Features of functioning the project trilingualism in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Purpose of the article is sociolinguistic research of language situation transformation at the present stage of language policy realization in Kazakhstan. Such methods as the theoretical analysis, synthesis, and systematization of scientific sources maintenance on this subject, predictive and statistical methods of data processing are used in research. Realization of language policy in the sphere of education because of the education is a large-scale and operational base for realization of language policy has special importance and defines prospects of introduction the project three languages. The integration processes defining tasks of realization of language policy in Kazakhstan stateside expansion of functional space of English and deepening of his realization, first of all in the educational sphere.

One of the main components of a language situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan is the development of multilingualism now. According to data of a population census in 2009, in the Republic of Kazakhstan 63,1 % of all population are consist by Kazakhs, at the same time 94 % of the population understand Russian, 85 % freely write in Russian, as for Kazakh, 74 % of all population of the country understand Kazakh, 62 % of all population freely write in Kazakh [1; 18].

Political legal status of languages of the Republic of Kazakhstan is enshrined in the Constitution and the Law «About Languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan». According to data in documents, Kazakh is defined as state and the status of official is allocated for Russian. Giving of the status of official language in language policy of Kazakhstan means the right of the use it in the state organizations and local governments. Allocation of special article about the official use of Russian to languages and the emphasis for his role from a position of language policy is very big and socially important.

In the performance on Assembly of the people of Kazakhstan in 1995 the President N.A. Nazarbayev has noted: «Time has shown that we have very precisely found the place in Kazakhstan to two most widespread languages Kazakh and Russian. Important feature of our state national policy is the conscious policy of bilingualism. As a result we haven't had political tension between native speakers just because we have realized real value of these languages in life of all our people that promotes political stability in society» [2].

Nowadays, in polylingual Kazakhstan as Z.K. Akhmetzhanova marks out, there were created the set of types bilingualism and polylingualism which differ in regions of distribution, coverage of different spheres of languages functioning, specifics of influence of the first language on the second, etc. [3; 301].

The researcher allocates four periods in the history of development and distribution bilingualism and multilingualism in Kazakhstan. So, the scientist carries the beginning of the first period by the time of formation of the Kazakh ethnos and establishment of various communications with neighboring states when there was inevitably a need for language contacts with various ethnic groups.

The second period has been connected with strengthening and expansion of numerous contacts with Russia, emergence in the territory of Kazakhstan of the Russian population that has laid the foundation for formation and, to development of the Kazakh-Russian bilingualism.

In the second period has arisen as well the Russian-Kazakh bilingualism which hasn't gained further sufficient distribution.

The third period of development bilingualism and multilingualism in, Kazakhstan has begun in Soviet period when in the ethnic structure of the population as a result of the collectivization which has caused hunger of the 30th and violent the deportation of many nations on the territory of the republic, there were cardinal demographic changes in this connection the title nation has stopped being the majority. During the period between censuses of 1939 and 1979 Russians became the most numerous ethnos of Kazakhstan, and together with Ukrainians and Belarusians - vast majority of the population of the republic.

The main attention during this period as Z.K. Akhmetzhanova emphasizes, was given to development of Russian as means of interethnic interaction, and attempt to solve functioning problems, moreover, of vitality, Kazakh were regarded inadequately and stopped. At this time develop, besides the Kazakh-Russian bilingualism, and other types of bilingualism, in particular the German-Kazakh. However in view of a peculiar expansion of Russian as the author notes, the German-Kazakh bilingualism gives way at first to polylingualism German-Kazakh Russian which then is transformed to German-Russian-Kazakh multilingualism. Parallel to this type of multilingualism also others including Russian-German bilingualism already without the Kazakh component could be formed [3; 302].

