The problem of linguistic persona in linguistics and its place in the scientific system

The article deals with the state of the theory of the linguistic personality in linguistics, which causes an increased interest of modern scientists linguists. Such key questions of studying the linguistic personality are raised, such as the choice of the original term and the generic component, the establishment of the level of abstraction and structure definition. The relevant aspects of contemporary linguistics of the theory of the language personality that originated in the anthropocentric direction can be covered, which can be considered as collective and / or individual. And also the authors of the article prove that the prospects for the development of the theory of the linguistic personality are related to the cognitive, lingual-cultural and communicative directions of research.

In recent years, due to radical changes in the main trends and paradigms of scientific research, scientific views have emerged in the views of the system of sciences.

The XX-XXI centuries the problem of «linguistic persona» is marked by the growing interest in the system of sciences. Studying a communicating person is closely related to recent changes in the speech and communication act. Language is not merely a means of communication, it is a manifestation of the historical and cultural wealth of the people. Recent years in the field of linguistics research works on identification of an individual's linguistic image through their worldview are being conducted. Therefore, the term «linguistic persona» should be fully elaborated on.

Formation of a personality is an aspiration to the ideal as a person who has perfected himself all-round. The number of studies for research based on the characteristics of a linguistic persona and its features is increasing. Contemporary Kazakh linguistics in the field of the theory transfer of scientific paradigms has undergone a new course in its development. Through a psycholinguistic, cognitive approach to language, linguists were able to discover the anthropocentricity of linguistic units.

The introduction of the «linguistic persona» category in the linguistic education has led to the creation of anthropological linguistic knowledge that is closely related to the mind, thought and spiritual activity of the person through the structural and functional aspect of the language, allowing in general the concept of «persona» to be filled with new content. The role of the systematic theory of linguistic persona in the works of the scientist Yu.N.Karaulov [1, 2], in which the interest in the language consumers, creativity and language of the linguistic science has become stronger and now is the core of new research.

One can notice that a tendency to explain language persona in several ways has formed recently:

  1. identification of the basic systems of a personality formation as a linguistic persona (surname, place of residence, literary and linguistic, national-cultural influence, etc.);
  2. to demonstrate the individual qualities of the persona and personality, i.e. his / her own knowledge in self-education, self-improvement, education, inheritance of his / her language experience, acquired skills,mastering skills, to apply the experience to change the reality. It is understood that it is necessary to consider the level analysis of their language as a complex, multidisciplinary study consisting of properties, which includes description of associative-verbal, linguocognitive, pragmatic levels.

Concerning the importance of discovering the national identity of the individual according to the scientist Zh.A.Mankeeva's opinion: «the development of these levels in a particular linguistic persona is evident in different ways. Their creative cognitive content consists of a world outlook, a system of cultural values. That is why we understand the linguistic persona as a national linguistic persona. Because the nature of the linguistic persona is directly related to the national cultural stage of a person» [3; 281-284].

The system of values that identifies the person around the world, other people surrounding them, the attitude to themselves i.e. the material and spiritual well-being and ideals of a person, the choice of certain social, cultural and moral values are defined by the discovery of the universe in their cognition. And the pragmatic potential of cognition and purpose are reflected by their language.

According to Yu.N.Karaulov, who has a broad scientific sense in the concept of a linguist, «linguistic persona is an idea that breaks the boundaries between subjects that involve all aspects of the language study, which involves a person outside his or her language» [1; 15].

Linguistic persona analysis can be done at different levels: a linguo-cognitive level that defines the level of language proficiency and determines their development, behavior and goals that control their behavior, manage their textuality, and defines the hierarchy of values and the language model of the world. A linguistic person is a person whose language (texts) is reflected in the language and whose main features are re-created on the basis of language tools. The term «linguistic persona» is an interdisciplinary term, which is a socially significant integral, determined by the philosophical, sociological and psychological attitudes of the physical and spiritual features that make up the human being's qualitative clarity.

«First and foremost, a person who uses a language is regarded as a «linguistic persona» in terms of their ability to communicate. «A person is the subject of psycho-physiological peculiarities of an individual, which allows them to create and accept personalized works.» A set of features of the verbal behavior of a user-friendly person as a means of communication is also recognized as a «linguistic persona».

