Comparative analysis of Kazakhstan and American publications (from the example of «Egemen Kazakhstan» and «The New York Times»)

Social-economic factors which influenced on the stages of development of the main publishings of Kazakhstan and America, particularly «Egemen Kazakhstan» and «The New York Times» were identified, the main characteristics of evolution were shown. International communication of journalism between the two countries, their public view, the skills of the journalist will be discussed. Changing the content of articles and topics in connection with social changes in the two publications, policy of the newspaper, factors and social groups affecting them were discussed. New processes that have become a transnational corporation of «The New York Times» company will be considered. In the selection stage of newspaper materials remote, continuous selection methods were used, comparative historical analysis was made.

«Egemen Kazakhstan» is the official state-owned press of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The publication basically publishes official information, newer legal acts and other official information. The newspaper is issued five times a week since December 17, 1919. Its first name was «Ushkyn».

Numerous journalists from «Egemen Kazakhstan» School took part in it. Of course, new Kazakh- language newspapers have emerged in the country, which may be modern and powerful, but Egemen Kazakhstan is always characterized by constant publicity and objectivity.

The main work of the Kazakh intelligentsia is accumulated in this newspaper. They worked from the first days in the newspaper: the first time a strong creative group of Kazakh intelligentsia was collected in the newspaper. One of the first editors of the newspaper was Saken Seifullin. The great people like Mukhtar Auezov, Beimbet Maylin, Gabit Musrepov, Ilyas Zhansugurov worked there and published their works.

With the arrival of the new authority, the design of the newspaper and its contents are changing. «Egemen Kazakhstan, the leading newspaper in the country with a centuries-old history, has developed its concept of strategic development over the past month. There are many changes accordingly. At first, we prepared the logo of the newspaper. The new logo reflects the age-old history of the newspaper, «says Darkhan Kydyrali [1].

During nearly a century, the office of the newspaper was located in different cities, primarily in Orenburg, Kyzylorda, and then in Almaty, and now the main city of the independent state – Astana.

He also plans to focus on economic analysis, political review, social issues, info graphics, and photo report. The newspaper is now published in A2 format. In the future it is planned to move to А2 format.

According to him, the new layout of the newspaper was made by differentiation of foreign publications. The newspaper says that the title of «Egemen Kazakhstan» has changed since the beginning.

Since the 1990s, the «Egemen Kazakhstan» being able to go through the worst-case scenario in the past few years, has began to be published as the newspaper with the new content and with the new nature of an independent state. In the early years of independence, the articles had such subjects as obstacles, directness,relevance. The publicist issues of national concern of the writers as Abish Kekilbaev, Sherkhan Murtaza, Kamal Smailov, Erzhuman Smail, and others were published on the pages of this newspaper.

On the first page of the book, the first chapter «One word» was published. The problems of the changes of the names of the settlements and streets, to give way for the youth to learn world languages, similarity in identity card exchange, and writing Kazakh surnames, drawbacks in patriotism were put in the agenda. It can be seen from these stories that the chapter's life and its viability for many years have not diminished.

Besides, on pages of «Egemen Kazakhstan» there were chapters as «Tauelsizdik talaptary», «Oiturtki, «Talbesik», «Naryk zhane halyk», «Ult azbasyn, urpak tozbasyn», «Didargaiyp», «Adam zhane zan», «Kokeykesti, «Ondirissiz omir zhok», «El» and «Syrgalym».

The first chapter «Zhedel soz» of the newspaper was the result of the years of independence. «What is the reason for it? There are some issues that can not be overcome today, because it is a matter of life. We aim to train our readers with their own thoughts and feelings about the problem, and the readers, «said the head of the state. The following speakers were addressing the delegates. There were also talks about the problems of the agriculture, the problems of the state language, the formation of science and education, the deep- rooted social and economic issues. This grouping of values is matched by sharpness.

The publication has always been a favorite newspaper of its readers. Over the years, the country has been a true puppet of prominent journalists in the country, and has done a great job of educating young journalists. At any time, it is obvious that he has been doing his duty for the country in his own dignity.

The President of the country Nursultan Nazarbayev highly appreciated the publication «The main newspaper of our homeland» [2; 47].

Now, Kazakhstan's journalism is not limited to its own republic. It can not be so in our day. Of course, time is also different. After all, not as in the past, each country has its own independence, and the world has a common problem with all nations and peoples. For example, peace, a barrier to natural disasters, ecology, economics, politics, culture, science, peoples' friendship are never too narrow, and it is clear that such issues can not be solved only by one country or one republic.

