The article deals with pedagogical knowledge comprehension concepts study. The author supposes the concepts of «reality» and «knowledge» to be the basic concepts of the socio-phenomenological processes of formation and social knowledge functioning description. The article states that the peculiarity of pedagogical activity, as one of the pedagogy phenomena, lies in the fact that in each individual case. This peculiarity is unique and it reflects person individuality, its entity (performer) and those who it is directed to (students). The study of trends in the formation and self-formation of the conceptual apparatus of modern pedagogy has led to the following conclusion. To date, clearly manifests itself installation on the connection in the teaching of rational-logical and imaginative-emotional plans; strict scientific explanation of pedagogical phenomena and their comprehension, taking into account the socio-cultural traditions and personal emotional and spiritual experience of teachers; knowledge and creativity, including language, as evidenced by the «revival» of the conceptual apparatus of pedagogy, its expansion at the expense of figurative and artistic means, the resources of everyday language.
Thinking about the problems in education sphere the researchers often turn their attention to matching perfect ideas with actual teaching practice. To date, theoretical studies of the educational sphere have been based on traditional classical rationality. As a matter of fact, theoretical educational knowledge is based on development of various education needs comprehension concepts, here a research investigation of impeccable ideas presented in these concepts in teaching practice implementation mechanisms is being carried out. In that regard, educational knowledge hierarchical structure has been built, which is defined in a characteristic way. Firstly, it is a substantive hierarchy: general views about a relevant person determine the goals and content of the educational process, and they in turn dictate pedagogical activity methods and techniques. Secondly, this is the activity hierarchy: a philosopher or an education methodologist is a scientist-teacher- methodologist-teacher-practitioner. However, in the logic of classical rationality the attitude towards the teachers transmitting cultural and social norms is entirely clear and justified.
At the same time, in recent years, in educational science the number of diverse concepts claiming primacy has increased. The authors of these theories protect the priority of their own education perfect ideas and protect the managerial resource that gives them the chance to execute them in a mass educational workshop. But so far there are no generally accepted theoretical and practical criteria for assessing pedagogical theory significance and its overall need for introduction. Moreover, it is generally accepted that theoretical pedagogic concepts will not be realized in education large-scale practice. More precisely, their realization is inevitably accompanied by reduction and perversion, as a result, the pedagogical practice is significantly distinguished from those perfect views which were obliged to embody. This statement is testified by progress analysis and the results of educational reforms that have been developing over the last 10–15 years.
For the analysis, essential aspects of the socio-phenomenological description of social knowledge formation processes and functioning is being proposed. This knowledge is significantly essential for education reality analysis. Therefore, here the key concepts are appeared to be the concepts of «reality» and «knowledge». In their study, P. Berger and T. Lukman define reality as a quality that is inherent in being phenomena ,which is irrespective of our will and desire («we cannot get rid of them») . Knowledge, in its turn, is interpreted as the conditional individual probability of the phenomenon which is real and has some specific characteristics.It is important to note that the concept of reality is both theoretically and practically understood by these authors differently than the concept of impersonal used to describe sociality in classical rationalism.
Therefore, one can only assume that theoretically the existence of certain phenomena, such as conscience, can be analyzed as something impersonal and independent of particular person will and desire (indeed, conscience exists independently of our attempts to «get rid of it»). However, this objectivity does not have that specific features which is given to this concept in a direct-scientific examination of physical reality.The theory of social knowledge analyzes social reality as a complex of intersubjective and, in this sense, objective knowledge about it shared by the people.
One of the main sociology regulations is that thinking is connected with the structure of a person, the reality of his life goes back to Karl Marx works .