In this regard it is important to give E.D. Suleymenova's opinion that in the conditions of uncontested national-Russian bilingualism there are frequent cases when dominating according to the repertoire of functions and scopes of application becomes not native, but Russian. In such cases of decrease in extent of knowledge of the native language there are conditions for shift of the relations between two languages and two cultures when ethnic, cultural and language origin the bilingual with the dominating Russian is formal, knowledge of the native language - passive. Falling of prestige of the native language, the scientist notes, directly leads to falling of prestige of the nation, her history and culture [4; 49].

According to the opinion of D.D. Shaybakova, «in the republic developed classroom bilingualism, and it means that it was acquired literary to language forms. Russian absolutely prevailed at the higher school, in the sphere of science, and in the 50th years also the quantitative overweight in school education is noted: the Kazakh schools were closed, and the Russian schools became more. It has led not only to formation of the Kazakh-Russian bilingualism, but also to better knowledge of both languages to coordinative bilingualism» [5; 33].

The beginning of the fourth period contacts acquisition by the republic of sovereignty and giving to Kazakh of the status state language, to Russian of the status of language of the international communication [1; 40]. We will in passing notice that fundamental difference of the law of 1997. «About languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan» from the law of 1989. «About languages in the Kazakh USR» substantial increase of the status of the state Kazakh and change of the status of Russian is. If, according to former edition, Russian was language of international communication and the Republic of Kazakhstan provided free functioning of Russian on an equal basis with state, then in the new edition the concept of language of international communication is excluded 1997, and the status of the official language functioning on an equal basis with state is actually provided to Russian.

The bilingualism was a consequence of need of performance of certain public functions by means of two languages. At bilingualism of function of languages are distributed among themselves, any of languages doesn't perform those functions which are performed by both languages in common.

In Kazakhstan, as well as other Post-Soviet states (CIS), the situation is characterized by the fact that language of the radical nation is announced by state. T. Baygabatov allocates the following types of language collectives in Kazakhstan:

  • - knowing only Russian;
  • - knowing only Kazakh;
  • - knowing Russian and several national languages;
  • - owning several national, but not knowing Russian [6; 7].

The sociological surveys conducted on the eve of the translation of office-work in the Republic of Kazakhstan into Kazakh these population censuses of 2009 and reality demonstrate that most of the population of the country knows Russian and insignificant number of persons of not radical nationality own Kazakh. Among Kazakhs, especially among the youth living in the cities there are a lot of people who don't know the native language. All this leaves a mark on a language problem in the republic.

The importance and advantages of knowledge of the Kazakh Russian and English languages were declared by the famous politicians and philologists more than once. So, for example, E. Ertysbayev said in the speeches more than once that in the Kazakhstan society development of multilingualism generally dominates. According to him, the refusal of Russian will close us in «a national shell», will tear off all communications, and it will reject us back both in cultural and social, and in the economic plan. «The fact that at us the bilingual generation has grown in many respects increases competitive qualities of the nation. The bilingualism is not only ability to speak in two languages, it also the special type of thinking absorbing in its cultural values of two civilizations. Time the history has given us such advantage why not to use him?» - E. Etrysbayev considers [7; 114].

Prominent Kazakhstan political scientists N. Masanov and N. Amrekulov emphasize that «mastering achievements of a modern civilization and world culture has come to Kazakhs together with language russification» [4].

Here it is appropriate to remember the words of the Doctor of Philology R. Absattarov: «The multilingualism can really be harmful if to misunderstand it, incorrectly to treat and, respectively, in that way to introduce in life as it often was in so-called stagnant times. A multilingualism not as a certain phrase, abstraction, a certain absolute, and as flexible system with actual content can't do harm and represents the phenomenon, undoubtedly, progressive» [8; 25].

Thus, it is possible to note that maintaining the balance of interests of the ethnic groups inhabiting the country which isn't allowing a privileged position of one and infringement of the rights of others acts as the main factor of success of the Kazakhstan model of interethnic consent. It is promoted by the thought-over balanced policy of bilingualism.

