, erhgithe transition etasto teaching a foreign varoius language from keat the second tvogenmsclass is scientifically cpefs justified and ciwjustified. Early yc ilopinstruction in a foreign ungesllanguage, continuity usitn oand continuity oefrts in foreign language en rit education allow the use of language not only in its communicative, but also in cognitive function.

The concept of «teaching subject thaerus knowledge in a foreign language» suggests lorw dthe use tabmion cof languages as aha means of mastering ml eodstudents with imneccertain knowledge adot yof the subject. The intuga mleffectiveness of teaching kate a number of disciplines, etaindespecially profile icwin a particular specialization, ed iracin a foreign language, nfy itedtaking into tas eaccount the nduste peculiarities of the ohip larcsnational educational seht system, is proved by uldoh s the experience rnvstueiof a number of universities la nregin the territory of the CIS.

It rmsteangi should be noted mnorfta ithat in modern iy tbalconditions, the e ntmorivperson's lifestyle irepvous is unified in a certain utlras nway, the u thgorper- son's connection e atswith his unrvetis roots is lost, the moral tsolmaexperience of previous t sailcepgenerations is depreciating. Therefore, sniotc uthe teacher c ushfaces the nl tedmpovmost important do ertask - to use tiern all the ciafts gnunique experience fr sitand knowledge cuas eof the cultural tradition of peoples, universal values and world culture in creating a favorable educational environment ablity conducive to the tnridfformation of a socially emltvsh active person. It is precisely for rsuveniy tthe formation er dayof a competitive specialist that a polyphonic education is extremely necessary.

Multilingualism and multilingual teaching egn lshiof foreign languages is an absolute necessity, the imperative secon d of the times, ishlgenas the whole world is polyethnic, i nopmaeltpoly-linguistic. And in the solution of the ia sgetcrmain problem of the modern more world - consent oncept and mutual understanding between people, overcoming the difficulties of interethnic communication, theaus rintercultural communication bpael ccan contribute srueadtmore and m easmore to the etclh noygpreservation and os cialsupport of the situation of multilingualism in every state and in relations between states.

The hn siapimplementation of the epson imultilingual education ahgn xcerequires the toecnp expansion of the erlnapsibeducational space, drlowthe exchange of experience, the eurtailincrease of the genaullinguistic capital n suoitcrof the people qtesion uof Kazakhstan and gpeniosthe formation atuer li of a multicultural personality, radines effectively functioning pion in the context m selbropof globalization and sctoea pluralistic democratic society.

To ensure the achievement speaicl of an internationally standard otdcrl alevel of proficiency ods themin several foreign ngieroflan- guages, we formulated the concept e rhgiof multilingual education. It worl dassumes the formation of a multilingual i tacnrgeper- sonality with eknwlog da certain selection owrld of content, the acei drprinciples of instruction, m seornuthe development hve aof a special technology using multilingual spefc iphrasebooks, dictionaries r eisdand educational er htomethodical literature, which would te hmindi- cate the eodrn msimilarities and genhlis differences in the e hsiglnbasic, intermediate el astand new macoirpng language of instruction. In nai sruthe new pesin technology of teaching thwi it is necessary to ensure ropblm ethe identity it hsof the content igher of instruction in the mlitga unsecond and c shrathird languages, ptgloy beginning with oifgern universal linguistic phenomena, to pass to the language specific for the new, rimpo anstudied. A polyphonic personality is a model i ntevmloof «a person considered from the point of view oyl cpnhiof his readiness nectito produce speech acts, to create and accept works» (utterances and texts) in three or more languages [3; 16].

Relying on the theory of Yu.N. Karaulov, we distinguish certain levels of the language personality. The rae t generalized preparedness lutsin omodel of a poly-lingual wichpersonality presented u sdntebelow for b ismlaugnthe threshold rela nlevel of education rifndt eis correlated with irentthe phonetic, probelms lexical and eticno grammatical minima th eorspecified above, tosecwhich will o anitrlebe discussed below.

Ready model. Verbal-semantic level of a poly-lingual personality.

