About the modern Russian lesson at school

Topical issues of improvement of quality of training in context of language education were analyzed in this article. The features of the formation of integration are considered in conditions when the main component of education is the intercultural component, the idea of continuity and continuity of the educational process. Authors noted that unique features of modern stage of development are realization of integration in learning, maintain integrity and systematicity of pedagogical process. Using of potential of integrated job on the lesson is open new possibility in the field of language education. Core competence are characterized, which will encourage academic motivation. It is noted that in the conditions of the Republic of Kazakhstan, an additional motivation is interest in the country, readiness to study, to learn Kazakh culture, including through the Russian language. Special attention is given by the authors to organization of lessons of Russian language, including Foreign language with using information and communication technologies.Great importance is attached to new technologies of language teaching, which contribute to the achievement of effective communication. There is settled necessity of transformation of communicative linguistic education paradigm in inter- cultural. Authors noted practical relevance of lessens, know and apply studying material.

Integration in the education is mechanism which focused on development of creative thinking. It is premise on the systematization of learning and cognitive activity and acquirement of necessary skills and abilities. It is oriented not only on the combine deferent spheres of the science and show point of contact but also for give exposure to students that world around us is not coherent. This is also promoted by the fact that this approach is also applied to various disciplines. In such a way students are learning of vision of all environment as a whole instead of casual attitude of presence intersubject communication.

Under the program of development and functioning of languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011–2020 lessons are being integrated, including assignments using the state language for enriching the lexical fund, Russian and English languages in the context of trilingual education. «The current issues are the preparation of multilingual teachers for the introduction of trilingual education», the State Program for the Development of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2016-2019 states. The question of standardization of requirements to the level of language training is also topical, in the first place, it is a question of level training. The idea is based on the continuity and continuity of the educational process. In such a way, a characteristic feature of the current stage of development is the implementation of integration, which ensures the integrity and systemic character of the pedagogical process. The task of the teacher is to organize the educational activity in such a way that the students are maximally involved in the educational activity and can obtain quality knowledge through the skillful application of the numerous strategies and technologies of instruction, depending on the individual abilities of the students.

At the moment, the teaching requirements for the organization of academic studies began to include the use of the Internet, the flexible variation of active methods (projects, role-playing and business games, analysis of business situations) in the work with students. As reported in the instructive methodological letter for the 2017–2018 school year, «competence in the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) is built on basic ICT skills and includes the proper and creative use of technology for work, leisure and communication». Trainees develop ICT skills in the learning process in all subjects, finding information and working with it, cooperating and exchanging information and ideas, evaluating and improving their work using a wide range of equipment and applications. The use of ICT in secondary schools includes: the use of multimedia resources and the media; search for information on the Internet and databases; the ability to receive, retrieve and organize data using quantitative, textual, visual information and databases, including the use of hyperlinks, spreadsheets, and graphical and other applications; the use of interactive boards for technical support of active types of training. Pupils with enthusiasm perceive new information, if it is given in an entertaining form, that is why they easily fulfill the tasks proposed in the lesson based on media resources, and this explains the efficiency of using information and communication technologies in education. In such away, the learner gets a fairly large amount of knowledge. On the basis of this, the legality of conducting integrated lessons for improving the quality of language training for students is undeniable.

Using the potential of integrated work in the lesson opens up new opportunities in the field of language training, and in particular in the teaching of Russian as a foreign language. Such training contributes to the expansion of the outlook, the ability to extract or supplement the necessary information and, most importantly, to get involved in one's culture and culture of other peoples, which at the present stage of development of the RK is relevant in the framework of the «RuhaniZhangyru» program. According to researchers, for a long time language and culture were considered as separate independent systems. Language and culture are correlated with the categories of material and spiritual culture of the people (rituals, rituals, stereotypes), so that the language lesson will allow to expand the connection of the humanities with the public. Therefore, there is every reason to believe that interdisciplinary ties in education are one of the principles of the worldview. A.Ya. Danilyuk defines intersubjectivity as «a means of developing objectivity, the desire to improve qualitatively education and, at the same time, not lose anything positive from the former» [1; 33]. Interdisciplinary ties scientist defines as target and content coincidences, objectively existing between the academic disciplines, as well as the organizational form of the intersubject material. V.N. Fedorova gives the following interpretation of interdisciplinary relations: «Intersubject communications represent a reflection in the content of educational disciplines of objective interrelations acting in nature that are learned by modern scienc- es» [2; 74].

It should be noted that for the first time he substantiated the need for integration of I.F. Herbart [3; 263]. They were allocated four levels in training: clarity, association, system and method. If the first two steps of Herbart were aimed at acquiring knowledge, the latter two were called upon to bring into contact what had been learned earlier and «make up a kind of bridge for mastering new knowledge». I.F. Herbart notes that the «mental environment» is manifested in the ability to reproduce previously acquired knowledge in relation to those that are being learned at the moment. In general, the authors consider interdisciplinary ties and integration closely interconnected. As a result of mastering, the educational material becomes more profound and motivated, which contributes to the quality of knowledge.