In the conditions of world integration, expansion of information space and rapid development of innovative technologies in the world community the education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan undergoes considerable transformations. In the message «Social and economic modernization – the main vector of development of Kazakhstan» of January 27, 2012 the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan

N.A. Nazarbayev focuses attention on high-quality growth of the human capital in Kazakhstan that means, first of all, modernization of an education system. At the same time the Head of state emphasizes that fact that «the main advantage of our country is the multinationality and multilingualism» and «one of key factors of success of all modernization process is the success of updating of a national education system» [2].

In the message «Strategy Kazakhstan-2050 - a new political policy of the taken place state» the Head of state once again emphasizes the importance of Trilingualism policy: «With Trilingualism it has to be encouraged at the state level. We have to make breakthrough in studying of English. Possession of «lingua franca» of the modern world will open for each citizen of our country new boundless opportunities in life … What I see Kazakhstan of the future? I am firmly convinced that Kazakhstan citizens of 2050 are society of the educated, free people speaking three languages» [2].

For the last decade significant social and economic reforms which have given a new impulse for transformation of an education system have been undertaken. So, the standard and legal basis in education has been updated and improved, borders of the international cooperation were expanded and all education levels in general are modified. The above-named changes have most found the reflection in the system of the higher education. Integration and internationalization of the Kazakhstan education system, autonomy of the universities, the international academic mobility, independent accreditation of higher education institutions, system synthesis of science, education and an innovation, education through all life – tasks which enter a circle of the main at the present stage of development of the higher school of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

With adoption of the State program of development of education in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2005-2010 the sphere of the higher education has passed to a new round of development and a functioning. In 2007 the three-stage education system has been introduced: a bachelor degree, master of degree – PhD doctoral studies which legal bases were reflected in the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «About educa- tion». And in 2009 the Qualifier of specialties of the higher and postgraduate education which corresponds to basic provisions of the Bologna declaration has been put into operation and directed to the system of international classification of education. One of problems of representation of this structure in educational space of Kazakhstan is ensuring transparency, comparability and recognition of diplomas and qualifications at the international level.

One of the first steps for achievement of the goal of the higher school - entry into the European zone of the higher education, into world educational space in general – is signing of the Bologna declaration by the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2010 at the II Bologna Forum of Ministers of Education of member countries of Bologna Process. In the course of introduction of the fundamental principles of the Bologna declaration of 60 higher educational institutions of the Republic of Kazakhstan have entered the Great Charter of the Universities. Now in 28 % of higher educational institutions the Kazakhstan model of credit transfers which provides the Dublin descriptors, modular educational programs and the European Credit Transfer System is implemented.

For the purpose of integration of the higher education into the world educational environment and recognitions of diplomas about the higher education in the developed countries in Kazakhstan the National information center by the academic recognition and mobility of NARIC – Kazakhstan which activity meets requirements of Bologna Process functions. For convertibility of the Kazakhstan documents on the higher education at the international level in 2011 10 higher education institutions of the Republic of Kazakhstan have undergone the international specialized accreditation, in 2010 their quantity was 7, and in 2009 – 3. According to MAUN RK'S data, in 38 higher educational institutions the program of two-degree education iscarried out. Also more than 80 memorandums of cooperation in introduction of joint educational programs have been signed with the universities of Great Britain, the USA, Canada, Germany, the Czech Republic, Spain, Russia and other countries.

Currently, there are 113 existing international treaties in the field of education at the interstate and intergovernmental levels. Within the framework of international cooperation in 2015, 1100 teachers and scientists from abroad were invited to lecture at 27 higher educational institutions of Kazakhstan. More than 1,700 teachers of Kazakhstan universities have been trained in foreign universities for 2005-2015. Also, exchange programs for teachers and students are being implemented with the assistance of established targeted supranational programs of the EU (COMETT, ERASMUS, LINGUA, SOCRATES, etc). Scientific and pedagogical contacts with international and foreign regional and national organizations, funds and programs have been established (UNESCO, TEMPUS, DAAD, World Bank, IREX, INTAS, CARNEGI, British Council).