A linguistic persona is a type of full-fledged expression that includes mental, social, ethical, and other components that are identified by language, discourse. A person cannot be studied extensively, and the language developer, the user is unable to recognize the language, without paying attention to the person or the language limit. It is impossible to get information about who they are until you can hear a word from them. It is also impossible to view the language outside human beings, because the language without the person speaking in that language is simply a system of symbols. Therefore, «the formation of a person as a linguistic persona is realized only by language» [1; 98].

Referring to literary text of Yu.N.Karaulov we can design a linguistic level model and define three structural levels:

  1. Verbal-semantic level (or structural-system).
  2. Cognitive level (or the thesaurus).
  3. Pragmatic level (motivation) [2; 99, 100].

In recognition of their linguistic persona, Yu.N.Karaulov proposes to consider the individual intellectual property of the linguist, and the linguistic competence and according to the first level the linguistic persona is called «zero level».

The linguistic knowledge of the speaker is in the mind according to Yu.N.Karaulov's theory, verbal- semantic, linguistically-cognitive and motivational or action-communicative needs are expressed. According to the researcher, «the language of a linguistic persona is a set of psychological, ethical, social components» [2; 47]. A.S. Adilova, considering an intertextual review of the formation of each individual as a linguistic person, gives her opinion.: «Everyone has a separate cognitive space as a linguistic persona, which in turn consists of a set of collective (family, professional, religious, social) cognitive spaces, and relies on the national-linguistic-cultural-informational base of the society in which they live. However, under the influence of extalinguistic causes such as the existence of extralinguistic reasons, different periods of existence, the propaganda of political-ideological positions in the society, the lack of sources of information, the closure of the national literature and culture, the diversity of the language and the reader's cognitive base are encountered. It will depend on the human process of socialization» [4; 39]. Continuous intertextual nucleus of the linguistic person includes strong literary texts known as educational encyclopaedia of national educational standards, the names and words of literature, history, society and culture personalities, very important political and social events, cultural, historical and religious relics, and the time interval for thedynamic interactive layer of the linguistic person that change according to social circumstances and are constantly changing, with the necessity to transform into a specific hierarchy. The interpersonal periphery of a linguistic person refers to the most moving, most modest part of its cognitive level, and includes texts such as songs, advertisements, and mass media. Intertextual periphery of the lingual persona quickly and frequently changes due to transformations in the cultural taste of the society.

A linguistic persona is a form of background education, not a set of classical signs of a specific user. It is also the world of cognition of the artist, which is based on the linguistic vision of the world. Based on the factors mentioned above, a linguistic persona is a combination of social, psychological and ethical components that are apparent through the use of speech [4; 39, 40].

Characteristic features of a linguistic persona: 1) speak mother tongue fluently, can speak correctly in their native language (mother tongue is conditioned, they can speak not only native language but other languages); 2) have adapted to social life, have a personal interest and a learning experience; 3) a person who consumes literary language at creative level and can demonstrate original creativity in their work. «It is clear that only a unique person with a unique quality of character that is unique to other individuals can be a personality. That is, not a person who is different from the people but a person who meets the requirements of a person. A person is not born as a personality, but they are formed as a personally. The same is true to linguistic persona. The person should be recognized in the system of social relations, in relations with other people, social institutions, and will be known as a historical person. Consequently, the essence of a person's life is revealed at the level of «value of communication» [5; 12].

Researchers note that the formation of a linguistic persona is subject to the influence of three extralinguistic factors: social, national and cultural, psychological factors. Any situation in which individuals live is first of all a social condition subject to the norms and laws that the society regulates. On the one hand, the linguistic persona must adhere to those circumstances. On the other hand, since they are members of that society, they are consciously able to break the general norms to express their personal position on what is happening [6; 10].