Based on the use of the most important criteria for assessing the quality of education, classes of key competencies are highlighted that promote educational motivation. Such as social competence - the ability to exchange information, communicate, and maintain social networks; personal - the attitude to the world, study, work and to yourself; methodical - the ability to develop, select and apply appropriate problemsolving strategies [4; 297]. In this regard, it becomes clear that the application of social integration in the system of language education at the intercultural level will improve the learning process of a foreign language. However, in the practice of teaching Russian as a foreign language, it is important to understand the language tools used to diversify the material under study, including the use of information and communication technologies; To apply additional information so that integration approaches allow to combine professional and personal aspirations of students in the learning process.

It will be observed that at the moment foreign languages which include Russian studied for applying: communication, business, meet the needs of everyday communication, personal enrichment, studied training and science literature, for education, professional activity. In our case, the motivation for mastering the Russian language at a university is mainly related to the acquisition of vocational education, as well as the attitude of the student to a foreign language and culture of its speakers, his willingness to learn the language, the recognition of the value of their possession. In the conditions of the Republic of Kazakhstan, an additional motivation is interest in the country, readiness to study, to learn Kazakh culture, including through the Russian language. Otherwise, cultural units form a system of knowledge about the world, a linguistic picture of the world. The Russian language of Kazakhstan is specific in that there is a large group of words and phrases borrowed from the Kazakh language, which denote common realities for all Kazakhstanis, phenomena, concepts. Such language units arise in the Russian language of Kazakhstan for many reasons. This may be the long-term functioning of the Russian language in Kazakhstan, the active use of the Russian language in all spheres of communication; intercultural communication; the formation of a sovereign state and practical needs arising in connection with this process, one of which is the work on the creation of new educational complexes for higher and secondary education. In such a way, the specifics of the functioning of the Russian language in Kazakhstan is ensured by the fact that the language picture of Russian-speaking Kazakhstanis is enriched by combining two national paintings — Russian and Kazakh. Accordingly, through the Russian language, you can join the values of Kazakh culture. As S.G. Ter-Minasova notes, «Language does not exist outside culture as» a socially inherited set of practical skills and ideas that characterize our way of life.

«As one of the types of human activity, language turns out to be an integral part of culture, defined as the totality of the results of human activity in different spheres of human life: industrial, social, spiritual. However, as a form of existence of thinking and, most importantly, as a means of communication, language is in line with culture. «Further, the author notes the following: «If we consider a language from the point of view of its structure, functioning and ways of mastering it (both native and foreign), then the sociocultural layer, or component of culture, is part of the language or the background of its real existence».

Undoubtedly, as many scientists note, the main task of mastering a foreign (Russian) language is to restore the ability to build conceptual structures through the use of non-native language linguistic signs. At the same time, the process of teaching language has a causal similarity with the general movement of cognition of thought in the form of a concrete whole. Then, perhaps, the methodological basis of learning can be considered a method of cognition, which allows the greatest extent to cover all aspects of the studied subject. So, language, as a communicative means, acts in all types of verbal communication as a single system, the component parts of which are subordinated to the purposes of expressing certain mental forms and categories. No dictionary, no grammatical form, no speech patterns separately form a communicative unit. And, in order not to violate the linguistic integrity of the language, methodologists and scientists suggest an approach that would ensure a better assimilation of the formal, content and level aspects of the language simultaneously - an integrative approach.

Consequently, the integrative approach to learning takes into account the current state of related sciences of language as a means of communication and, according to the reference literature, proceeds from the following understanding of the difference in terms complex and integrative: a complex is a collection of objects, phenomena that are conceivable in an independent function outside the complex; Integration is the combination of parts that organically form part of the whole and create a new education with a new function. Moreover, as noted in the scientific literature, the formation and formation of the student's language personality (of course, to a greater extent foreign) is determined by the formation of an integrative linguocultural competence, since a linguistic personality is a person who is able not only to speak in a foreign (Russian) language, but also capable of building communication at the intercultural level. According to S.G. Ter- Minasova, «for every word there is a view of the world conditioned by the national consciousness» [5; 30]. According to the message of N. A. Nazarbayev, «henceforth all world leadership in the social, economic and cultural fields will belong to countries with a predominantly developed intellectual potential, there cannot be a developed state without a developed education. Russian universities, foreign higher education establishments offer expanded access to training, a large choice in specialties, and a large number of new textbooks are published».

