Literary text is complicated phenomenon which has many sides to investigate. It can have plenty of differences which are not always corresponded to traditional language literature. Even scientists are trying to investigate the phenomenon and notion of literary work for many centuries there is still importance to distinguish literary text from other sides. One of such importance is to identify the differences of style and language characteristics in Kazakh literary fantasy. This article is devoted to giving historical investigation for definitions of text which are originated from national and foreign linguistics, also showing its main characteristics and features; the notion of fantasy text is shown in the sphere of literature and philosophy; the definitions of terminology of fantasy literary text are also specified and their main features are shown; the types of literary fantasy text are differentiated
Text is a sophisticated semantic-structured system with unique features and laws. It uses all the lingual units in the text, it is a sophisticated linguistic symbol. Accordingly the text analysis and character recognition, analysis of its structure and texture, definition of the functions of language units in the process of text – forming is actual problem today.
In literary theory, a text is any object that can be «read», whether this object is a work of literature, a street sign, an arrangement of buildings on a city block, or styles of clothing. Also it contains special form and composition. The text is like a bridge to have relationship and becomes as a unit of feedback. People use not only words, sentences but also texts to communicate and understand with each other. If people understand the meaning of the texts they will have feedback. The notion «text» was used very early, that's why this term began to be used in science and terminology.
The word «text» comes from the Latin «texere», to weave. Deriving from the Latin, most definitions place «text» as a linguistic structure woven out of words or signs. To call something a «text» implies that the words, phrases, lines or sentences of which it consists have not been arranged this way by chance, but have been produced by a person and with certain kinds of intentions. Therefore, a text contains meaning which is open to interpretation.
The text is distinguished by scientists from all over the world therefore they give different definitions to this word. For example, B. Shalbai gives the following definition: «Text is the construction which is built from the connection of symbols and personality. The construction of text must be corresponded to following demands: to have an external personal connection, to have ability of producing and getting the information, to universe communication and etc» . And one of the famous Russian theoretical scientists I. R. Galperin said: «Text is a production of speech which has completely objective type in written form with corresponded literary document and an effort consisted from the name (title) and the range of special units (phrasal units) which are joined with different types of lexical, grammatical, logical, stylistics connection which have definite and pragmatic rules» .
In spite of it there are almost three hundred definitions and if we take into consideration one of them, text is the unique of construction and meaning and becomes oral and written units of speech.
Nowadays the problems of linguistic of the text have been distinguishing in Kazakh language. Some literary notes of A. Baitursynov became the first exploration of R. Syzdyk, Kh. Nurmukanov, E. Zhanpeisov, М. Sergaliev, Kh. Karimov, B. Shalabai, N. Ualiev, S. Kunanbayeva, Z. Еrnazarova, S. Mustafina, G. Azimzhanova, Zh. Kayshygulova, S. Smagulova, А. Adilova, М. Аkhmetova and they continue his works and distinguish different language facts of literature. At present time cognitive sides of literary texts are being distinguished and used in their research works of Kazakh language by scientists as K.A. Zhamanbayeva, G. Kosymova, Sh.M. Elemesova, Zh.B. Satkenova, A.Zh. Aitpayeva and etc. Thus there are some directionsdevoted to the linguistic of text which can be identified as following: scientific works in a high level which have the main characteristics as close correlation and entirety; to analyze together communicative factor and its linguistic signs of the text typology; to determine the units of the text and special text categories; to estimate different levels of achieving of quality language units with a help of text; to research phrasal correlations and connections . To examine literary text is necessary following common factors and criteria: to investigate the contents and form (language) of literary work; to take into consideration the genre characteristics of literary work; to follow new directions of science development and etc.
Scientists who explore the problems of correlation and entirety of the text (I.R. Galperin, Z.Ya. Turayeva, L. Babenko); scientists who explore maturity of the text (G.V. Kolshanski, N.А. Кupina, I.R. Galperin); people who investigate division (I.R. Galperin, Т.V. Тorshina); explorers whose works contain pragmatic way (I.R. Galperin). According to point of view of I.R. Galperin, О.I. Мoskalskaya, Е.I. Shendels, G.V. Кolshanski and others, text is modeled language unit and a microsystem which has finished idea in communicative correlation and becomes the main language unit in society.
It is considered to explore the problems of theoretical building of text in Kazakh philology not deeply. Nevertheless some identity ideas about text building are written in scientific works. R. Syzdykova worte a chapter devoted to the problems of text building and said: «Text building has some special features. Every literary work does not contain text building anywhere, there are special places where features of text building appears. And the bright examples of text building are in Abai's Kazakh literary works. One of the feature of text building is to create word combinations from modal figures which will identify the meaning of the text Modal figure is positive or negative point of view of the speaker (writer, poet) to what is said…» . The writer pays attention to that fact where literary work contains stylistic features and has completely correct construction.
According to the problems of building literary text and its language differences the opinion of professor B. Shalbai plays a great role to find out the solution in this problem: «All organic elements and different characteristics in literary composition are differentiated by division. Thus one word or one construction can show the point of view of every reader, every author and every hero (or some heroes) at the same time .
Literary work is determined as finished, integral and complicated construction. Its esthetical language form described ideal-literary contents of the text. To explain this integral and complicated construction is necessary to analyze the text according to language and stylistic construction. Language analyzing is important to define the meaning of words which are used by writer. The history of origin of some words in the text pays attention to the area of using, active or passive using, expressive and stylistic using and some other characteristics. Also this feature contains exactly one word or the word which is produced by writer.