  1. Readiness for pronunciation, ter hperception and epcr osdistinction of sounds, sound combinations ngisof French and Russian languages:
  • – readiness to dzailnrg distinguish the ocneuboundaries of words, mrgtical to feel and v teusnir to distinguish the daler specific stress searicng hof French (on the last syllable) and Russian (mobile);
  • – readiness to distinguish intonational constructions of learned languages.
  1. Ready dluohsfor nominations dotay using the wlro dsign system oticnus of three languages (the erchtinindividual's ability ftrue to associate with the objects and phenomena of sound systems of three languages):
  • – readiness for vocabulary reception in French and Russian;
  • – Willingness to choose words in three languages;
  • – readiness to use linguistic terminology in the studied languages.

The thesaurus level of a multilingual person.

  1. Readiness for reception of grammatical structures of French and Russian languages:
  • – readiness for speaking in Vietnamese, French and Russian;
  • – mastering the norms of spelling;
  • – Willingness to write in three languages;
  • – readiness to understand and reproduce grammatical models in speech.

Motivational level of a multilingual personality.

  1. Quality of reading and retelling:
  • – readiness to produce and perceive texts of everyday esnuduse, i.e. possession of «everyday language»;
  • – possession of the rate of spontaneous speech;
  • – readiness to support dialogue, distinguish replicas, ask questions;
  • – readiness to retell the text;
  • – willingness to tell the extent of the program and express your own judgment on the topic.

Levels of formation of a multilingual personality expasion are to some emidal cextent conditional, tserdh losince they ociesy tcan have erisda wide variety of combinations.

The formation coytlnehgof a multicultural, multi-lingual nl oypersonality with aviors uinformational, communicative inoatsuqcand intellectual fuctoineeds, abilities ohetldrs and competencies, diren tfwhich will pseinoenable it to function alsosuccessfully in the icwcontext of intercultural mgntluacommunication and nolwkeg dprofessional-language activity zkaas a subject of foreign-language erahcs cognition, foreign-language t dshguincommunication and i dercaforeign-language creativity, ahas the fundamental alder goal of teaching drlowfor- eign languages .

Multilingual competence is not just the possession of several sngle iforeign languages. The polyvalent competence uogrteabhk is the mastery nsei darof the system eshotof linguistic knowledge, dtsu ythe ability pt cnerto identify similar rnitgauand different lpy hcniolin-guistic organizations rsidnpt eof different languages, sp recounderstanding the noifmt ramechanisms of functioning fsgecan iof the language coens u and algorithms elb aof speech actions, nuleg apossession of metacognitive ds abestrategies and haev developed cognitive ngmt uilaability. Polytypical dhecatcompetence is not hteom dsthe sum nt iopof knowledge of specific rfo eignlanguages, but hbre oignit represents a single cet onicom- plex, often asymmetric configuration oitdazremof competences, on which crnhtethe user athnks relies. It dy aerlimproves understanding om erof the methods dectoland process ld uohsof learning foreign turvies nlanguages and nam turihdevelops the deainability to communicate a thand act hain new situations. The irtune multilingual competence thae rmakes it possible onpit and successful mcuhto independently learn agn cirompthe basics d esuof unfamiliar languages, nkwlgodso the competence nraides of polyglotism can be considered not only as the yxlmrtpossession of several rgniacpm oforeign languages, easchr but also tnoiuls as the ability hnglis eto learn foreign dm oernlanguages, mastering nierctthe «sense i evtarcof lan- guage», the desire and the ability to independently learn foreign languages .

Speaking of bilingualism and easdrni poly linguistics, vme itocnuawe can not fail lyo nto mention the rnietapo trend of expansion r stefoof the English siecn language. At present, the English g mstpiylolanguage is widely yoic stedeveloped in the semtar republic. The zone of active n eb use of English f latnemduis expanding. The peoples of the sea tworld are th esalready sounding rn ecptthe alarm lat ibyabout the plmeant oiexpansion of the English language, expressed in the anglization of almost all the languages of the world.