As for concrete examples, first of all, multinational people live in Kazakhstan. Each nation, for example, Russian, German, Uighur, Korean, etc. peoples have their own newspapers in their own languages, radio and television programs are broadcasted.

Therefore, it is clear that all human problems still lead to common language, coexistence and mutual understanding. At the same time, Kazakhstan's journalism experiences development as well as the development of journalism in the world. Sometimes, there are interconnected, and each other has a chance to reach new heights. Together with the press, radio, and television crews, some journalists also go abroad and exchange experiences.

There are also theaters and national centers. Now, if you talk about a foreign topic in Kazakh journalism, you can say the following. For example, the newspaper «Egemen Kazakhstan», which is considered to be a «centre» of the press, gives foreign news in its daily issue. This is the main public-political newspaper, so it does not ignore what's happening in the world.

As for concrete examples, first of all, multinational people live in Kazakhstan. Each nation, for example, Russian, German, Uighur, Korean, etc. peoples have their own newspapers in their own languages, radio and television programs are broadcasted.

There is plenty of information on ideology, politics, and government leaders. Such materials will be placed on the first page as far as possible. This is especially true of diplomatic relations. Reports, reports and photographs are published on the official visits of the President and Parliament Speaker, the Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers. «Egemen Kazakhstan» is the most circulating newspaper. And even those who are abroad.

Information services in «Egemen Kazakhstan» include traditional segments: economics, sports, international review and special authoring reports. Nowadays, information on world journalism is at the forefront. Any media has full access to electronic and internet. It is always on the rise in international issues and has always been in the forefront of delivering it to the people of Kazakhstan.

In addition, the most important events happening in the world are presented to the public of Kazakhstan in a timely manner, from the world-renowned sources of information such as CNN, Rhetor, Al-Jazeera Agency and the event. There are many examples of this.

Interestingly, the main sources of information have been changing over the course of decades - and the three main sources of information have been changing over the course of decades, and three of them are English, Reuters, American Associated Press and French Agence France, representing three different journalistic schools. -presse (AFP) Information Agencies.

«International journalist is more dependent on information that is more difficult than self-examination than other colleagues. That is why the truthfulness and truthfulness of what he / she communicates to the audience depends on the sources of information he or she guides. Often they are secondary sources of information [3; 23].

Many media outlets from leading world newspapers and regional radio stations - rely heavily on information provided by these three agencies when most of the international content is compiled. The style and content of the three agency tape are different - even the numbers and facts that they sometimes refer to are so different that they are sources of complementary, not repetitive repetitions. The three agencies are also available on Twitter, which focuses on urgent information.

Moreover, they report developments in any country, following the same standards. Of course, these three sources of information are just the beginning. And among the social networks, Twitter remains the best tool ever used by international journalists. All key players on the international scene represent the official position there; moreover, many admit that they want to circumvent traditional media and communicate without the filter.

You can also read their news on mobile apps for iPhone and Android. It is dangerous to follow the news that the editors of London, Paris and New York have to look at, to look at their world and repeat their mistakes. However, it is important for them to consider and present their information in a world-wide, commercial way, and regardless of where they are and what their views are.

Some journalists are leaving Twitter without having to rely on informational noise and commentary, but you can gradually adjust your tape. «You can get real-time filtered reviews and headlines that you can find on professional topics by heading for the best articles in various countries, regions, and best practices in various fields of international politics» [4; 89].

Modern foreign journalism is full of different features. Because it is determined by the diversity of the level of economic, social and political development of each country. The inner-state and multilingualism of countries in different parts of the world have an impact on the activities of the media. The evolution of journalism has always been at a different level. It is clear that the country depends on the level of economic development, the political structure, the weight of the political forces.

The United States of America is recognized as a country with a high economic growth. It is, in particular, a model for emerging economies in the market economy. Because the United States has been pursuing the above-mentioned development path for more than two hundred years.

There are a number of factors that influence mass media coverage on other classroom and broadcasting indicators. They can be considered as the level of mastering the traditions, customs, political parties and mass movements of each country, the principles of administrative division, the tradition in tradition, the influence of foreign countries, the influence of world economic integration and the system of global satellite communications. Here, on the basis of these principles, journalism in the world should be divided into four sections.

Therefore, it is noteworthy that the earth is focused on the earth, but it does not mean that there are times when the government does not. At present, the USA's newspaper and magazine industry is the largest product in the world. There is concentration and monopolization in the country related to the publishing industry.

From the very beginning of the American press the monopoly on the way. The process of concentration in other areas also affected the press. In the 60-70's of the 19th century, the first newspaper-publishing associations appeared. In 70-80s, Scrips and U. R. Herser's press companies were established. Most of these companies were originally family-owned and gradually become a joint-stock company. Audiovisual enterprises were immediately created as a joint-stock company.

