The article is devoted to the problems of marketing research in the media. The challenges facing marketing services, as well as their structure, are not uniform. Most likely, the management's understanding of marketing opportunities in the media plays a crucial role here. In the article the concept of «marketing» is considered as the regulation of production and sale of goods and services to achieve the goals of the company on the basis of taking into account the requirements of consumers and the conditions prevailing in the market. Media marketing is the process of regulating the production and sale of media products, in order to achieve the goals of producers of these products based on the preferences of consumers and the conditions of the media market. Media production is a specific type of product, so the methods of marketing approach to them also have a certain specificity.
Since gaining independence and sovereignty, the Republic of Kazakhstan has embarked upon a fundamental transformation in the field of mass information and paid special attention to the legislative provision of the rights and freedom of citizens. First of all, this is due to the understanding that the presence of developed, organizationally strong and free media is one of the main indicators of a democratic society. Thus, according to the Kazakh legislation, any interference in the activities of the media is prohibited, if it does not contradict the law, and the Constitution of the country explicitly prohibits censorship.
Describing the development of the information market of Kazakhstan, since its independence, it is possible to distinguish several conventional stages. The first stage is post-Soviet, the advantages of a state monopoly on the media (until 1992), when there was practically no independent media.
The second stage is the stage of formation and growth (1992–1996), a certain setback of the state, unconditional dominance in the information space and the rapid development of non-state (private, corporate and other) media, reduce of the share of state-owned media in total.
The third stage is liberal, characterized by qualitative and quantitative changes in the market of mass media, mass privatization of the former state in the media, printing enterprises, the transition from state funding and dating of the media to the state order for the state information policy. This stage of development of the national information space began in 1996-1997 [1; 6].
Today it can be argued that the information market of Kazakhstan has entered a phase of stable growth. Economic support for the media and adoption of measures to improve the competitiveness of the domestic media market played a role. Thus, from 2001 to 2004, the periodicals were exempted from VAT, and television products were liable to zero VAT rate. Over the past five years, the size of the fee for use of radio frequencies has been decreased almost every year, and in 2002 the Annual fee for the use of was cancelled.
The national media market becomes a segment of the general commodity market, which operates the same rules as in the economy as a whole.
The fact that the country already has a number of rather strong and influential media, information media holdings is one of the unconditional achievements of the ongoing socio-economic and democratic reforms.
In Kazakhstan, the Constitution guarantees freedom of speech and creativity, prohibits censorship, provides the right for everyone to receive and disseminate information in any way not prohibited by law. However, there are limitations in international practice. Paragraph 3 of article 20 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan  does not allow propaganda or agitation of violent change of the constitutional system, violation of the integrity of the Republic, undermining the security of the state, war, social, racial, national, religious, class and ancestral superiority, as well as the cult of cruelty and violence. These freedom, rights and restrictions are also reproduced in article 2 of the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «Mass Me- dia» [3; 2].
One of the most important tools for the realization of the rights and freedoms of citizens is the mass media. Over the years, fundamental changes have been made in the sphere of media activity in Kazakhstan. There was a denationalization of the media sector, which resulted in the fact that today more than 80 % of the media are not state. Liberalization and market reforms have led to quantitative and qualitative growth of the media. Today, Kazakhstan is ahead of the majority of Central Asian and Transcaucasia countries in terms of media development. The leadership of Kazakhstan in the development of media infrastructure is evidenced by the fact of holding the annual Eurasian Media Forum in the country.
As of July 1, 2016, 2,763 active media outlets have been registered in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The vast majority in the overall structure – 86 % are print media, 11 % electronic media, 3 % news agencies. At the moment there are 1,156 newspapers and 1,269 magazines in the country. There are also 285 registered electronic media, including 169 television and radio companies (108 television and 61 radio companies), 108 cable operators and 8 satellite operators. The total number of news agencies is 41. 15 editions are registered as network editions, in Russian and Kazakh languages .
