The article explores theoretical approaches to the use of distance technologies in the teaching of languages. The authors consider remote technology as a way of learning. The possibilities of distance learning should be widely used in teaching the language. This is a very effective technology for language learners, because with distance learning the listener can work independently at a convenient time in a convenient place with an effective pace. That is, the advantages of distance learning, which allow the use of external information for adults who work in a group and study in terms of their schedule, are inconvenient. Therefore, students should know the technique and technique of work, the basis for self-enrichment of knowledge at the highest level. At the same time, it should be able to work with new tools in the field of information technology for effective study.
The term «distance education» is not any particular technology, education and student learning in the classroom.It describes a method that allows you to narrow teaching process out of classroom. In recent years, all countries pay great attention to distance learning.
Interest to distance education is growing due to the following reasons:
- To ensure time and place to any person who is learning language.
- The provision of information and the organization of its new types — text, graphics, video, animation, etc.
- Teaching students the language through the creation of a unified information system to improve their language skills.
According to E.C.Polat distance learning is the process of education, skills training, when the whole or a part of the procedures for training are held in spite of territorial difference, regardless of the listener is carried out with the help of new information and communication technologies. Distance learning is implementing human rights to education and information system of continuous education [1; 25].
We have a chance to consider the concept of distance education, as well as its wider opportunities.
A special niche among the means of information and communication technologies, able to find its application in the field of teaching to the language as a foreign language is the Internet with its resources and services. Having arisen as a means to exchange information, today the Internet is a virtual territory in which actively sell and buy, advertise and pay for goods and services, enjoy the opportunities of Internet banking, Internet education and more.
The use of Internet resources and services for teaching Kazakh as a foreign language is of exceptional importance, as they provide an opportunity for real communication in the studied language, provide access to authentic materials and a huge number of educational resources in text, audio and video formats. In the context of language education, this makes it possible to create a technological environment for language teaching to form a set of foreign language competencies, educational space, transmitting the socio-cultural identity of the language society under study. Only with the help of the Internet it is possible to create an authentic language environment and to set the task of forming the need for learning a foreign language on the basis of intensive communication with its carriers, working with authentic literature of a wide variety of genre varieties, listening to original texts written by native speakers. In this case, it is possible to raise the question of the formation of socio-cultural competence on the basis of a dialogue of cultures.
Today the following main spheres of application of various opportunities of Internet technologies are allocated: as a means of receiving information, as a means of communication, as a means of entertainment, as a means of training.
Let's focus more on the possibilities of Internet technologies that can be used in linguodidactic activities.
As a source of information, the Internet allows access to an unlimited number of text, sound and video materials in different languages (electronic Newspapers and magazines, electronic versions of printed publications, catalogues of libraries, archives, websites of museums, educational institutions, transcripts ofsome television programs, film scripts, web pages of famous politicians and cultural figures, etc.). The sources of information can also include various General-purpose search engines (Google, Rambler, Yandex, AltaVista, Yahoo, Aol, Snap, Accona, etc.) and specialized search engines, portals and databases, systematizing resources on specific topics and focused on the practical needs of users.
Distance education has an opportunity to interact with teachers, students in different geographical regions, as well as sources of special bonding technology experience. Interaction is carried out through mail and fax, audio conferencing, computer conferencing, video conferencing via printed materials, as well as the exchange of different ways. Distance Learning (DL) is a method that allow rural students, or students with special requirements having access to education.
Group training and timetables seems unfavorable to working adults. DL gives the opportunity to learn at distance, which is considered as a big advantage.
Distance education is characterized by the following five basic situations. They can be defined as:
- The agreement between the teacher and the student.
- Distance between the teacher and the student.
- Distance between the student and the university in terms of space.
- Education and students in two-way interaction.
- The accumulation of materials specially designed for distance education [2; 18].
This is definitely different forms of training carried out by mail and phone communication from printed materials, based on the type of education and different video courses.
The introduction of modern information technologies in the educational process will have the result in improving the quality of education.
Computer technologies which are used for the purpose of teaching the language have the effective properties of the uniqueness of the language. This is carried out by the following considerations:
– partners during the lesson are able to create bilateral private telecommunication networks;
– a network of computers (servers) stored in the memory and distributed with the help of technical means of communication, a huge and diverse in terms of access to the source, which is regularly updated by didactic method. In this regard, the future of distance learning the language, on the one hand the most realistic, on the other hand, the most reasonable. Nowadays not only in our country in teaching languages and computer technology the interest in distance learning has increased. Some types of speech activity on the Internet began to appear as the first practical distance learning courses. It focuses on didactic material .Their main issue is its method. Distance learning via the Internet belongs to the peculiarities of psycho-pedagogical conditions of the absence of its advantages. In most cases, full-time training for the submission of information from traditional print textbooks, classroom reading material in the use of information technology and access it. At the same time, the existing external efficiency of new information technologies and a broad service capabilities, training conditions and means of interaction and communicationexclude the effect of any lack of methodological approaches, on the other hand, without affecting the effectiveness of distance learning courses. The education system, language, distance learning via the Internet solves the methodological problem hindering the process of its novelty and complexity. The complexity of the problem is relevant to the scope of its value in two subjects. The first is modern phenomenon called new information technologies, other methods of teaching are the language itself.