In general, a linguistic person is an individual who has been brought up in the national language, national values environments, who is fully acquainted with national spirit and national language, an individual who has accumulated all national reality. Along with Russian scientists in the field of linguistic identity, the Kazakh linguistic scientists also work productively. Nowadays, the current issue of the fictional language is to examine the linguistic identity of the writer, who is the creator of the linguistic image of the universe, the peculiarity of the use of the word-makers and the image of the author. Among the recent studies in Kazakh linguistics Sh.Niyatova studied the linguistic persona of Makhambet, Sh. Yelemessova - language visualization of ancient national cognition, Zh.S. Satkenova researched deeply the cognitive significance of the heroic language of the artistic work, a language problem, studying the linguistic persona of B. Sokpakbaev from different sides and analyzes 25 types of conceptual structures in the author's works. There are also works where F. Kozhakhmetova studied the linguistic persona of Turmagambet Iztleuov and A. Zhuminova studied the linguistic persona of Olzhas Suleimenov in a flexible manner.

According to the new scientific paradigm, the main focus of the language study is on a linguistic persona and in this regard new meanings of the language research, important concepts and approaches, and metatheoretic basis are formed. In general considering the model of the language cognitive nature originated from the works of scientists such as V. Humboldt, Teun Adrianus Van Dijk, E. Sapir, I. Potbenja.

At the same time, Kazakh scientists who worked successfully were A. Kaydar, E.Zhanpeisov, Zh.Mankeeva, M. Kopylenko, G. Smagulova and other researchers have valuable content not only for ethnolinguistics, but also for cognitive research. Nowadays different functioning of the language, the study of lingucultural and cognitive aspects and the objectivity of the linguistic activity through human consciousness have been proven. The functioning and use of linguistic symbols and the their cognitive interpretation through conceptual structures are important.

In accordance with the scientific theoretical principles of the present-day antropocentric course, only the formulation of a person's outlook and identity, the use of linguistic usage with the national knowledge of the ethnos can only be interpreted as a linguistic persona.

In the modern linguistic world, the world model of language recognition and the related national model are being identified. Thus, today's language is not only a communicative instrument, but also a cultural and documentary resource that preserves, builds, protects, delivers, and transmits the history of the country. In accordance with this principle, the language study is anthropocentric (human study) approach that studies it closely with the consumer. That is, the special meaning is given to the person's identity (an individual). In themeantime, such studies were the subject and the words of the people of the country, which expressed the national identity and culture through the language, the spiritual creative heritage.

The problem of the mother tongue, which has the status of a state, is not limited to linguistics, but as a driving force of socio-social activity, reflecting national identity. Therefore, the content of a linguistic persona includes the following components, as scientists suggest:

1) value (axiological), world outlook system, the content of education;

2) the level of culture development as an effective means of interest to the language;

  1. personal features (human, deep personality).

In recognition of his commitment, scientist Yu.N.Karaulov proposes to consider the individual intellectual property of the person and in accordance with the first level of a linguistic persona the language norm is called «zero level». This level reflects the degree of mastering verbal-semantic (semantic, invariant) simple speech language, consisting of an exemplary model of the phrase and phrase in the language system. At the verb-semantic level the words are considered as the basic units, and the relationship between them is expressed through different grammatical, paradigmatic, and syntactic links, stereotypes - standard phrases and sentences [1; 164].

This level is implemented in the language system. The person is familiar with the general features of the language. We explain it as language background education in modern linguistics. In order to understand the meaning of any statement, the speaker and the listener should have the background knowledge of the past, the spiritual world of the people. Background knowledge is the concept formed by the centuries-old experience of the people. The background knowledge formed in the mind of the learner by learning the language is directly related to cognitive activity, that is, their thinking system. That is why in the mind of the linguist at this level cognitive activity creates new ideas and new concepts about the Kazakh language. Understanding the structural, comparative, practical features of the linguistic units encountered by the linguist in the conversation will be a measure that determines its zero level.

The second thesaurus level is the cognitive level, which consists of concept, idea, conceptual units in each person's cognition, creativity. It contains the relevance and uniqueness of socially relevant knowledge and understanding and the creation of a collective or personal cognitive space. This level reflects the discourse that is based on the texts of the person's knowledge, imagination, knowledge, text-based, textual and text-based integrity. The phenomenon of a linguistic persona visible through texts is a complex structure of mental, social, ethical and emotional components. The identity of a linguistic persona is determined by their discourse. That is, the chosen communicative strategies and pragmatic intentions of a linguistic persona of the Kazakh language learner in communication are evident in their psychological, emotional state, friendly, affiliate friendly, affiliated, interested or vice versa [2; 169].