The international character, influenced by American publications, has given its place in journalism.

According to Lasseela, the four most popular American newspapers are «rights», «freedom», «democra- cy», «equality». Indeed, if we analyze the history and history of American press, its newspapers are struggling for independence from the government and for public democracy.

The New York Times is the second largest newspaper in the world after Wall Street Journal in the United States. 114 Pulitzer Prize laureate. The New York Times is primarily known for its international coverage. The newspaper was born on September 18, 1851. During 167 years certain stages of typological transformation and change of editorial policy were observed. It was the transformation of society's life, the change of human values, and the economic situation in the market of periodicals. Despite such a long evolution, The New York Times did not lose its quality, nor did it fall to the rank of Tabloid.

In recent years, the bulk of advertising and information has increased the volume of newspapers and increased weight. Compared to ten years ago, daily newspapers grew 1.5 times. The newspaper has become so severe that it has reached a point where it can raise and sell it to the child.

As a result of social research, in America, there is a sharp decline in daily newspapers, and in contrast, the demand for Sunday newspapers is high. «The main reason for this is the fact that American citizens are employed. A person who is tired of everyday life does not even have a chance to see the evening newspaper. Therefore, everyday newspapers began to drown, and the ranks began to diminish. The total number of daily newspapers has dropped to 1552, with a circulation of only 59.8 million [5; 75]. At present, the US newspapers and magazines have become the world's largest supplier of products. There is concentration and monopolization in the country related to the publishing industry. In this regard, it is known that large corporations and trusts «swallowed» small print manufacturers. As a result, these companies have not only released a single newspaper, but also have access to additional magazines and books.

In addition, radio stations and television stations also took over. Thus, he became a great master, combining diverse industries. Finally, such organizations have become profitable companies, such as machinery, mining, and construction.

In recent years, there has been a significant change in the content and design of newspapers. The first page is made with a large amount of eye-lacquer, finely decorated and discarded. The paints are widely used, images are often published, various schemes, diagrams, graphs are used regularly. In most newspapers the materials are divided into thematic sections.

Although the volume of newspapers increases, there is no time for the reader to look at it. The reader's interest is to make local news, international news, politics and news stories available to newspapers in the first sections.

In any country, the issue of keeping a journalist abroad is related to the economic situation. In the United States, a newspaper correspondent travels around $ 250,000 a year.

The New York Times (NYT, New York Times) is a daily US edition. It is ranked third in America in terms of popularity (following the «The Wall Street Journal» and «USA Today»). Founded in New York City on 18 September 1851, it has been uninterrupted since then. He won the Pulitzer Prize 112 times. Its web site is one of the most popular sites in America, and one of the most popular national newspapers - has more than 30 million monthly visitors.

Today, The New York Times is one of the most influential and influential newspapers in the United States. To understand why it lasted, we need to start a comprehensive analysis from the very beginning of its development. New York Times was founded on 18 September 1851 under the name of The New York Times. It was led by Colonel Henry Jarvis Raymond and his friend, former banker George Jones. They justified it as an alternative to the cheapest sensational edition and was available to all people as a reliable and reliable publication. Raymond published the principles of political independence of the newspaper and posted materials on education, morality, industry and religion. Subsequently, the title of the publications changed from the front to the reports.

The language and style of the New York Times newspaper are subject to common language rules and standards. Their correspondents rely on the language and style of the New York Times New York Times New York Times Handbook for Style and Usage.

Times New York Times is not always easy and elegant, nor does it use a style of writing style written by a friend. In the newspaper there are frequent occurrences of the common, arbitrarily and mixed conjunctions. Times in New York Times are not limited to one word or one sentence. Thematic complex graphics make it extraordinary for the reader to draw attention.

Changes in the society, scientific and technical progress have an impact on newspaper lexicon. Circuits, which tells about innovations in the field of high technology, is a great example of the «Speakers» section.

Before we talk about the objectivity of events, let's define the concept of «objectivity» before speaking about responsibility and objectivity with respect to American and British publications. The American Expository dictionary gives the following definition: objective - the person who deals with the facts does not «dis- tort» the individual.

In philosophical terminology, the truth is counterfeited and the chance is opposite. Truth is a true, real existence, a real and evolving thing, including its essence and its legitimacy.

The effectiveness of journalism is directly related to the journalist's knowledge of the legal and ethical principles. Failure to comprehend legal and journalistic ethics and discipline does not open the door of a pen, and sometimes it is a frustrating mistake.