Of course, based on the analysis of many studies, it can be noted that this is due to communication competence: this is distance learning, the possession of electronic resources, expanded access to publications of scientific works. Therefore, ensuring the success of students already in the process of schooling is impossible without comprehensive knowledge based on the application of ICT. Undoubtedly, the initial base for this is laid in primary and secondary schools. At the same time, a fundamental condition for the professional development of the teacher is the awareness of the need to change and search for new opportunities for enhancing competence. Obviously, in this context, one should think about the question of quantitative and qualitative application of ICT in the system of lessons and on a specific, single lesson. The main feature of the integrated lesson is that such a lesson is built on the basis of a single subject (for example, Russian language), which is the main one. The rest, objects that are integrable with it, help to study its connections, processes, understand the essence of the studied subject more deeply, relate knowledge to real life, and make it possible to apply the received knowledge in practice. For example, in the lesson of the «Russian language and literature», in 6th grade (textbook by Y. A. Janpeis) reading the myths about Atlantis in section V «An- cient and modern civilizations», the first positive perception of the text may be lost, since unfamiliar historical words occur in the text. In this connection, S.G. Terminasova writes the following: «Sociocultural commentary for Russian and foreign readers basically coincides, because the growing gap between the Russian culture of Pushkin's time and the modern one is increasingly interspersed with the difference between Russian and other cultures» [5; 113]. These are historicisms, archaisms, words that have changed their meanings in modern Russian. «In all these cases the word has survived, but it has changed its meaning due to the diminution of the social role or the complete disappearance of the concept denoted by it and, accordingly, of the fact of real life» [5; 114]. Therefore, before acquaintance with the text, it is necessary to reproduce knowledge from history and other sciences. For the sake of clarity, we will list the topics of the subject «Russian Language and Literature», which requires additional related knowledge:

1. Phonetics. What is sound? How does the sound originate? What organs help a person speak?

2. Word formation. Etymology. Alphabet. Scholars are specialists in Russian philology.

  1. Text-description. Words in figurative meaning. Artistic means of language.
  2. Numeral.
  3. Life and work of a poet or writer. The development of art in a certain historical period.
  4. The theme of nature in the poems of SA Esenin. The image of nature in literature, painting, music.

9. Believe in a miracle! (viewing and analysis of the film on A.Green's extravaganza «Scarlet Sails»).

10. «There are no bonds of holier partnerships ...» An analysis of the story of N.V. Gogol «Taras Bulba».

In more detail, we will analyze the lesson in the development of speech in the 5th grade on the topic «Composition on the picture of A.A. Plastov in the summer. On assignment, the students have to tell what the artist wrote about, to reproduce the story told by the artist. Often children find it difficult to answer, so here (in advance) you can give individual homework of a search character through social networks of the Internet. And just then the knowledge received by the students at the lessons of informatics, history, ISO: the biography of the artist, the history of his life, the time of writing the picture, how it is reflected in history, etc. come to the aid. I want to note that the students like to show themselves, show their knowledge in the classroom, stay, so to speak, as a teacher. Such knowledge will no longer lie in the plane of linguistics, but it is this knowledge that will help you write a good composition, help you learn how to compose a text description and much more. The use of IT technologies such as Kahoot, LearningApps, QR code, Plikers, Gramota.ru will help both the teacher and the student to create tests, surveys, online quizzes. Undoubtedly, such tasks are performed by students joyfully and enthusiastically. At the same time in the classroom can be used tablets, laptops, smartphones, that is, any device that has access to the Internet.

In such a way, considering the future lesson, the teacher always has to anticipate a possible situation in each particular class. For example, music in the lesson of the Russian language and literature helps students to immerse themselves more deeply in the atmosphere of the topic of the lesson. In such an integrated lesson, the educational function of music is no less important than the educational one. Against the background of correctly selected music, the teacher most often reports brief information about the author, the history of the creation of the work, reading the text and much more. Tension in the lesson helps to remove the IZO and all the creativity that adjoins it, for example, composing clusters and collages. The guys are liberated, filled with positive emotions, show creativity, demonstrate their vision of the world. In such a way, it can be argued that interdisciplinary integration in the lessons of the Russian language contributes to the successful learning activity, educates and develops creativity, independence, responsibility.

Summing up, it can be noted that education in the Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the main national priorities defined by the President of the country N.A. Nazarbayev in the «Kazakhstan-2030» Strategy. It is education that must ensure the further development of the country through the quality, globalization and humanization of knowledge. Starting from the motivated creative training in the modern paradigm of foreign language education, the student models the thought-speech activity, which is very important for mastering the material of the language being studied. We note that fluency in speech presupposes a high level of integration of knowledge.

 

References

  1. Danilyuk, A.Ya. (2000). Teoriia intehratsii obrazovaniia [Theory of integration of education]. Rostov on Don: RPU [in Russian].
  2. Fedorova, V.N., & Kiryushkin, D.M. (1972). Mezhpredmetnye sviazi: na materialе estestvennonauchnykh distsiplin srednei shkoly [Intersubject communications: on the material of the natural science disciplines of the secondary school]. Moscow: Pedahohika [in Russian].
  3. Herbart, I.F. (1940). Izbrannye pedahohicheskie sochineniia [Selected pedagogical compositions]. Moscow: Uchpedhiz [in Russian].
  4. Abisheva, K.M. (2016). Intehratsiia znanii v teorii i praktike humanisticheskoho vospitaniia [Integration of knowledge in the theory and practice of humanistic education]. Almaty: Epihraf [in Russian].
  5. Ter-Minasova, S.G. (2008). Yazyk i mezhkulturnaia kommunikatsiia [Language and intercultural communication]. (3d ed.). Moscow: Izdatelstvo MHU [in Russian].
Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Philology