Cognitive activity of the language

The problems of intercommunication of language and cognition are examined in the article. Perception of surrounding reality, collection of knowledge, is analysed about her, display of these knowledge in a language, i.e. understanding by the man of language picture of the world. The когнитивная function of language is determined and the basic concepts of cognitive linguistics are characterized. Cognitive science is regarded as one of the new sciences, the object of investigation of which are the results of human cognitive activity and mental processes of processing (or processing) of information. The meanings of such terms as knowledge, cognition and stereotype are explained. The peculiarities of the structure of the individual human lexion and the vocabulary of the whole people are determined.

The interrelation of language and cognition is one of the most actual and current topics in modern linguistics. Cognitive linguistics originated from language and cognitive attitudes through anthropocentric influences. The scholars of logics, philosophy, physiology and psychology have been dealing with human intelligence and thinking patterns for a long time. There is a branch of gnoseology in the theory of cognition in philosophy. The roots of cognitivism originated from ancient times. Ancient Greek thinkers have given a number of thoughts about the theory of cognition. Cognitive issues have become new in the context of cognitivism today. For example, things, phenomena and situations in the real world are perceived through the human brain, preserved in the depths of consciousness, and reflected differently by language: ones are seen as an image (coming sorrow is a dark cloud); others are interpreted as simple symbols (♥ – love). «A person has limited consciousness in the full perception of the world. And they can compare and understand things what they have seen and know about. Mostly without leaving the physical limits of this world they give short thoughts» [1; 12]. We cannot explain things we have not seen or do not know because it does not exist in our experience.

Since the birth of humanity, our minds have a linguistic appearance of the world's image. It reveals the knowledge accumulated in our minds. Education is a single-targeted action that governs subjective-objective relationships based on existing experience and concepts, and the collection that helps to justify people's conclusions and outcomes, the concepts, data, and judgments and others in a particular system. Education is one of the most comprehensive concepts of human culture. It is the mind, cognition, objective world, subject, thinking, logic, truth, reasonableness, science, and others are closely linked to complex and deeper concepts and are determined by them. That is, we absorb our perceptions in the external environment through our mental, emotional, psychological qualities such as hearing, seeing, perception, understanding and recognition. So it goes outside through the language. While the recognition of the objective reality of any person is the same, it can be supplemented by consciousness as a generalization and knowledge, and thus, the stabilized knowledge is reflected in the language. From this point of view the formation of language at the universal and national level will appear. For example, the concept of «love» is understood differently in every nation. The concept of universal humanity is only one – love of two people. And national language visions are different. If we say, «Tolegen and Kyz Zhibek are coming»to a young girl and a boy (here they love each other) in the Kazakh environment, it will be understood immediately. Because in Kazakh cognition, the symbol of love and amorousness – Tolegen and Kyz Zhibek. There is such a concept in our background education. Background education is a comprehensible,clear knowledgeable relationship. This situation may be unclear to other nationalities. They can actually understand that Tolegen and Kyz Zhibek are the names of the girl and the boy.

The main subject of cognitive research is human consciousness, mentality and related processes and conditions. It is a science about consciousness and cognition, in other words, the acceptance of the world by means of human activity.

In recent years, the place of linguistics in the field of linguistics is mentioned in the system of modern scientific paradigms. The famous American linguist N. Homsky says: «The cognitive revolution is formed relatively to the a person's self-esteem, consciousness, brainstem, knowledge, understanding, interpretation etc» [2; 6].

Processes related to education and information are called cognites. Cognacia is a system of information reflected in human consciousness.

In terms of cognitivism human beings are understood as information-makers. Not everyone accepts the information, but he remembers it and makes a rational interpretation of it. According to K.G.Yung, the human psychical apparatus consists of four-stage rhythms such as other information systems. The first one is the receiving of information, the second one is the information storage unit, the third one is the analytical processing unit, the fourth one is the release of information [3]:

receive> memory> processing> output.