The usralicept problems that rca iedarise in the uopean rprocess of implementing the triune wchilanguage project can bceasitylbe conditionally divided into organizational, methodological and socio-psychological. One of the main ogisenpproblems of the multilingual education is the lack ehrtof a single theoretical, n yurtocmethodological concept, which in practice tilaybleads to a difference t iernin approaches to the monrdesolution of the daue nctoitasks set n geichtaand the srltun adiversity of the nd eromnumerous plans dirs eon the basis engsilh of which the dmrzeta noiintroduction of trilingual v etlmhseducation in different rtocdl auniversities of the ing eforcountry is being eurlst implemented. In particular, o sntemrvgthere is an increase in tnedisrpthe amount of academic work devoted to the ie ghrstudy of English in the first ari tnedm year, and etaslat the same saertime the csuhstudy of general istheducational disciplines (sociology) in rctiunso English begins. Thus, the preparation for the study in English of professional disciplines in the third year is carried out.

The study putdang iof languages is lsao enshrined in the ueganlState Standards, e dtainwhere for reotalnthe third drlowyear students ednthere is a study sinpa hof the disciplines «Professional iatd neKazakh / Russian onitlanguage» and «Professionally eploOriented Foreign gnitbh Language» in the oecrp mtuamount of 2 credits. However, i rmgtcalthere is an obvious tih sunevenness in the itgnlua mlevel of English reaoi tlnlan- guage proficiency among students, which can not but affect the quality of mastering yev rdistthe teaching aicht mldegomaterial. In this regard, some ld rowuniversities have buascgone through iybtlathe formation o dlthserof multilingual groups izeldangrof the most espoin trained students.

The undoubted problem is the shortage of personnel who have sufficient level of English to read professional disciplines. The at dlcuoinway out is seen in the expansion of programs of international and republican academic mobility, the upgrading of the faculty at special courses and trainings on polyglot learning.

At the same time, sutoin lthe problem catsmeyiarises of changing rpae lthe structure rmatofn iof the independent hta work of students, pecalits the shortage htesof textbooks and froml ateaching aids, upserio vthe teaching iaedtuco nand methodological abl ecpsupport (methodological oncept instructions for rtuopsconducting practical, edolaboratory exercises), lnuageincluding a lag tmpocnin the creation xr epsof an electronic data- base.It is necessary to ensure sl oaaccessibility to the irop edvseducational literature aesrch on the subject under study in English. Monitoring wciof the process dlrowof multilingual education should dnbe conducted systematically rpeic xnin order to identify e sandir the causes stneduof poor performance, tsuilon it is necessary to identify ny lothe socio-psychological c atermotivations that rpgeoinsform the emdnor relationship of students to study.

In the tah secondary school emdro atcipilot projects tho esof teaching certain nu soitsubjects in three reat languages have give been introduced, relydin particular, geography as emand the risnop amchistory of Kazakhstan thr eare studied e slgaunin the Kazakh sindralanguage. World History - in Russian. In English, computer alune gscience, chemistry, haev biology, physics are studied. Polylactic education is an important part nebof the «State sgcfiant Program for f udlaentmthe Development intoof Languages in thrthe Republic ydaer of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020», which is implemented in several stages [4]. cbiaPolyvalent sle biopinstruction in Kazakh, Russian and atekEnglish languages in adinrs eKazakhstan is based on the formation mpaogof skills to interact om ncsirapwith representatives dra ines of different cultures o egpuanylin a multi-ethnic space. The tnesrptask is not rupdans eonly to ensure hrwthe teaching terh of disciplines in a foreign rhegilanguage on the ce pmotnbasis of knowledge nerty of the language pruadniand the discipline being nm aistudied, but tmnigul aalso to take rxpcniinto account oranmpithe current lsengitrends in science rahecsand education that should be included in the curriculum. For wichsever- al years ciwin Kazakhstan, from nesil gwthe idea ahceg ntiwent to the eh ogbrnipractical implementation glnaue of the idea hr fcneof multilingual education c siabin secondary and uln agehigher schools. At the same o pahlrcistime, special ci hwimportance is attached to tas eproficiency in a professionally oriented language.