Being a complex synthesis of directly scientific and social humanitarian knowledge pedagogical one unites all properties of objective, rational and spiritual-practical knowledge, which according to many scientists opinion is always «aggravated» by subjective personal elements: values, scientific ideals and a scientist preferences. Personal knowledge» is often formulated as a question, collisions, widely uses comparative, subjunctive, modal grammatical forms, as if balancing on the edge separating the real world from possible one» [3; 19]. Thus, in the process of two levels formation in pedagogy: pre-scientific and actively growing scientific, these two levels began to develop diametrically opposite, while the first one has revealed an important influence on scientific knowledge and the whole pedagogical science: its language, ways of knowing, presentation of knowledge results. Pedagogy as a science from the moment of its formation has experienced natural sciences impact, which has been revealed in the collision of dual tendencies: a move to rationalized, theoretical, extrapersonal and absolute knowledge, and on the other hand, the difficulty of operating only ideal entities, abstractions that lead away from living processes and real people. This became more obvious in the immediate attraction of those ones who were engaged and have been engaging in pedagogical science to «revitalize» («humanize») theoretical views with concrete examples, descriptions, practical prescriptions, to use images and metaphors. This kind of tendency became one of the reasons for the public and scientific consciousness opinion about the «non-scientific» pedagogy. The pedagogical activity peculiarity as one of pedagogy phenomena lies in the fact that in each individual case it is unique, reflecting a person's individuality and its subject (performer), and those ones whom it is directed (students) In many respects, V.I. Ginetsinsky is right when he refers pedagogical structure to «performing creativity». The most important characteristics of creativity are «creativity act immediacy, the process and the product coincidence, irreversibility, creativity non-reproducibility, unpredictability, variation and its improvisation» [4; 130]. These characteristics are not explicitly reflected in theoretical knowledge, they are the result of doubts about pedagogy scientific nature as an autonomous discipline, which is also reflected in its language. Science cannot exist if it does not implement its main functions which composition is shown in different sources in different ways. Let's imagine one of the most common schemes:
- • descriptive;
- • explanatory;
- • theoretical;
- • prognostic.
It is likely that these functions representation, their realization are not feasible without the use of a direct language, skimping on pedagogy specifics. In the analyzed context the language is understood as extremely relevant to pedagogical research, with the help of which pedagogical science is formed. Related thoughts about pedagogical research methodology to science methodology and pedagogical research concern a wide range of issues: the choice of topics and research questions, the definition of their immediacy, the object and subject formulation, goals and objectives, hypotheses, provisions submitted to the defense and research methods justification. It should be pointed out that the components enumeration considered in the works on the research methodology does not specifically concern speech about language as a means of expressing scientific thoughts, a form of presenting new knowledge. Meanwhile, language as the main means of expressing scientific positions and research results in humanitarian studies requires special attention. It was not by chance that Plato, Socrates, Rousseau, Descartes, Hegel, Fichte, as well as modern philosophers spoke about the language as an expression of meaning. Moreover, the idea of creating a universal language for expressing meaning is found in the writings of Ya. A. Komensky. Therefore, according to the scientist, it is necessary to combat the lack of «separate» languages, as a result of which «Babylonization» difficulties arise in the process of education. And since no language can overcome the problem of «Babylonization», a certain universal language is necessary. And since this is only an idea at the moment, it is necessary to fight against «multilingualism» in three ways: every existing language should be turned into an instrument of universal culture; everyone needs to point to the easy way of mastering several languages of culture; all humanity must have a single universal language.
Undoubtedly, the language formulates the author's position as a subject of scientific thought, but the language is at the same time the agreement result that supplies scientific communication and forms the scientific ideas understanding acquired by other scientists and practitioners of research results.
In our opinion, the language of scientific positions presentation and research results is one of the significant research quality indicators, which, apparently, should be evaluated as a significant indicator of the researcher's readiness for scientific work, the ability of a scientist with scientific knowledge to speak and implement in various linguistic forms, which makes his scientific papers reading much more easier. All of this mentioned in one way or another is combined with the relevance of the issues and scientific results, evidence of argumentation, a clear statement of personal position, directness of hesitation, reflection, connection of science and the need to be aware of others in the language, openness to dialogue. In the case of exclusion from the mentioned above, then there will be dissatisfaction from the sense of questions recognition (repeatability), monotonous, impersonal language of presentation, uncertainty of starting abstractions, exhibiting positions and terminology, entanglement and complexity of verbal constructions, schematism.
Each science develops its own categorical apparatus, corresponding to its subject. Each set of science concepts is an invaluable part of its content.
Understanding oneself as a person, understanding of the surrounding world and other real or conceivable denotates is incorporated in the «terminology» word etymology. Terminology is a semiological system that formulates a certain system of concepts that reflect the conditioned scientific worldview. Due to the rather high development of scientific thinking in the history of man, terminology has arisen. The scientific opposition of the term to a non-term occurs when a concept has a scientific definition. Thus, scientific thought becomes the reason for the appearance its most important term component in science.
Philosopher PA Florensky wrote that with the help of scientific speech created from everyday language we master the subject of knowledge. The science essence is in terminology dispensation. Any science is a system of terms [5; 359]. For the philosopher, the term was a word of words describing the term, they used such definitions as «pressed», «essential», «concentrated», «synthetic». The cognitive nature of the term reveals the essence, qualities, relationships which are common not only with certain phenomena types, but with all universal being . This knowledge is expressed in universal human thinking forms such as concepts, terms. They are the result of the world knowledge.
Literature review devoted to the terminology study suggests that the terminology emergence and development began long before its scientific understanding and criteria development for attributing certain units to terminological vocabulary.
