Social networks have become an integral part of our lives, and today it is impossible to imagine a full-fledged journalist's work without using the social network. The article is devoted to a topical and promising at present time problem of media and social networks interaction. The article reports about struggle and interaction of traditional and modern mass media, ways of their communication, similarities and differences are covered. The essence of concept «social network» is considered. The importance of social networks for private users is considered and for business is presented. The opinions of various experts on the interaction traditional media and social network are given. Their similarities and differences are presented.
The Internet has a great influence almost on all spheres of human life. Today it is part of a global media environment, along with the press, television and radio. Its rapid spread in the early decades of this century, both worldwide and in Kazakhstan, made the increasing popularity of social networks a global phenomenon. Today's global community it is difficult to imagine without their influence, which is not always beneficial. Some researchers have expressed concern that the intense proliferation of new media may threaten the usual media, believing that with the advent of information technology, fourth power, which always was considered journalism, begins to lose his powers. The spread of social networks, different communities within them, the emergence of citizen journalism - the result is faster transmission of information which is difficult to follow sometimes even for the online media, not to mention traditional media, which come short of speed to web publishing.
The term «social network» appeared in 1954 in the work of James Barnes British sociologist «Class and committees in a Norwegian island parish» included in «Human relations» collection, and designated social structure, consisting of a group of nodes, which are social objects. Social network, in his opinion, is a group of people between which there are certain relations, bilateral or unilateral communication. For example, if the person to be placed in the center of the social network, his friends will be its branches, and the relations between these people will be considered as context [1; 48].
Before talking about modern social networks, please refer to their original concept. Vitaliy Goldenberg the specialist in Internet marketing identified the essence of social network in the following way: it is an interactive multi-user website, the content of which is updated by members of the network. The site is an automated social environment that allows you to chat to a user group, the combined interests [2; 109].
The authors of the textbook «Internet media: Theory and practice» A. O. Alekseeva, E. L. Vartanova and others suggest the following wording: «This is an Internet service for building online communities of people with similar interests and/or activities. Communication is done via internal mail, forums or instant messaging» [3; 277].
Consequently, social networking is not just another logic content consumption, but convenience to an user, which is becoming more mobile and demanding. They allow to overcome one-sided communication and give the audience the opportunity to feedback. Commenting, feedback, voting and polls - all this is aimed at identifying the readers' opinions about the information provided. The more versatile interaction with other users, the better. The ability to share messages, comment on articles, post pictures and video these and other features make new media more attractive.
People used to constantly receive some information, and if this does not happen, they begin to experience information hunger. The media simply couldn't not come in this peculiar world that is today the only one free way of conveying information to the addressee.
Today with full confidence we can say that social networks are an integral part of society. A trend of rapid development and rapid build-up of their user-mass becomes increasingly visible. They are even more integrated into human life. Ordinary people as well as business communities need them.
Maintaining of business contacts, timely information to colleagues, as well as the latest news – everything is available to every user of social networking. But if the majority of workers of different activityspheres have their own account in any of social networking voluntarily, for journalists it is not a desire, but rather a necessary part of professional activity. According to many media representatives do not have access to social networks and do not use them in their work – does «fall out» of the information content production [4; 166].
The number of people who prefer to draw information from their gadgets grows, and the view that traditional media loses its positions under the social networks onslaught sounds more often. However, as well as vice versa. Let's consider another opinion. So, Alexander Ostroshenko the journalist criticizes the view on social networks as new media, he believes that «the problem is, at least, far-fetched and «rival» the goals, tools and everything else are different. It is no wonder that the word «blog» came in our language as simplified from «web log» and not as «new online media». Everyone who has ever read the blogs, understand what it's about. It is linear, it is sector-specific, finite in the end. Whether it is media. It at least is informative, analytical if you want. So, you can say «read» in relation to the media and not in relation to the blog, which you can watch or flipping, because otherwise not get through the line of an author's thoughts which may not be the most successful .
It should be noted that in the above excerpt from the blog, the author only frontire characteristics of the media and social networks, which do not exclude each other. Indeed, the social network still operate in a system of news dissemination and in any case are not the media. They act only as principal translator of information, and their important feature is the ability for a user to share messages with a wide range of interested people. Practice shows that in the past five years, they turned from means of communication into a source of information.