Newspapers and magazines, television and radio programmes are published in 11 languages of the nations and nationalities living in the country. In addition to the main languages, the media is published in Ukrainian, Polish, German, Korean, Uighur, Turkish, Dungan and other languages. The ethnic minority media receive financial support from the government.
Internet and cable TV are dynamically developing in Kazakhstan. Modern information technologies are widely used in the information market. In 2002, the satellite channel «Caspionet» (operator Eutelsat) was created. Throughout the country through cable and satellite channels programs BBC, CNN, Radio Svoboda, Russian and other TV and radio channels broadcast.
The process of formation and development of market relations in the Republic of Kazakhstan is accompanied by increased competition between economic entities, constant changes in the external and internal marketing environment, which requires improvement of business and marketing activities for the creation, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Therefore, the interest in marketing as a philosophy and tools of entrepreneurship has increased significantly. It also required the country to overcome the economic crisis and achieve high rates of economic growth. That is why marketing as the world practice testifies, is a key element of any business, the tool of development of the modern market which creates and provides an environment of equilibrium and stable relations between all subjects of the market.
The term «marketing» was used in the early 90-ies for the first time in Kazakhstan. In 1992, a course «Basics of Marketing» was taught in educational institutions, and in 1994, the first graduation of specialists- marketers was carried out.
In modern conditions of a competition aggravation for identifying prospects for business development marketing research is intensively conducted. While in the first half of the 1990s, professional marketing research in Kazakhstan was conducted only by Western, most often by transnational companies, and local research companies were trusted, as a rule, only field work, now the situation has radically changed. Economic growth has led to a significant increase in the needs of local business in market research. According to some estimates, market research turnover has increased for 5-6 times over the past 5 years. Kazakhstan has formed its own market research industry. Kazakh companies have mastered almost the entire range of modern research techniques and technologies.
One can hardly say that today marketing was not paying attention in the Kazakhstan mass media. Almost all more or less major publications, radio stations and television channels has its own marketing service. Somewhere it is present in the form of a joint department of advertising and marketing, somewhere in the form of an independent department or service. It is another matter what qualified employees work in it, and how important the marketing service is in the life of its publishing house. Traditionally, marketing is considered to be an expensive part of the company's budget. Every year, when approving the budget, the head of marketing services has to justify his expenses, convince him to increase the amounts. However, inrecent decades, the West has established a different point of view: the leading marketers and economists began to talk not about costs, but about investments in marketing and consider it as an intangible asset of the company. Attempts are made to develop a methodology that allows the language of finance to assess the contribution of marketing to increase the capitalization of the company.
The lack of understanding by managers and investors of the companies of the role of marketing is primarily due to the lack of domestic developments to determine the growth of capitalization of the company through the use of marketing tools.
It is clear that the newspaper as any product of the market, is a commodity that must be sold. This is the truth that not all editors have understood for themselves. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an appropriate marketing strategy, which is later implemented by the editorial team, advertising and distribution services. In this case, it is much easier to interest the reader and attract the advertiser.
The fact that the media «like any market product is a product that must be sold», and that «this requires the development of an appropriate marketing strategy» can be interpreted in different ways. First, to ensure its existence, a media company must sell part of its publication to advertisers. Secondly, the very meaning of the existence of the media is to sell information in one form or another (in the form of content to other media, or in the form of a finished publication to final customers). Third, the media enterprise like any other business can act as an object of sale.
In other words, each media outlet (with rare exceptions) is an active participant (subject) in four markets at once: advertising, consumer, content and media asset markets. On each of them, the publishing house should act in a special way and should choose its own marketing strategy.
Marketing strategy is a set of solutions that will allow the company to achieve the goals set for the long term. Its essence lies in the coordination possibilities of the company with the situation on the market with the aim of making the most correct decisions. Such strategic decisions are based on a system of features, where priority is given to consumer behavior [4; 83].