Thus, the language with the development of the concept as the basis of education, on the one hand, technological telecommunications and multimedia didactic properties and services, on the other hand, the current level of education as a key element of the overall system of didactic point of view, this type of training is necessary to bear in mind the main directions of the organizational process. According to the research, the DL's overall model of technological, pedagogical, organizational, methodological aspects , such as defining the role of the various components of an integrated educational environment. Nowadays the possibility of the computer, what computer products should ensure opportunity awareness, how to get specific information on how to work effectively in the preparation of specialists on the basis of modern information technologies, allowing a holistic educational concept, not developed.
Currently, distance learning is widely used in teaching the language. But there are many unresolved issues.
First, the language, the concept of distance learning program; Secondly, the founder of the legal and regulatory environment; Third, the DL method. Distance learning the most basic consists of 3 components:
- Organizational [3; 7].
Material and technical base, that is, computer, etc.
Content is meant by DL courses, e-books, special sites.
Organizational -using various models in the educational process.
Distanc learning is carried out in three main technologies:
- network technologies (autonomous departments of the online courses, or virtual);
- case study based on distance teaching;
- TV-learning technology based on the distance learning.
- the Internet allows the teacher and the learners more freedom. Learning via the Internet can be engaged at any time. It has a favorable impact on the Internet to learn the language. The teacher can change the material operatively. With the help of audio-visual materials for all types of speaking the language there is potential for development of communicative edge.
There is a specific aspect of distance learning the language, because the actions of reading and writing as well as speech can be limited to the network during the course of training, because these types of speech activity does not require large-scale table. However, for developing pronunciation, conversation and listening skills is not enough to use only text files, audio, as well as stimulating the creation of a variety of circumstances, that materials must be images, illustrative pictures.
By this way, person study in the distance, get knowledge,develop creative working, beable to selfmanage. There will be the following features of distance learning:
- the language knowledge of the individual or group;
- monitoring and evaluation of their level of knowledge of the language;
- saving time to learn the language;
- to increase the interest to learn the language through the various elements of the computer games [4; 41].
Learners of distance teaching must have own cognitive ability to think. Therefore, the use of the technology, its own assessment of the knowledge gives us an opportunity of getting new knowledge and to apply it in practice. The relation of language learning and distance education will not be separated. The main task of the teacher for distance learning student is performed by the following types of management: to consider issues arising from their own work; goals and objectives; knowledge and practices; the activities of the organization; The organization of the relationship between students; Control of the educational process. Students of distance learning in the educational process choose convenient time, a comfortable place that should be effective at their own pace. So listeners have to learn their own techniques and methods of work, also they need to learn the basics of self-knowledge at the highest level. At the same time, they should be able to work with the instruments for the effective training of new information technology.
The main objectives of the organization of the distance learning with the use of learning technologies in the educational process:
- Training personalization.
- (Improving) the quality of the effectiveness of training.
- The traditional form of education for some people and provide educational services.
Finally A.N. Bogomolov formed a list of requirements for training programs of foreign languages. They are the following [5; 87]:
- indicate the possibility of individual training program for each student;
- education should be mandatory and have feedback;
- language and receptive of the program should be considered as an opportunity to develop skills;
- the development of the program should be applied with a variety of information and communication technologies (multimedia, electronic communications, data base);
- the progress of the training program and the results of its monitoring, control and self-control systems should be included;
- programs offer different strategies for language skills, other language service must make a wide range of incentives to attract learners;
- the program must take into account the needs of students' personal characteristics, their creative capabilities, etc. We need to use the maximum extent.
Now the majority of the population of Kazakhstan, which provides a high-tech, including more interactivity, so the consumer market, which is the most effective user of Internet technology-based educational activities of the DL for sufficiently high level. DL provides management of the learning processand support the process of high-quality content that is the main condition for the effective using of these technical approaches.
PC used for teaching languages can be divided into several main areas of application:
- the first is the quick processing of information based on the large amount of memory, designed to support the learning process with information technologies(e-dictionaries, databases, electronic libraries, etc.);
- the second direction is language and training related to the mastery of a variety of intellectual processes. For example, interpretation and presentation, educational material, relationship with the owners of the language, modeling, language modeling, language proficiency and monitoring and evaluation, etc. (Ebooks, computer exercises, tests);
- the third direction is due to a computer organization of interaction with a teacher or educational center for academic affairs (forums, chat rooms, video conferencing).
Distance learning courses of languages that can be implemented to some extent of all directions.
Language development and application of computer-based educational programs considers a number of issues. In particular:
- pedagogical issues (teaching process, forms of presentation of changes in the preparation of educational material);
- methodological issues (the computer language classes functions, applications, types of exercises, computer programs and other educational tools to support interaction and communication, computer training efficiency, etc.);
- students, teachers, computer software, computer lines of communication with each other through interaction, psychological problems;
- the organization of regular dialogue with the computer language related to the linguistic problems;
- organizational issues (computer labs, distance learning, etc.).
Computer system of interaction with some aspects may appear in the first place:
1) for information;
- organization of educational process.
All these issues will be examined in terms of the stages of specific methods, and ways of solving them. Computer experts usually consider the problems to be solved with the help of computer technology and solutions are divided into the following main stages:
1) the formation of the training objectives, training objectives, determining the nature of the users;
2) a description of the process of formalization of the input and output of data, data processing;
3 subgroups of objectives;
- a description of the various models for solving problems;
- a description of the practical application of technologies, techniques relevant to problems.
In conclusion, distance learning language is considered as today's main requirement.
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