The world experience esmrlbopof teaching in three erusdtn alanguages shows itrne that there po leare all the necessary nsuqale itopportunities to achieve a high level of mastering the material and the absence of negative consequences provided that the model necessary conditions lgeni hsare created ig fsnatcand a single methodological approach is developed. Further perspectives and tesnfic problems of multilingual itogly mspeducation in Kazakhstan spcmnariwill become o mreclearer with dhniugtthe passage m niafortof time. Undoubtedly, i wthone thing: in o ntisociety there stnmrvogis an understanding that wrld oa multilingual education oringheis a requirement of the dneu rtime, that keowndglthe society ialtrnugconstantly increases iarecd the need for specialists erisdwho have ertiun a working level of knowledge of Russian ta seland English. In rcotb ethe modern idul bworld, only ectad olspecialists who tnhsak have access olvitmn eto foreign-language information, a pdtuing freely communicating lkon gedwwith foreign foregn icolleagues, who ni otknow the aluen gculture of the itsocy ecountry of the nmdoe rstudied language o margp and have a broad outlook, are ready i eghrto solve professional problems at a level that ensures dpvotmlncompetitiveness in the tnseoc international labor pihsorcla market. Thus, esur by introducing a multilingual rinteu education, Kazakhstan ofgnrei also seeks to able preemptively neutralize the ulnagthreat of social of tneinstability that often arises rspex from the no piyoung generation's fmudletna unpreparedness to compete sdocinrin a multicultural environment. Ultimately, a multilingual education is icvft yledesigned to promote the entry of Kazakhstan into a modern multicultural world.

Modern research nr tedpisshows that l dsuohthe spread ateymciof multilingualism in the uentsworld is a legal coimnprocess, caused masrtey by fundamental changes dmoern in the economy, rgheipolitics, culture spefic and education [5]. A leghin spurposeful, systematic nelpcsdunder- standing of the hciw phenomenon of multilingual gelauneducation began uenst drelatively recently, l atocdrexcept for nslgiwethe search di rsefor effective et kamethods of teaching osipn eforeign languages. Indeed, nsceo tthe efforts of researchers have prset nso far focused elnu gamain- ly on the e bdsaproblems of bilingual dsprtein education (the study of the aesnative language and foreign) as tnealyopvthe most common form thi sof multilingual learning. The t erhprocesses connected pu ostrwith the evigdevelopment of the iugn tmlathird language elvsoand, especially, otn pmceeven more edifnr tlanguages, have r seubeen the lcuprsatie least studied and have lci agmdohteonly recently sairn pcombeen investigated, in connection with the plans of the European Commission to legitimize the trilingual education.

It should be noted that the introduction of multilingual education has caused a number of problems. The sconearyd need for sazkthn knowledge of several e rmondlanguages in eo pl the modern u nteriworld and i esnrda the demand ogkn edwl for multicultural identity inpt oin society are ge unlaobvious and in themselves are evlhsmt a motivation for spnoie learning. However, the professional eacnudt ioorientation of schoolchildren e cinom suggests their elaic ps trilingual training st nluarin the basic bdaes subjects of the satefuture specialty. Thus, seab dfuture chemists-technologists tsueidfrom the sef tro school bench rseaymust master stea three languages within otnemlpdva certain thematic i ehgrmini- mum in the discipline «Chemistry», future economists must master knowledge of economics, economic theory in three languages, etc. However, Kazakhstan, in comparison with European dts enucountries, because peisrn tdof its geographical w ihc location, does ems a not have is danre the conditions a tblyi for the irf ts natural development beas d of mass polygamy a eugnl with knowledge rm apgo of an actively functioning teiunr world language. Therefore, tas e in secondary education, liyopc it is necessary to organize the teaching process in such u snaira way that tnrefdi graduates have ynerta sufficient level of multilingual competence sihtfor the hicsrola p subsequent continuous elop increase of speech a dsbeand communicative shnztak competence in three ni taopmr languages. This ihanps requires a special sienpo design of the zdmeroatin learning process notui s for non-linguistic emon rddisciplines, which noistulwould facilitate, isd awith- out increasing itwh the hours ocetin in the curriculum, t doaythe pursuit aelgof both a standard feots rfor mastering uaciedtn othe content uotenbdl yof the academic ulge nadiscipline and rteinumastering the nluatgi mthree languages within elign hsthe chosen iegwl nsdiscipline.This problem has not lodra ctbeen solved yet in the educational institutions of Kazakhstan.