From this point of view, publishing marketing and promotion strategy can be considered as a complex activity to identify the needs of potential buyers of the publication and their satisfaction; as a flexible response to changes in market conditions in order to obtain the maximum possible profit. And since the situation on the market is changing all the time, the marketing strategy is adjusted or developed anew. The period of time that passes from the moment of development of the marketing strategy to the moment of its significant adjustment is called the life cycle of the marketing strategy.
The following key stages of the marketing strategy life cycle can be mentioned:
- – marketing audit of the organization;
- – development, planning and selection of marketing strategy;
- – introduction and implementation of the marketing strategy;
- – control over the implementation of the marketing strategy;
- – adjustment of marketing strategy.
The situation of marketing in the media can be judged by the work of marketing services. Now, perhaps it is too early to say that the structure and functions of media marketing services have acquired clear and complete forms. As the whole market, the largest metropolitan publishing, radio stations and TV channels have advanced the most in this issue.
However, it should be clarified that the focus will be on the work of marketing services in the print media and on radio stations.
The number of marketing services is small – 3-5 people. The most numerous, for the most part are singlbe service of publishing houses and media companies. In addition to marketing research services are engaged in PR and advertising activities (conducting promotions and companies).
The high level of work of the marketing service may be evidenced by the presence of such specialists as sociologist and brand manager, as well as its own budget.
An example of top performance in the use of marketing technologies is currently editorial marketing. This term is familiar to foreign publishers in the first place, the publisher of newspapers, who in recent decades have faced serious problems, first of all, with fierce competition from television, radio and the Internet. The steady decline in the share of newspapers in the international media market has forced many publication owners to reconsider their attitude to marketing. Editorial marketing defines the scope of marketing examples (the content of a newspaper or magazine, their visual design) and involves a clear coordination of the marketing service and editorial at all stages of the preparation and production of the publication.
The first victory is gained in the fight for the readers' attention. Research in the West have shown that the time taken by current consumers to read newspapers has been significantly reduced. The time that the current generation spends on getting acquainted with newspapers does not exceed 20 minutes. As a result, a new format of newspapers appeared – 20 minutes, which became very popular in Switzerland and France. Such a newspaper can be completely read in about 20 minutes. It can be read in public transport. Another example, in order to expand and consolidate its own audience: two solid British newspapers The Times and The Independent switched to the so-called tabloid format, which has traditionally been considered a format of entertainment press. They had previously created in the format of a broadsheet (A2). And today these newspapers can be found in London in two formats. Kazakhstan already has some experience in successful implementation of editorial and marketing. The extent to which this technology is widely used in the future depends largely on the professional work of marketing services and marketing editors.
In general, the development of marketing in the media is currently limited by a number of factors - the lack of generally accepted methods for assessing the contribution of marketing to increasing the capitalization of the company, the lack of qualified marketing specialists, the lack of reliable data on market participants. At the same time, it is hardly possible to solve the above problems without strengthening the role of marketing services.
But, despite these problems, as a result of the ongoing changes in the Kazakh market, the integration of strategic and operational planning processes is taking place. The strategic objectives formulated for the long term are divided into operational ones focused on the short term. Achieving operational goals, Kazakh enterprises go to the strategic goals step by step, while using the experience and achievements of leading companies in the field of marketing.
- Kozybayev, M.K. (1983). Entsiklopedia «Аlmа-Аtа» [The encyclopedia «Alma-Ata»]. Аlmа-Аtа: Hlavnaia redaktsiia kazakhskoi sovetskoi entsiklopedii [in Russian].
- Konstitutsiia Respubliki Kazakhstan [The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 1995] [in Russian].
- Zakon Respubliki Kazakhstan «O hosudarstvennoi sluzhbe» [The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan of July, 23, 1999. No. 451-I On Mass Media]. online.zakon.kz. Retrieved from http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=1013958 [in Russian].
- Golubkov, Е.P. (1998). Маrketinhovye issledovaniia [Marketing research]. Мoscow: Finpress [in Russian].