Beginning in 1993, the international scholarship program of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan «Bolashak» is being realized, within the framework of which personnel are trained in leading universities in the world. During the period of 2005-2011, under the bachelor's program studied 3379 people, master's degree - 3411, PhD studies - 136, total 7346 people. About 3000 scholarship holders of the international scholarship of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan «Bolashak» are trained in 27 countries of the world. Lately, the work of higher educational institutions on the involvement in international ratings has been intensified. For example, in 2010 the Eurasian National University named after L.N. Gumilev entered the top of the 500 universities (431st place) according to the international rating of the universities of Times Higher Education (Great Britain). In 2012, two Kazakh universities - the Eurasian National University named after L.N. Gumilev (369th place) and Kazakh National University named after Al-Farabi (390) - entered the top 400 rating of QS World University Rankings.

Thus, the Republic of Kazakhstan seeks to improve the quality of education to improve the competitiveness of future professionals in the global market. In the conditions of transformational and integration processes, covering the world space, knowledge of English language in Kazakhstan acquires a special role. Within the framework of the «three concentric rings» theory developed by B. Kachra, Kazakhstan can be referred to an expanding circle, where English is regarded as a means of international communication. The functioning of the English language in the Republic of Kazakhstan is differentiated from its use as an additional language before the lingua franca in different institutional contexts.

It should be noted that with the acquisition of independence in 1991, the development and dissemination of the English language is paid special attention at the state level, which is confirmed by legal documents (laws «About Education» and «About Languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan», «State Program for the Functioning and Development of Languages for 2011-2020», «State Program for the Development of Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020»). However, despite the ongoing activities, English is not the majority language; in particular, the older generation, does not use English in everyday life. As for the youth, here we see a reverse trend. In connection with the transformation of the educational space, English is a compulsory subject at all levels of education and is studied from the 1-grade from 2013-2014 academic years. In addition, the issue of poly-linguistic education is raised, where special emphasis is placed on the study of subjects through the English language (CLIL).

In the professional sphere there is also a great demand for specialists with knowledge of English. In this regard, there is currently a positive trend in the use of English in various social spheres. Consequently, English among young people becomes a means of communication, a resource, an additional language, which is used together with the native language (Kazakh and Russian).

As it was noted earlier, one of the priority tasks in the sphere of Kazakhstan's higher education is entering the world educational environment, which increases the competitiveness of specialists in the world labor market. In conditions of trends in the internationalization of education the special importance acquires the issue of training specialists, who speak several languages. This issue is relevant right now, when there is a process of significant transformations in the education system and one of the significant changes in Kazakhstan's higher education is teaching in English. For the first time the idea of trilingualism was voiced in 2006 at the XII session of the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan. In 2007 in the Address of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev «New Kazakhstan in the New World» proposed a phased implementation of the cultural project «The Trinity of Languages», within which it is necessary to study, develop and support three languages: Kazakh as a state language, Russian for interstate communication, English for successful integration into the world economy.

According to the State Program for the Development of Education for 2011-2020, since 2011, English- language teaching staff for secondary, technical and professional higher education has been trained in the international scholarship program «Bolashak», and will increase the volume of loans for foreign language in higher educational institutions of the country with the goal of training specialists with a multilingual education. In the middle level of education, the number of schools representing education in Kazakh, Russian and English will increase from 33 to 700, and the number of schools «Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools» will increase from 6 to 20. According to the above-mentioned Program, these schools will become the basis for «approbation of a multilingual education model», which will create the necessary ballast for the promotion of trilingualism, in particular, the English language, in the Kazakh higher school.

The language policy for the promotion of English is also reflected in the «State Program for the Development and Functioning of Languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020». One of the main tasks of the program is the study of English and other foreign languages. According to the program, by 2014, 10 % of the population should have mastered the English language, by 2017 - 15 %, and by 2020 - 20 %. It should be noted that the share of the population owning three languages (state, Russian and English) should have been 10 % by 2014, by 2017 it should be 12 %, and by 2020 up to 15 % of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan should speak English language.