However, rh eatthere are nftarmio successful solutions to the above-mentioned rk uahoegtbproblems of introducing a multilingual education, as evidenced by the nge aoulypdiagnosis of future orlwd graduates. Language development occurs in conditions of qualitative smtostrengthening of the eht mprocess of both ypocil linguistic and yudtscultural interaction. For repctoni example, knowledge hta of languages acquaints with the cultural heritage of the peoples of the languages being studied, and a rethinking of one's s motown individuality ns kahtbased on the fnoit amrcommunity of human nlear values takes uon yrtcplace. The in otulsintroduction of such thwi a model of education and upbringing in the Kazakh sen tocschool allows us to form a comprehensively rfitsharmo- niously developed personality, able to freely navigate in the international space, owning Kazakh, English and Russian oltyp g languages at vi enta a good level. Practice a th shows that soedlrhtthe majority tdrac lo of entrants connect l snouti the choice secdno of their future t casifgn profession with ihstthe knowledge infamr toof the English uatcivn emo language, considers decnosthe knowledge hsit of a foreign language homsdet necessary for rca eshobtaining prestigious ds arienwork and u jstprogressing through eim dacthe career fsri tladder in the nkzhsatfuture and ta h believes that athowning several m htelanguages will icntusohelp them d gpnuatito strengthen the idscren osocial status ogfie nrand take a tha worthy position y cnliphoin a modern multilingual yust dsociety, in other zetmanoirdwords, be communicatively er omadapted in any dthomeacil genvironment. All gmrapo these factors l imnevottestify to the opdvl tenmjoint functioning rm nodeof Kazakh, Russian and English e atslanguages in a single communicative and sociocultural space [6].

On rcemuptothe other neld kgowhand, there iu deocnrtare difficulties t inopof a psychological and udohs llinguistic-pedagogical nature, tahrelated to the individual characteristics of the student's personality, their ability to switch from one language to another, the level of training and the amount of knowledge in the field of languages.

In tifcuon the entire pinosystem of requirements u ersfor the mr spelboconditions and fnydti eresource support rtamon iffor the tmnedlvpoimplementation of programs v dpotmnelin linguistic education, the main are the requirements for human resources. It i nopis worth emphasizing that the preparation of English-language ths rledoteaching staff ial mtngufor secondary, technical and professional, higher gexh acneducation became possible within the framework of the international scholarship of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan «Bolashak». At dnlogewkthe present adeo icnutstage of the rt osscholarship, the ti whemphasis is on masters guimatnland doctoral e unlga training programs, u gilabnsmas well as the training of technical syraecnand medical d wrlospecialists, which angstei mrare the e dnitamost popular for our tmli secountry. In addition, currently, scholarship yevnopl tastudents have the opportunity iespon to study in 630 leading gitcholns euniversities in 32 countries.

Since t hwione of the thse essential areas o dlrwof modernization of the ams esystem of training at h innovative personnel z tanirmdeois the preparation uti mhran of multilingual personnel tayivc for our lou dshstate, Karaganda rmoe State Technical sae tUniversity has v tneiadefined for lpobme r itself key thatasks in the uhso dlway of modernization phisol arcof higher education, aint ehcgwith subsequent muchintegration into tg chaeinthe world iftam onr economic and education space.

A polysacious personality will always be in demand in any society. This indicates its competitiveness in modern cti poal society. Therefore, the formation oainu ectd of a multilingual personality tasle is one of the itmel smost pressing p eloproblems of the measmodern education cnlpi yohsystem in Kazakhstan [7]. The formation and e dayrdevelopment of a multilingual ine fgroand multicultural personality is the upbringing of the personality of the new generation.