So, it is well known that the categories of modern pedagogy, as a rule, include the following:
The broadest of these concepts is socialization, which includes a diverse and multi-level process of changing and shaping one's physical and mental state under the influence of the surrounding social environment inevitably experienced by each person. It should be noted that initially this process of involving a person to accumulated social values was to some extent spontaneous was unregulated. To a significant extent, it is going to be the same in modern society, which is confirmed by the preservation even in developed countries significant groups of people with certain forms of deviant behavior contrasting from social norms in the form of crime, alcoholism, drug addiction, etc. However, in a developed civilized society the process of socialization is becoming more and more orderly, organized and controlled. The main role in this process is played by the educational structure, because education is formed orderly, purposeful configuration of socialization being realized thanks to the system of specialized institutions. Note that education means not only the process of children socialization, but also a single process of people formation in all periods of their life, including secondary and higher vocational education. Moreover, in situations when this or that education result has become a «perishable product», the process of education began to include lifelong self-education, selfformation.
One of the most important educational activity components is learning which consists of the trainers and trainees joint activity in mastering a certain system of knowledge. The nature and extent of this knowledge is assigned in the current educational institutions to curricula and programs that determine both the list of disciplines studied and their content. Training is the fundamental basis of education.
Education is an interconnected process of transforming the knowledge acquired in the course of learning into stable forms of activity and behavior, skills and abilities. In other words, education is possible holistic only if the training is combined in it with education, i.e. if the knowledge gained in the learning process is used in reality, and do not remain unclaimed. In addition, the other units are also included in the core essential categorical pedagogy apparatus. Knowledge is the result of the facts, laws, concepts study and laws of nature and society formation. Skills are prepared for practical and theoretical reality, carried out with its pace and accuracy at a conscious level of learning and experience.
Under the skills we imply activities driven to automatism, performed without special stress from the position of will and conscious self-control; stacked by multiple repetition.
Education is the process of mastering knowledge and skills formed by humanity; upbringing on this basis of a whole worldview, abilities for cognition, behavior and consciousness.
Under the pedagogical process we mean consciously-organized focus and planned interaction between the teacher and students in order to bring up and teach students.
We take into consideration the following additional categories:
In the process of formation the consecutive and regular mental and biological changes arising in a person (motor process, change, striving for the latter) take place.
Formation is a change in individual education and certain qualities that occur under the influence of natural and social, external and internal, objective and subjective aggregates.
When we say the environment we mean the unification of a person surrounding conditions and interaction with the organism and personality.
At the same time, it must indicate that all units of pedagogy apparatus category essence are closely interconnected with each other. Let us examine the definitions provided and present their consistency. The communication of certain teachers knowledge puts forward the right direction for them, at the same time organizing extremely thorough central ideological, moral, ideological, social and many other guidelines, in connection with which training has an educative character. It is perfectly understandable that every upbringing is a part of learning. Teaching - educating, educating - teaching. Zones of the concepts of «education» and «teaching» are partly overlapped. Education introduces itself in the form of educational and learning processes. The fact is that such interrelated processes do not exist without each other; hence, it appears that the terms like education, teaching and bringing up have an educational character. This view is confirmed by the relatively accurate definition of the current pedagogy, that is the human education science.
Going into these concepts their formation and various authors point of view formation from, we can come to the conclusion that these international scientific concepts are again have not established yet pedagogical categories. Analyzing these concepts, it is clearly seen that education is one of the most important, but not the only factor influencing its formation. The boundaries of «Formation» concept have not been defined yet, they maybe are too much narrow, or expand to boundless limits. Formation implies a certain completeness of the human personality, the achievement of a maturity level, sustainability. But science is gradually being formed, there are changes in various directions of life formation. Accordingly, it is difficult to say definitely what should be the goal of personality formation. There are also no defined boundaries for the application in pedagogy of the concept - formation. It is connected with constant, unceasing changes, transitions from one state to another, ascent from the simple to the complex, from the lowest to the highest.
In addition, the conceptual system of humane pedagogy actively represents the actual pedagogical concepts and terms reflecting the knowledge established in pedagogy: «education», «training», «formation», «principles of education», «principles of training», «methods», «forms organization of training and education «and others.
The following group in the conceptual system of pedagogy is represented by general scientific concepts and terms such as «hypothesis», «experiment», «result», some of which come from the general theory of systems and cybernetics: «system», «subsystem», «element», «system-forming factor», «System approach», «structure», «function», «model», «vector (education)», etc.
The third group is the terminology of related fields of directly scientific knowledge, which relatively recently entered the vocabulary of pedagogy: «synergism», «entropy», «nonlinear processes», «nonequilibrium states» (these concepts survived the relaminologization in the process of overtaking).