The cognitive or the thesaurus level is the stage of the theoretical formulation of the person, which is the result of language linguistic model of the world, its intercultural competence, succession of language and cognition. The peculiarity of this level is evidenced by the grammatical and lexical knowledge of the person describing the level of knowledge of the Kazakh language learner. As a unit of the linguo-cognitive level, different concepts, ideas, concepts are discussed through the use of zero-level words, the relationship between them is arranged in a well-defined hierarchical system, representing the structure of the world, stereotypes - the various generalized concepts, wing words and regular standard connections between concepts that are reflected by aphorisms.

The more important concepts that reflect the needs, interests and ideals of a linguistic persona are reflected in their thesis. The thesaurus is, first, a frequency dictionary and secondly, a picture of a kind of lunar face that is based on a dictionary. It is based on a conceptual structure that is directly related to the fragmentary image of a linguistic character. Concept is a multicomponent, complex cognitive phenomenon, a key part of the linguistic-cognitive level of a linguistic identity, a unit that identifies the movement of collective consciousness, which represents the truth or artistic basis of the world. The concept of a world of human consciousness is labeled by word with the help of concepts, released and verbalized. Its structure can be represented as a central point, which is a field consisting of core, knowledge, conclusions, concepts, meanings, imaginations, assumptions and associations that are centered around the core. The process of human cognition in this direction depends on what direction he has in the world. The conceptual field is characterized by the linguistic image of the universe within a particular concept. Defining the notion of concept from the linguistic and cultural points as a mental phenomenon is a legitimate step in the formation of anthropocentric paradigm of humanitarian, including linguistic knowledge [1; 172].

In the conceptual field of the linguistic persona of the language learner, multilingual lexical data performs cognitive, axiological functions. The thesaurus of a linguistic persona is based on the national identity, language, history, tradition, literature, culture, etc. the basic concepts have a great impact. These concepts in the language learner's usage will have a new meaning with Kazakh cognition's color, the content will enrich that is the context semantics will deepen. The conceptual field of Kazakhstani linguistic persona is formed within the framework of national basic concepts, all concepts forming this conceptual field are concentrated around the language learner's «I» and recognized as the linguistic image of the world it has made [7; 65]. «Language, culture and ethnos come in close contact and form the basis of personality, define their role of physical, spiritual and social «I» combination. The linguistic person and the concept are the basic categories of linguistic culture that form the prototype image of the natural person and the person who expresses the mentality and consciousness of the «speaking person» [7; 65].

Third high level of pragmatism is the level of motivation that includes the purpose, motivation, interest and instruction to form the language and the textuality of the linguistic persona. At this level, the motives and goals that contribute to the development of the linguistic identity are realized in the pragmatic sense. «Motivations, interests, values and meanings that lead to the improvement of language, speech, and the textuality are reflected in the language model of the speaker [7; 47]». The most pragmatic and motivational level of the linguistic persona is the fact that an adult's motivation to learn the Kazakh language is to become a target of mastering the national spiritual and cultural values of the Kazakh people via the language. Because the language learner expresses their motives for choosing the language tools that they find most effective in achieving their ultimate goals, the personality of their linguistic identity is evident at this level. The motivational level of the linguistic persona or the pragmatikon is their vital goals, interests and motivations, principles and intentions. At this level the linguistic interaction of the learner affects the perception of life.

Dividing the structure of a linguistic persona into levels is conditionally implemented; in real life the interconnection and interdependence of these levels are observed. All these three levels come together, form a system of linguistic means that reflect the cognitive world of the language learner and create a linguistic persona. At every level of mastering language there is a space that reflects the individual's unique intellectual peculiarities. Summarizing the aforementioned, the full formation of the linguistic person begins with the linguistic-cognitive or the theoretical level. At this level, the linguistic picture of the world, the hierarchy of values and significances can be revised. The motivational level goes beyond the limits of linguistics, however, at that level the linguistic features of the person become clear. Due to the systemic impact of this aspect of the linguistic persona, verbal-semantic and thesaurus aspects influence at the personal level. The theoretical knowledge of the language learner helps to identify the communicative needs according to their nature. So, «at the thesaurus level the person is regarded as «subject» and at an apostrophe-semantic level as «an individual or a person» [7; 68].