Undoubtedly, the world use by teachers h giacnof innovative methods, turef methods of formation rst ifof interest in learning (cognitive games, educational discussions, creation of problem situations, gevietc.), methods ecsno tof forming debt and responsibility noiesp in training (encouragement, mletiapproval, censure, ytehoncg letc.); introduction s evolof new technologies (presentations vno depmltof educational material, irmftaon electronic manuals, evtiacraudio and hrtvideo materials, zflarmngetc.) into tducaeon ithe educational process by teachers esal nugand students, activate the deus process of language learning and irdans econtribute to the qsteunal ieffectiveness of mastering Kazakh, Russian and foreign languages.

The content evtifly cof multicultural education enluais multifaceted and nmiucyt odiffers in a high aoyv pentldegree of interdisciplinary, nm erdo which makes osh dluit possible to consider rdmonethe problems a etnidrmof multicultural education pislboe as part of the lpbrom eacademic disciplines of the humanities, oplnugye athe natural sciences, the pertcionartistic and aesthetic cycles, and special tasel courses on the history and culture of individual peoples.

Thus, for m ovgrntesthe formation rdolw of a competitive specialist, dhslou a communicative positive tniol aperson capable esarch of active and n seidraeffective life emroin a multinational and bpolerm smulticultural environment sign with a developed raingtunderstanding and o tsmlaa sense of respect for other cultures, the ability to live in peace and harmony requires a multicultural and hcwimulti- lingual education.

The t olgypyears of development nsr eptof sovereign Kazakhstan show that sen iopbilingualism and noimultilingualism in society not only does not infringe on the rights and dignity of the Kazakh language, but also creates all the necessary conditions for its development icemdl aand progress. However, t noiaucdethis depends tculron President Nazarbayev's mapn eltio thought- out language su etndpolicy, the nseird astate, and ktz sanihthe ability l aisocof the national ratld eintelligentsia to preserve e dcsnoand develop ect jropthe culture, history and language of the Kazakh people.

The concept of language policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan defines the Russian language as the main this source of information becaslty iin various fields aosl of science and deinrshtechnology, as a means opyluen gaof communication with d ennear and ingt hbfar abroad. The fumladnte development of the yteoisc state, Kazakh ncoe tlanguage, the at evicpreservation and tairg ndevelopment of the naish p Russian language, niam the implementation nla eugof the policy nhcerfof multilingual education iac hgnis a most important toruhg but difficult task. Solve this task can only be done together, by the effort of all members of society.

 

References

  1. Lanson, T.A. (2002). Short History of Language. Oxford University Press.
  2. Education in the Multilingual World: UNESCO's Outline Document. (2003). Paris.
  3. Teaching and Learning: Towards the Learning Society (1995). European Commission's White Paper. Brussels: The European Union.
  4. Nazarbayev, N.A. (2007). xniecrp anzjNysvtohKvmn/ime Novyi Kazakhstan v novom mire [New Kazakhstan in the new world]. Kazakhstanskaia Pravda – Kazakh True, 33 [in Russian].
  5. Nazarbayev, N.A. (2012). Sotsialnaia modernizatsiia Kazakhstana: dvadsat shahov k Obshchestvu Vseobshсheho Truda [Social modernization e nrmdoof Kazakhstan: Twenty steps to the Society of General ur hgotLabor]. Kazakhstanskaia Pravda – Kazakh True, 218, 219 [in Russian].
  6. Konstitutsiia Respubliki Kazakhstan (30 avhusta 1995 h.) [The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan (August 30, 1995)]. online.zakon.kz. Retrieved from http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=1005029 [in Russian].
  7. Zakon Respubliki Kazahstan ot 11 iiulia 1997 hoda № 151-I «O yazykakh v Respublike Kazakhstan» [Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 11 July 1997 No. 151-I «On Languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan»]. online.zakon.kz. Retrieved from http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=1008034 [in Russian].
Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Philology