Popular point of view, according to which social media cannot be considered traditional media because of the low quality of the information that they placed. So, for example, Vyacheslav Varvanin the former Development Director «Lenta.Ru» news portal now the Chief Editor of «Ridus» the Agency of citizen journalism believes that the phenomenon of journalism as social networking, is oblivion: «Blogs, claiming» journalism «throughout your blogosphere-percent share. And they are no different from the author's columns in the usual publications. Reviews and comments on these columns do not have independent values so it's the same bike». According to this expert, if news is published on social networks more quickly than in the official media, this information will not be a journalist's information: «It lacks a bit of confidence. And objectivity. And presentation accuracy. This information is called «rumours», and it existed long before the advent of the Internet and blogging. Perfect, by the way, environment for the rumors spread. No worse than the gossips. <...> In any case, the media is more predictable and reliable source of information than the blog» .
However, our analysis showed that the blogs that meet all the requirements and definitions of the journalistic texts are taking place. Such blogs contain specific characteristics of such texts. For example, in the West, some of the best blogs are editorials, allocated in a separate site. They are kept by real journalists that makes these blogs a full-fledged source of information.
A kind of opinion expressed by Marzhan Alchimbaeva our national expert: «Social networking and blogging in them is one thing, but the media and journalistic materials – other. Social networks assume that users express their views or share information that they (personally) consider is necessary to put in a public field. With regard to journalistic material, then there's nothing personal and associated with journalism. So I think that are two different things. <...> If earlier, six or seven years ago, there was little reaction to an article or a TV report, there was no dialogue with the journalist, but today the Internet allows almost any reader or viewer to present the material with their comments or judgments» .
Kurmanali Kalmakhan the Head of Social Media Department, RTRC «Kazakhstan» JSC was supported the representatives of traditional media: «Blogger would not give the information that the journalist would give. Because it's their purely personal opinion. A journalists give a full picture - it is proven information and they doe not impose their views, such as blogger. <...> Important thing is that the information was true! <...> People who want to get an objective information, make their own opinion, will always watch the news. Quality is above all! No offense to bloggers (not all do) the journalist will never impose their opinions. When a problem arises, it reveals from different angles and the viewer decides what is true» .
To the question «will social networks eventually replace traditional journalism?», Vladimir Solovyov the well-known Russian journalist, radio and television presenter, writer said the following: «Every time there is a new art or a new direction in art, it seemed that all previous forms are obsolete, they will be gone forever. There was a feeling that the cinema would kill the theater, then TV would crab those and others, and the radio in General would be forgotten. But over time it became clear that everyone is able to find itself a niche». We as content producers really care about how it will be conveyed to the consumer through socialnetworks, in DVD or VHS. Artistic expressions can be very different, the main thing is how the emotion described. And social networks, by the way, sometimes do not even know that spread the same content that people see on television» .
Researchers from Saint Petersburg state University, I. A. Bykov and O.G. Filatova note: «Social media today is a serious competitor to traditional media and become the most visited resources in the Internet (especially blogs and social networks). Users changing information and entertainment Internet sites for social media, which have become their primary sources of information» [10; 232]. However, according to other scholars, the fundamental difference between these two forms is saved: at that time, as traditional media and their online version just misleading the audience information, social media remains a platform for communication.
On the forum of editors of Kazakh-language publications on a theme «development of the media resources in the framework of the third modernization of Kazakhstan», Dauren Abayev the Minister of information and communications of the Republic of Kazakhstan said that traditional media and new media have become integrated into a complementary tool. He noted that today many large media organizations safely use similar tactics. As evidence, the Minister cited the example of the printed press as «Egemen Kazakhstan», «Aikyn» and several TV channels.
When we turned to the world practice on the subject, found that foreign colleagues in forming the content of online versions began using innovative approaches. The Newspapers created online editions which have their own state. The journalists working for the online and printed version.
For example, initially traditional publications opened their sites into a global network, fully reprinting entire material. Some editions of Karaganda continue to work by the same way. This is true for the regional newspaper «Industrial Karaganda».
For example, our newspaper «New Vestnik». In its online version can be found only about 30-40 % of the the main Edition content. All other information journalists prepare solely for the site content.
Now journalists are increasingly use data from open sources a new generation of social networking as information sources. Research of HeadHunter the online recruitment company developing business in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, showed that journalists are one of the most active users of social networks (76 %) topped the list of those who most actively uses them for information (64 %). This research of the social services usage by the representatives of various professions was held from 24 September to 2 October 2012 among the 5600 employees.
Statistics collected by a leading international provider of software and services for specialists in public relations and Cision the marketing communication shows: in 2015 year worldwide every day social network is used 67 % of journalists. It is 29 % more than in 2012. During this same time, the number of journalists who do not use social networks, halved from 12 % to 6 %. The most important figure of this research: 50 % of the interviewed journalists admitted that they would not be able to work today without using social networks.