According to statistical data, in 2015 the number of students with the English language of instruction was: 9953 - full-time study; 3010 people in the state property sector, 9 952 people in the private property sector, 94 people in the correspondence mode of study. One of the key areas of modernization of education is the preparation of multilingual personnel, which is an important criterion in the international positioning of the higher school in Kazakhstan.

Many statesmen are sure that knowledge of English language is the basis of commercial importance, competitiveness of the country's higher school. Since 2011, within the framework of the state language policy, the training of polyglot specialists for all levels of education has begun. In 2012, the Centers for Pedagogical Excellence were created at the Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools and the national center for the retraining of pedagogical staff of JSC «Orleu», which will allow for 5 years to cover 125 thousand people.

To implement a qualitative transition to trilingualism in higher education in Kazakhstan, in particular, the promotion of the English language, substantial reforms are being made in the secondary education system. At present there are 6 «Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools», where 4,000 pupils are trained, 33 specialized schools with training in three languages «Murager» (Kazakh, Russian, English), where about 5,000 pupils are trained. Since 2004, 32 schools have introduced an experiment to learn English from the second class in the amount of 2 hours per week. In 2011, already in 115 schools, English was studied from 2 classes, the total contingent of which is over 51 thousand people. Also over 15 thousand children study in Kazakh-Turkish lyceums, where the training is conducted in four languages (Kazakh, Russian, English, Turkish). English from the first class is mastered by students already in 73 schools: in two schools «Miras», the International School of the Public Foundation «Education Fund of Nursultan Nazarbayev», 2 schools «Heiliberi», 29 Kazakh-Turkish lyceums, 6 «Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools», 33 specialized schools for gifted children.

To implement the above-mentioned activities, it is necessary to train and retrain about 2 thousand teachers of the English language of primary education. In this regard, the transition of Kazakhstan universities to poly-linguistics on a pilot basis has begun. Since September 1, 2012 in 32 universities of the Republic of Kazakhstan opened special departments with a contingent of students more than 5,5 thousand people. At present, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan takes significant steps to promote higher education to a higher level.

One of the most significant projects in the field of higher education is the creation of an international university of Nazarbayev University, where the training is conducted exclusively in English. At the same time, every scientific school has a foreign partner institution: - University College London – School of Engineering, program Foundation, - Carnegie (Carnegie Mellon University) – School of Science and Technology, - University of Wisconsin-Madison – School of Humanities and Social Sciences, - Duke University – PostGraduate School of Business, - National University of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy – Post-Graduate School of Public Policy, - Duke Medicine – School of Medicine, - University of Pennsylvania – Center for Educational Policy, - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory – Center for Energy Studies, - Argonne National Laboratory – Interdisciplinary Tool Center, - University Pittsburgh Medical Center – Center of Life Sciences. Training in the «Nazarbayev University» will provide an education based on world standards. In 2010, the University together with University College London launched the Foundation program similar to that taught in London. The first 484 students were enrolled in the Foundation program. Currently, work is underway to broadcast the experience of the Nazarbayev University in high school and the integration of major universities of the Republic of Kazakhstan into the world educational space.

English language is given a lot of attention at the political level, which, in turn, leads to leverage in the use of English in the movement. English among young people of Kazakhstan is a popular language. The young generation seeks, first of all, to learn English as a foreign language. English language is perceived by them as the language of developed Western countries. Western lifestyle, culture, which are demonstrated through the media such as television programs, popular music, films, are one of the factors increasing the interest in English. Social networks, communication via the Internet with people from other countries also contribute to the use of English. Young people seek to identify themselves with the west. English is also an economically profitable language. In order to get a job in a highly paid prestigious job, in many cases you need knowledge of English. Many students receive education abroad through the President's Scholarship Program «Bolashak», which also promotes the spread of English among young people. Thus, in Kazakhstan, as in many countries, the choice and use of English is an important factor determining the personal and professional aspirations of the younger generation.

 

References

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Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Philology