Through the influence of external circumstances and the inner self of the human body, the knowledge formed by the tongue creates a linguistic picture of the world.

One of the most important trends of cognitive intelligence explains the individual as an actor, who actively accepts information and takes it in his thinking, guides his thinking on specific plans and strategies. And cognitive science itself is regarded as a science that manages the mental processes in the human brain.

Contemporary research has shown that cognitism combines several scientific areas: cognitive psychology, cultural anthropology, artificial intelligence, neural science, linguistics, and so on. In this connection, cognitive linguistics has been linked to several fields of science.

As of the birth of cognitivism, J. Miller considers the symposium held in the mid-1950s as a theory of information theory. Another American Prof. Dr. Brunner is the first to begin his lectures on the nature of cognitive processes. Together with J. Miller, they organized the Cognitive Research Center at Harvard University in 1960 [2; 7].

To date, the cognition implies in the following things:

  • - Study of human thinking mechanisms;
  • - Recognition of the world and accumulation of knowledge about it;
  • - Investigation of information processing through the various channels;
  • - Study the mechanisms of creation of the world mental model, creation of the linguistic picture of the world.

In cognitivism the focus is on human cognition, which is not only investigated, but also their fair representation of symbols, the human strategy that continues to act based on knowledge, the human cognitive world, its action and self-defense, the active language is studied, it generates motivation, taste and predicts the result. The accumulated and stored knowledge in human consciousness is known through the language of the manifestation of knowledge. For example: «do not press or step the tail of the snake lying calmly» or the constant expression «do not scratch the old wound»is derived from the actions of the person (the snake bites, and it hurts if you scratch the wound) and the knowledge gained through consciousness. We perceive these regular expressions on the basis of stereotyped images and mean in figurative meaning «don't trouble trou- bles». Stereotype is a part of the world's image of human consciousness. It should be noted that each language unit can recognize stereotypes.

As a result of cognitive action, one can determine the knowledge of the individual (the person) about the world. The process of human recognition throughout the world has led to the integration and combination of many subjects studied by human beings and societies. As a result, cognitive linguistics was also originated. Language cannot be considered outside the human consciousness because the results of cognitive activity in the language are fixed. In general, the action is the human guise (image) and their ontological attributes (being). V. Humboldt considered the language as a continuous creative activity and understood it as the basis of all other human actions.

The result of conscious behavior is manifested in the cognitive function of language. Language is the basic form of public consciousness that protects knowledge about the person, which is the main communication tool of the human society and represents the image of the reality surrounding a man. Linguistic cognitive character is derived from his or her function. Language is a tool that keeps track of the stored knowledge of the truth, and it is a means of bringing it to the future, providing information and acquiring new knowledge and constantly developing human thinking. In cognitive terms, linguistic cognition is the most important component of cognitive science, along with philosophical, psychological categories such as reasoning, thinking, perceiving, understanding, memorizing. According to the researchers, language is one of the most important cognitive sciences, because it is not only the main means of delivering the idea, but also forming a knowledge base in human consciousness. The conceptual system of cognitive linguistics, language identity, global learning, language image of the world, national language vision and any other problems are closely related to the process of language learning.

Categorizing human experience is associated with their cognitive behavior, as the content of the cognitive activity that has been acquired and produced as a product is reflected in the language form. The notion of words, sentences, knowledge of the world and the environment are formed.

The vocabulary of any people or the lexicon of the individual comes from the fact that it is an object of the surrounding environment. Its main features are:

  1. due to natural phenomena (climate, geographical environment). For example, as we do not have an ocean, we do not have any vocabulary relating to a wooden tree, a palm, a bamboo, etc. relative In our language there are concepts formed by words and phrases derived from the surrounding environment. Emendey berik - firm like an oak, köp tükirse köl boladı - if everyone spits, the sea will turn out; many a mickle makes a mickle., ömir – ağıp jatqan özen – life is a flowing river , jañbır bir jawsa, terek eki jawadı - If the rain falls once, the poplars will blossom twice, köktemdey qulpırıp – blossom like the spring, jazday jaynap – enjoy life like the summer, küzdey jarqırap – shine bright like the autumn, qıstay köñiliñ appaq bolsın – let your feeling be white and clean like the winter;
  2. depending on living conditions and everyday life. For example, the word «shanyrak» is a substance used primarily in everyday life in order to maintain the framing of the yurta. Later, on the basis of cognition, it gained other meanings and became a sacred notion of the Kazakh language: «qara şañıraq» – the main house where parents live, «şañırağıñ bïik bolsın!» – «wish you well-being», «şañıraqqa qara» – «when in Rome do as the Romans do» Also, a cradle, a boiler, a hearth, a rope, a whip, etc. can be attributed;
  3. depends on the occupation. After the Kazakh people engaged in four kinds of livestock farming, we have a wide range of concepts and notions in our language. For example, when it comes to the sheep: qoy awzınan şöp almas about a shy and quiet person, qoy közdi a person with large eyes, qoy üstine boztorğay jumırtqalağan zaman – about wellbeing in the state or region, qoşaqan, qozım – my little lamb is used to children, egiz qozıday – as twin lambs about resembled people, and so on. If we did not have a sheep, such words would not be in our language. In our cognitive terms, the word «sheep»in our language is not a «baran» of the Russian language. The translation may be «sheep – baran», otherwise it is cognitive. For us, the sheep represents mildness and enthusiasm, for the Russian people it is foolishness;
  4. due to historical circumstances. For example, after the historic event of 1723, we have the phrase «Aqtaban şubırındı, Alqaköl sulama» (Years of the Great Disaster). Destruction of the Dzhungars on the Kazakh land and the subsequent slaughter of Akhakol, which is a «white footstep» (annihilation) , is the basis of «Aqtaban şubırındı, Alqaköl sulama «word combination. Similarly, during the Soviet era», «tar jol tayğaq keşw» (lit. narrow road is slippery or the thorny path) «to introduce communism» and other expressions appeared;
  5. in relation to prominent individuals: Qorqıttay küñirendi – to be sad as Korkyt, Asanqayğığa salındı (sorrow as Asan kaigi), Şıq bermes Şığaybaylandı (greedy as Shygaibay), öziñ bir jürgen Qojanasır ekensiñ (ingenuous as Kozhanasyr) and others;
  6. depending on the colors. Let's take the «blue» color in Kazakh language – kok. We held the Shaman tradition before Islam. According to Shamanism Turks worship Kok (Heavens). The sentence of this ancient monument «Töbemde Kök täñiri, tömende Qara jer jaralğanda ekewiniñ arasında adam balası jaralıptı» (lit. a person was created between Heavens and Earth when in the sky the Blue (kaz. Kok) Creator and in the Black (kaz.Kara) earth appeared) can be considered to be the proof. The beginning of life begins with the «blue of the heavens». If other nationalities use green colour describing some words (in fact, they are green) in our language green is similar the blue colour: jer köktedi the earth is blossoming, kök şöp – green (lit. blue)grass, kök bazar – green (lit. blue) market «Kazakh recognition of blue colour is a symbol of peace and unity, prosperity. It is powered by the Heavens, the God. Therefore it expresses the strength, the triumphant, the spirit of highness, dominance, and gentleness: kök nayza blue spear, kök tw – blue flag, kök böri – blue wolf, kök mıltıq – blue scattergun, kök töbe – Green Hill. In addition, in the Kazakh recognition it is a color of cool, modesty, good reason, careless, reliability, etc: kök sağım – blue mirage, kök mï – an utter fool, kök jalqaw – real lazybones, kök bet – stubborn, kök teñiz – blue sea» [4; 10];
  7. the richness of our vocabulary, as well as our understanding of the other world outlook, will increase. For example: «The music that is unsuitable for the songs and the quality of the music is so mushy that thepost-rain mushrooms are so old that our young people are now ready to fall into their own pitch and to easily follow their own»(from «Egemen Kazakhstan. Although the mushroom grows on the Kazakh land, according to the traditional «post-rain mushroomed»phrase, according to scientist N. Uali, may have come from Russian into our language. «From the cognitive point of view, it is evident that after the post-rain mushroom phraseology is non-Kazakh in terms of word culture. Even though the rain is falling, the mushroom in the Kazakh steppes does not go around, so there is no such stereotypical situation in the real world, and there is no frame structure in the national consciousness because there is no denature» [5; 15]. The vocabulary is supplemented by the concept of universal human cognition.