Literary text language is very complicated phenomenon which has many unexplored sides. And it has plenty of differences which have traditionally deep using in language. Scientists are trying to investigate some covered sides of literary text for many centuries, anyway nowadays there are many things to explore. One of them is to investigate language and stylistic prosperities of Kazakh literary fantasy texts.
Fantasy becomes a literary work which has its own nature and contains many opinions according to using in literature, but fantasy is not still identified as separate branch of literature and that is why the area of using this term is not wide.
General fantasy from Greek word phantasіa means to fantasize, phantastіke means the art of fantasy and this notion originated according to the art of fantasizing. «Scientific stone» means from ancient east language «stone of fan», which deals with the word «fantasy» which was originated from west Greek language. There is no any consequence in this literary work thus the term fantasy takes the word combination scientific fantasy.
In «Kazakh literature» encyclopedia «Fantasy» from Greek word phantastice means to give rein to one's imagination, a genre which describes the true world of literature from the point of fantasy. When there is no any scientific answer people find the answer fantasy takes place in mythology and religion .
There are many definitions and terms about fantasy in literary dictionaries. «Dictionary of literary» terms which was appeared in 1974 by L.I. Timofeev, S.V. Тurayev contains following definition about fantasy: Fantasy is originated from Greek word phantastice and means the ability of imagination and the world of freaky ideas and figures which were born on the basis of facts of real life. In developing of humanity Fantasy finds its own figure in different religions of different nations and mythology in developing cultures and etc. . Also these authors found other definition in dictionary «Brief dictionary of literature terms» published in 1985: FANTASY is not exiting in real life and becomes a fiction of imagination. In spite of its fiction, fantasy follows to the impression in real which are combined or increased: «imagination differentiates and extremely develops subject» .
In 1989 in philosophical encyclopedia-dictionary «SCIENTIFIC FANTASY means from English scientific work and becomes a type of genre in art sphere, in literature and also cinema. Scientific fantasy as a separate type of genre originated in ХХ centuries but in spite of it this notion was created in ancient oral literature. It contains imagination world and fairytales. Fantasy from Greek word phantastice means imagination, the art of imagination, this term was appeared because of art of imagination . Nowadays in Kazakh literature scientific fantasy becomes as a separate genre in literary works of А. Маshanov, Т. Сultanbekov, М. Sarsekeev, А. Маrkhabayeva, R. Baimakhanov, Sh. Alimbayev and etc. Scientists noticed the first features of fantastical genre in literary works as «Еr Тostik», «Ushkysh kilem», and in legends as «Korkyt Аta», «Baba tukti shahsty Aziz» and etc.
The head of the university Shinzhyan, writer, professor, a member of writers union of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Chinese National Republic Sultan Ramazanuly Zhanbolatov shared with his opinion in ne interview about fantastical literary work: «Fantastical literary work is a composition which appeared from fantasy, where described the influence of technical equipment and science on society and sometimes has a feature of unknown literary facts which are imagined. Fantasy from Greek word phantasia means imagination, phantastіke means the art of imagination the art of imagination. At present time fantasy plays a great role in literary works, also in art sphere where fantasy becomes a type of genre. Writer tries to make a plot of fantastical literature close to reality, where the main element is composition and as topics for it can be the concepts of future society which have scientific explanation with some definite rules and according to these facts fantasy is divided into two big parts, first is to build a plot which has definite scientific features and second is to make compositions with suggested ideas, and their names in scientific world are «hard fantasy» and «soft fantasy» .
About fantastical characters in fantasy which is considered to be one of the genres of Kazakh literature Z. Kabdolov said: «a hero who was appeared from imaginary has some features which are similar to the real- ity», thus fantastical heroes are not only imagination but also it is reality or dream. This genre has appearance in the composition and novels of Mashani «Travelling underground» Меdeu Sarseken's «Wonderful beam», «The shadow of invisible man», Talap S. «Nomad gold», «Lukpan Khakim», Shokan Alimbayev's composition «An alpha of wisdom», Тolesh Culeimenov's work «The bridge of Al-farabi», «A star man», Т. Shakhanov's work «Blue pipes», A. Мarkhabayev's composition «Kymyz in the Universe», Тolen Abdikov's work «Uncovered truth», N. Кеnzhgulova's work «Difficult solution», М. Gumerev's work «Mysterious beam», S. Gabbasov's work «Purity», R. Bektibayev's composition «A place in ionosphere». Also there are initial everlasting topics of fantasy. Stories are like travelling to time and spaces, artificial intellect, civilization out of the Earth, other shapes of life.
As it is noticed in the text of fantasy there are some features of imagination from the side of real life, the sense of superlative, true stories which have imagination features and appear as riddle and according to achievements in science to dream about unknown way of life. Thus these literary works are considered to be literary fantasy texts.
There many scientific research works according to this theme. Nevertheless great discovers are in the future that is why literary fantasy must be distinguished from all sides and it is really necessary to examine vocabulary in emotionally and stylistically verbal level, stylistically coloring, specific of syntaxes constructions and the tools of text building
As we stated above, the research area of literary texts is Kazakh fiction and its linguistic and stylistic features. It is necessary to pay attention to using and the frequency of occurrence of the words in the texts of the Kazakh art of fiction, also as well as emotional expressiveness and functional stylistic coloring. You should also pay attention to the words in the fiction text or emphasize semantic application of the words of other authors. By means of a linguistic explanation of the whole text, reveals the whole grammatical characteristics of the text, above mentioned questions will undoubtedly give the theory of the Kazakh fiction text.
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