And, finally, the newest insights into the terminology of humane pedagogy came from the vocabulary of religion, aesthetics, theatrical, visual, and musical art: «mission», «faith», «direction», «score», etc.
It should be emphasized that the attitude towards the conceptual composition of the new pedagogy in the scientific sphere is not unambiguous.
A number of scientists express their rejection of the fact that the conceptual apparatus of modern pedagogy is enriched by the terms of related sciences and arts. The use of pedagogical vocabulary based on a figurative, allegorical, metaphorical interpretation of pedagogical phenomena is particularly objectionable. The fact that practicing teachers who describe the personality, psyche, character of a child poorly using theirown pedagogical and traditional psychological vocabulary, replacing it with arbitrary descriptions, literary metaphors and comparisons are negatively evaluated.
Another group of teachers (for example, Yu.V. Senko ), on the contrary, are of the opinion that depriving polysemy (polysemy), metaphor and uncertainty of the pedagogy language can lead to stopping its formation.
It is easy to conclude that the basis of these disagreements is not particular questions of the conceptual and terminological pedagogical theory apparatus and practice, but fundamentally different methodological approaches characterizing the systems of norms and values used in interpreting the pedagogical process.
In the questions of interpretation the conceptual basis of humane pedagogy, two positions collided:
- supporters of the logical-epistemological (scientistic, rationalistic) approach, based on the boundless scientists beliefs in science self-sufficiency, and therefore giving priority to unambiguous interpretations, accurate knowledge, on the one hand; and
- adherents of value-semantic approach, focusing on the cultural and historical background of educational activities, based on the rejection of the desire to put everything into the scheme, uniquely interpret the knowledge of the person and the pedagogical reality in general.
Therefore, in the situations of active pedagogical science formation, the emergence of new pedagogical realities, there is an expansion of the terminological pedagogy apparatus, the use of concepts in unusual meanings. The most striking sign of the new pedagogy is active penetration into its language of concepts and terms of other sciences and related fields of activity (psychology, theology, sociology, ethics, rhetoric, direction):
- «dramatization», etc.
In active pedagogical science situations and practice formation the emergence of new pedagogical realities, the expansion of humane pedagogy conceptual basis at the expense of figurative means, metaphorization and use of concepts in unusual meanings is a completely natural and natural process. The concepts and their definition in itself are not the goals of pedagogical science and practice. It is known that K.D. Ushinsky did not always use concepts with the same meaning , and F. Engels wrote: «The only real definition is the formation of the very matter essence, and this is no longer a definition» .
The study of trends in modern pedagogy conceptual apparatus formation and self-formation led to the following conclusion. To date, the installation on the connection in the pedagogical activity of rational- logical and image-emotional plans clearly manifests itself; a rigorous scientific explanation of pedagogical phenomena and their comprehension taking into account the socio-cultural traditions and personal emotional and spiritual experience of teachers; knowledge and creativity, including linguistic, as evidenced by the «re- vitalization» of pedagogy conceptual apparatus, its expansion through the figurative and artistic means, the resources of the ordinary language.
Summarizing all the above, we note that the analysis of pedagogy links with its related fields of pedagogical knowledge allows us to conclude about its features, nature and direction of scientific research. Didactic knowledge about the educational process emerged as a result of the deepening pedagogical (didactic) knowledge differentiation. Separated from general didactics, it studies the learning process, substantiates its patterns, reveals didactic relations that arise in it, etc. The fact that the educational process requires special consideration is also indicated by the fact that it is studied from different positions in such relatively new areas of pedagogical knowledge such as vocational education pedagogy, pedagogy and the methodology of vocational training. The first two disciplines include didactic knowledge about the educational process at school as an indispensable element; the methodology of vocational training conducts parallel research from the standpoint of the academic subject in vocational education.
The pedagogy of vocational education and vocational training methodology are interrelated categories based on didactic knowledge about the educational process and teaching methodology. At the same time, an important sense here is the systematic character of learning, which again brings us back to the research ofYa.A. Komensky, in whose opinion, it is necessary to bring the connections between phenomena to the comprehension of students and to organize training material in such a way that it does not seem like chaos to students, would be summarized as a few key points. In training, he believed, it is necessary to go from facts to conclusions, from examples to rules that systematize, summarize these facts and examples; go from concrete to abstract, from easy to difficult, from general to particular; first give a general idea of the object or phenomenon, then proceed to the study of its individual aspects.
According to the teachers opinion education, without no doubt, should always be feasible, and the material assimilation is strong with all new methods and training technologies.
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