The person's inner world, the level of culture, knowledge, consciousness are reflected through the language «Language is a mirror of the human spirit, and first of all it reflects a human being whose concept of a mirror is a constitution of culture.» The notion of a linguistic persona demonstrates the connection between the individual's consciousness and attitude towards the world and the language. Every person expresses themselves and their personality not through material acts, but through communication that can not be exercised without language and speech. The person's word reveals their inner world, serves as a source of information that reflects their personality. The ability to give or not to give significant description of the word depends on the level of the speaker's inner world.

The linguistic persona as a difficult, complex system requires the studying from the aspect of linguistic humanities (anthropolinguistics). Studying the language of the person who has made a great contribution to the development of national literature and the spiritual heritage of the nation in accordance with the direction of contemporary humanities (anthropolinguistics) is a matter of national identity and the outlook of the people. It is possible to conclude on the basis of the artistic language analysis, which is based on the educational and informational background of the person who founded the formation of the special word art, their spiritual-social environment and society.

On the basis of the findings of the study of Kazakh language linguistics, it is necessary to study the paradigms of traditional-structured paradigm and linguistic humanism as «old», «new», without interrupting each other, on the contrary, complement each other.

Through the individual features of the language of linguistic persona not only the national language but also the inner world of the individual becomes more and more open. From this point of view, the notion of alinguistic persona is the inner world of the individual, the sample of their language. Therefore, the works of any writer are not only the history of the nation, the national identity, but also their personality as a personal writer. When describing the writer's view of the world and their attitude to the environment, various words and phrases appear in the description of the character.

As to the problem of the language identity it is not difficult to understand the significance of studying the notion of the linguistic persona in linguistics. «The combination of linguistics, language and linguistic persona has moved to a new direction of the study» the linguist Yu.N.Karaulov demonstrates [2; 24]. We can see that this trend is also important for the Kazakh language education, not only because of its master's lab, but also for the national language. Identification of a linguistic persona depends on the user's language and public speech skills. Through individual features of a linguistic persona, not only the national language, but the inner world of the person reveals itself all round. From this point of view, the notion of a linguistic persona is the inner world of the individual, the model of them through the language.

 

References

  1. Karaulov, Yu.N. (2004). Russkii yazyk i yazykovaia lichnost [Russian language and a linguistic persona]. Moscow: Editorial URSS [in Russian].
  2. Karaulov, Yu.N. (1989). Russkaia yazykovaia lichnost i zadachi ee izucheniia [Russian linguistic persona and the tasks of its study]. Yazyk i lichnost – Language and Personality, 261. Moscow: Nauka [in Russian].
  3. Mankeeva, Zh.A. (2010). «Tі ldі k tylha» maselelerіn zertteu [Studying the problems of «linguistic persona»]. Kazak filolohiiasy – Kazakh philology, 280–290. Almaty: Arys [in Kazakh].
  4. Adilova, A.S. (2009). Kazі rhі kazak korkem shyharmalaryndahy intertekstualdylyktyn reprezentaciiasy, semantikasy, kurylymy [Representation, semantics, structure of intertextuality in contemporary Kazakh artistic works]. Extended abstract of Doctor's thesis. Almaty [in Kazakh].
  5. Kozhakhmetova, F.B. (2004). Turmahanbet І ztіleuov tіldі k tylhasynyn diskurstyk sipaty [The discourse character of Turmaganbet Izteleuov's linguistic personat]. Extended abstract of candidate's thesis. Almaty [in Kazakh].
  6. Uali, N. (2007). Kazak soz madenietіnіn teoriialyk nehіzderі [Theoretical foundations of the Kazakh word culture]. Extended abstract of Doctor's thesis. Almaty [in Kazakh].
  7. Vorkachev, S.G. (2001). Linhvokulturolohiia, yazykovaia lichnost, kontsept: stanovlenie antropotsentricheskoi paradihmy v yazykoznanii [Linguoculturology, linguistic persona, concept: the formation of the anthropocentric paradigm in linguistics]. Filolohicheskie nauki – Philological Sciences, 2, 60–75 [in Russian].
Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Philology