Our analysis showed that with each year the number of users of social networks is constantly increasing and today the media open their own blogs, encourage blogging and social network activities of its journalists.
So, who together are social networks and traditional media – competitors or partners? The answer to this question can be obtained directly from their gadgets - enough to remove the tape from his social networking accounts, news sites and publications, and here will be only pictures of food, pets and nature.
Social media are not competitors to the traditional media. At this stage, they rationally complement each other. Such cooperation is fundamentally changed the mechanism and form to inform users, expanding the possibilities for independent readers the choice of priorities. Now they occupy its own niche and are a separate participant of information space, fulfilling the role of a provider of news with the possibility of communicating users.
For the modern media the work with social networks is as much a part of communication with the audience. Modern media should develop strategies for integration into the social networks to attract larger audiences, taking into account their unique characteristics, because for them it is a way to maintain their competitiveness. Media should understand the specifics of its publication and, depending on the build strategy, at the same time, thinking about the content.
Social networking for media is primarily a platform for further implementing the basic strategy of the edition. That's why a strategy prepared for work with social networks, should not run counter to the basic media strategy [11; 167].
There are several advantages of social networking and media interaction:
- - virtual social platforms are one of the largest channels for dissemination of news content;
- - social networking - it is channel of additional traffic, and thus an additional source of income;
- - media in social networks can quickly get feedback from their audience;
- - media through presence on social platforms increase visibility [12; 97].
The research confirms that today, not only the media interact with social networks, but social networks work with the media. Mass media are getting a new audience, and social networks are fundamentally new content.
Question of social networks belonging to the media remains controversial. And yet the importance of social media, including social networking, in the modern information space increases. Traditional media realize it well, so try not to miss the opportunity to infiltrate and occupy its niche. Thus, in the present an unlimited flow of information, people are more inclined to consumption in the form of a small concentrated pieces of text that was the basis of «Twitter» as well as in the rendered view – pictures with a few comments that became the basis of the network «Instagram». And traditional media gradually appear on these sites. These distribution channels just starting to get used to them, so the leaders of those who were engaged in the association with social networks and promotion of their pages in this environment.
Currently, almost every news Agency, TV channels, radio stations, magazines and newspapers have their accounts in social networks, which they duplicate your content and briefly inform users about what is happening in the world, the region with the possibility of communication. That's what makes the social network a private party space.
The specifics of the relationship online-media and user is that not a reader looking for information in the media, but the media are trying to penetrate the «close circle» of a participant in a social network. Users audience increases due to this interraction. While the editions that have fallen in the Internet space, there remains the prospect of expanding the audience, while the conventional media, it is actually not. Sources for creating new content and information there open: using social networks may find participants and witnesses to the event, as well as any media materials.
Network media create the agenda, focus the audience on important issues, and society by means of social networks can formulate their own answers to these questions. Thus, each participant contributes to: Internet media verifies the news, selecting the most close to the agenda; the social network organize the dissemination of news through their own channels using the mechanism of interpersonal recommendations, with news acquire additional details, facts, comments, videos and photos. Commenting and rating system for news significantly expands the participation of Internet users in the formation of public opinion and public space.
In our view, looking ahead, the cooperation of social networks and media has two outcomes – negative and positive. The first - media will retain the position of: «my news is my carrier» and, thus, will inevitably lose the audience. The second, which should take in most – increased views about the audience: «my users – users of all my sites». Here media, of course, must learn to «reach» a user and be convenient for them everywhere, including in social networks. Social networking is a powerful tool that allows users to communicate with each other, and the media to benefit from it. Social networks are able to expand the audience of the mass media; give the opportunity to better understand their audience based on the comments, ratings, feedback, remarks; hold the audience close to the brand. Ideally, the user must not come to media and expect a response, but the media must find a new audience and try to keep its interest and trust.
Even though social networks gradually cover a growing information space it will not completely replace traditional media soon. Therefore, it is necessary to find a balance between them. In order to maintain its primary role in the information sector and not get lost in the ocean of voluntary information providers, the traditional media need to keep up with the times and be ahead of it.
The significant growth of the influence of social networks on information space is an extension of the media spectrum and in any case not a competition and the displacement of something and someone. As a result of studying the interactions of traditional media and social networks, we found that social networking has ceased to be a kind of marginal channel broadcast information and moved into the category of a recognized and effective supplement to the publication. Media fully uses the power of social networks, more and more developing this area. Thus, at present, in the accelerated rhythm of life, social networks with their ever growing popularity as a platform for broadcast media content found to be verified and received its «tick» in the system.
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