Cognition is a key concept of cognitive linguistics, which includes its knowledge and play in linguistic circulation, so cognition and cognitism are closely linked to linguistic knowledge. Where linguistics is structured from a systematic point of view, the cognitive word deals with the formation, structure of words, the different content of speech filtered by human consciousness, and cognitive peculiarities. Cognitive linguistics originated on the basis of cognitivism within the modern anthropocentric paradigm that significantly expanded the limits of linguistic research. In the second half of the twentieth century, there was a need to consider the language in terms of human cognition. Information acquired through cognitive activities comes from a variety of channels, and cognitive linguistics forms the basis for the study of the manifestations of the results of these actions in the language.

The formation of exact concepts about the world is achieved through the unity of the three levels of mental expression: sensory perception, the emergence of concepts (simple generalization, abstraction) and language thinking process. The basis of this information is the background of the conceptual system. That is, cognitive linguistics is a science that displays knowledge and information.

Education gained from experience (seen, experienced, felt) has been analyzed on the basis of analyzed, re-written and new thought. For example, metaphoring is a way of understanding and interpreting the world, which is a reflection of the new meaning through the old knowledge. Anyone can not express their thoughts by means of metaphors but they think through their metaphors, and therefore they influence the phenomenon, the thoughts about the environment. It depends on the individual experience of each person. For example, M. Makatayev says, «I'm crying out of the vanity of life.»For the poet, life is a life-altering market, with a lot of oppression that he has seen in life. All this leads to the understanding of the poet's life. If he were happy and enjoyed life, he would have said, «I'm laughing from the vanity of life». Young people can not use this phrase. Because they are entering the «vanity of life» like Mukhagali said. Then thinking about life depends on the experience of each individual. Recognition of an objective reality is also different from experience (as you are getting older, you are experiencing different situations). In this case, the notion of perceptions appears. Approximation is the process of acceptance depends on a person's previous life experience, knowledge base, spirituality and the state of the inner world.

In short, language is one of the most important means of communication. The result of consciousness and thinking processes is known to us through the language. As a cognitive mechanism, it helps to understand the meaning of communication, coding, decoding. The language produces not only information, knowledge, communication, but also the personal information of the individual, and creates language frames. The image of the world is made and modeled by language. In this regard, how we perceive the world of cognitive linguistics, how the language is modelled, how the environmental phenomena is comprehended, how the system of different activities with information, issues can be formulated.

 

References

  1. 1 Joldıbayuly, Q. (2011). Imani hul: Akikat shuahy. Kudіkpen kures [Moral: The truth of the night. Struggle with suspicion]. Astana: AST «Polihraf» [in Kazakh].
  2. 2 Maslova, V.A. (2008). Vvedenie v kohnitivnuiu linhvistiku [Introduction to Cognitive Linguistics]. Moscow: Flinta; Nauka [in Russian].
  3. Gulenko, V.V. (1999). Strukturno-funktsionalnaia sotsionika [Structurally functional socionics]. Kiev [in Ukraine].
  4. Aitova, N.N. (2005). Kazak tilindehi tur-tus atawlarynyn kohnitivtik semantikasy [Cognitive semantics color-assignment in the Kazakh language]. Almaty [in Kazakh].
  5. Uali, N. (2007). Kazak soz madenietinin teoriialyk nehizderi [Theoretical bases of word culture in the Kazakh language]. Almaty [in Kazakh].
Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Philology