As you know, «The New York Times» and «The Washington Post» are high quality and important editions, independent from the government's point of view. Therefore, their textuality is expected to be at the highest level.

However, in the upcoming presidential election, the New York Times: The New York Times: Hillary Clinton for the Democratic Nomination - 30.01.16 [6], where the newspaper officially announced that he would vote for Hillary Clinton, a representative of the Democratic Party.

«Voters have the chance to choose one of the most broadly and deeply qualified presidential candidates in modern history...» The New York Times editorial board has endorsed her three times for federal office – twice for Senate and once in the 2008 Democratic presidential primary – and is doing so again with confidence and enthusiasm, «Hillary Clinton is the right choice for the Democrats».

This article is of the opinion of the editorial staff and, as we know, editorial articles are not in the informative genre and are not an example of sophistication, because there is a dependency on carefully selected facts that are manipulative. There is no striving for equilibrium, the article focuses on the support of one person, and only its achievements and merits; emotional-valuation approach prevails.

We can not be sure that the material that is presented by the editorials section of the edition, which directly affects the editorial opinion, will be objectivity.

You can make sure that well-known, high-quality media outlets also provide false information. They are quite sure of the reader's trust, so it's best to use it.

We believe that Kazakhstani newspapers and magazines have a common problem. Newspaper newspapers (in Kazakh) from «Egemen Kazakstan» are raising today's fate to national, national and state levels. Sometimes, in «Sovereign Kazakhstan», there are always serious materials, and it seems as if it's hard to read. The weight of the material is its disadvantage?

Because «Sovereign» and «KazProvOld» are not able to listen to the «tough» materials, such as «Cara- van». Make them their goals and interests completely. Life does not look alike. After all, today's journalism is so interesting and complicated.

During these years, the newspaper «Egemen Kazakhstan» was relieved from the old, hot-and-white images and became a new, independent newspaper of the independent country. Articles written in the early years of independence were characterized by courage, acuteness and topicality.

The main tool of Kazakhstan's statehood is the «nation», which defines the mass media and the means of communication that define public opinion and form public opinion. In fact, first of all, national values are a multifunctional concept of the state and nation's caretaker. And this is a mass phenomenon, and it is a common phenomenon that has its own principles rather than the concept of autonomy. Finally, a national idea is often a phenomenon that is characterized by temporary characteristics. That is why the problem of the nationality is always the same as the historical events.

The publication has always been a favorite newspaper of its reader. Over the years, the country has been a true puppet of prominent journalists in the country, and has done a great job of educating young journalists. At any time, it is obvious that he has been doing his duty for the country in his own dignity.

Also, recognition of the peculiarities of the structure and system of the lexis of the newspaper: interrupting its construction (title, theme, genre, some textual features), as well as types of newspaper lexicons - historical-semantic analyzes of layers; identifying the key features of the typical lexicon of the newspaper; as a result of which it was possible to list the achievements and disadvantages of the newspaper in the development of literary language, vocabulary, literary language purity, terminology and word processing, and language culture.

Regarding the official historiography of the republican Kazakhstan-based Egemen Kazakhstan and the American newspaper The New York Times, these publications are the beginning of the periodical press of the two countries, both of which are considered to be numerous newspapers in the press market. The purpose of both editions is to guide the target group of readers. The New York Times and the Egemen Kazakhtan are a common subject, which is not always easy and elegant, nor does it use a style of writing style written by a friend.

In newspapers, there are frequent occurrences of adjectives, adjectives, and mixed conjunctions. The titles of these two editions are not limited to one word or one sentence. Thematic complex graphics make it extraordinary for the reader to draw attention. In recent years, the New York Times has been conducting a range of multimedia and information activities to expand the audience and strengthen the transnational corporation status.

 

References

  1. egemen.kz. Retrieved from http://egemen.kz.
  2. Nazarbaiev, N.A. (2003). Tarikh tolkynynda [In the flow of history]. Almaty: Atamura [in Kazakh].
  3. Kazirhi kezdehi zhurnalistik bilim beru: innovatsiialar, zhana tekhnoloр iialar [Modern journalistic education: innovations, new technologies]. (2012). Almaty: Asyl kitap [in Kazakh].
  4. Yerkimbai, A. (2012). Zhana media: Monolohtan dialohka [New Media: Monologue to dialogue]. Almaty: Asyl kitap [in Kazakh].
  5. Frankel, M. (2015). Obektivnost. Tochka zreniia «New York times'7» [Objectivity. Point of view «New York times'7»]. Zhurnalist – Journalist, 2, 78–81 [in Russian].
  6. Hillary Clinton for the Democratic Nomination. The New York Times. 30.01.16.
Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Philology