The article is devoted to the methods of training, increasing interest in study, developing creative activity of students. The material will allow to develop the system of creative tasks focused on increase in the level of development of creative imagination of students of non-language faculties to reveal a complex of the pedagogical conditions promoting its effective functioning in educational process. At the present stage of one of the main tasks in training of highly qualified personnel is language training in higher education institution. In training of specialists of a high profile for the national economy, science and culture studying of Russian represents the priority direction having the specific difficulties and problems. The important part in this direction is assigned to studying of Russian which is designed to play a huge professional and communicative role. The novelty of article consists in creation of an author's system of tasks in Russian on the basis of creative works of students, a combination of elements of research activity and design training. Such classes not only motivate students to learn more, but also increase the number of learned lexical units, reduce the number of grammar mistakes.
Creativity is a creation new and fine, it resists to destruction, a banality template, it fills life with joy, excites the need for knowledge, brainwork, enters the person into the atmosphere of eternal search. On a practical training on Russian creativity of students is possible at perception of readable material, at their expressive reading, retelling, in dramatization; in writing of different types of compositions, in language games, in drawing up dictionaries, modeling of the phenomena of language .
Creative abilities of the student develop in all types of activity, significant for it, when performing the following conditions:
- – existence of interest in performance of creative tasks created at students;
- – realization of creative tasks as the major component not only classroom, but also out-of-class activity of the student [2; 24].
Creative work has to be developed in interaction of students with each other, be lived by them depending on specific conditions in interesting game and event situations.
In the modern world the student needs to be able to think, make non-standard decisions creatively. But training should not come down to storing and reproduction of standard methods of action, standard ways of the solution of tasks. The task of the teacher of Russian in non-language higher education institutions besides development of language and communicative competence in students consists in formation of creative abilities, the teacher has to create ability to operate creativity processes at the student: imagination, understanding of regularities, solution of difficult problem situations.
Interest in Russian creativity occupations help to wake at students: first, they can differ in high emotionality, secondly, improving the speech of the student, we thereby help the student with study and in other objects, thirdly, we will organize success situation.
For the solution of this task there is a set of methods and tutorials. The major role in development of the speech of students and also their creative abilities is played by creative works. There are most different types of creative works: the composition, the composition response, the review, the essay, statements, statements with composition elements, drawing up reports from the place the imagined an event, newspaper notes etc.
In this plan the most productive for development of language competence and creative abilities of students, in our opinion, are tasks on writing of small newspaper notes on an absurd and entertaining subject, thereby having applied a peculiar game element.
For a start listeners need to explain what is information note and what is the purpose writing. The student, for class period, becomes a journalist and gives material so that the reader from first lines found answers to questions: an event essence, the scene, time of the taken place event, the description of the event.
For example, for the Kazakh groups on non-language specialty «Instrument making» the note subject «Was chosen the Kazakhstan singer Aykyn was Jim Carrey's son».
Options of the notes written by students were various both in a form, and according to contents. The game situation and an ironic subject were a peculiar incentive for students and they presented variety of plots in answers . The beginning of notes students was transferred by extensive geography of conditionally taking place events. In some texts of an event were developed in the territory of Kazakhstan, in others — in the territory of the USA, etc.
For example: «In the summer of far 1981 the film studio of Shaken Aymanov invited to Kazakhstan for shooting «A magic skullcap» of the 19-year-old actor Jim Carrey young, nobody famous at that time».
«In spring when I was in New York, sitting in cafe, read the The New York Times newspaper and came across Gil Abrams's article under the name «Jim Carrey Has a Son in Central Asia».
«On October 20, on air of the Let Speak program there was the Kazakhstan singer Aykyn Tolepbergen. And there was him the hero of transfer of Andrey Malakhov in very unexpected occasion: mother of the singer made a startler that Aykyn is Jim Carrey's son».
For students of the Kazakh groups of non-language higher education institutions such practice in writing of notes becomes unexpected and productive exercise. Answering questions of a newspaper genre — that where and when occurred — students, dreaming, look for and find a set of language means, touch and apply a set of various lexical units and turns of speech. Extending note genre questions to further «why the event took place» and «as occurred» at students creative skills which find a way out in the made texts develop. For example: «One of Jim Carrey's fans found external similarity in appearance of the Hollywood star and the Kazakhstan singer and published this information on social networks. Several months later Jim Carrey noticed this post and began to collect the file on the young singer».
In another option: «Jim Carrey's hero had to defeat the villain (the shot film) and select a magic skullcap. During a scene of robbery of the bank which was removed within the walls of acting, Jim paid attention to the young employee Zhumagul».
Realization of ability to use alternately two languages along with realization of creative abilities also effectively is applied by students when performing this task. Practice of alternate communication in two languages allows students to create the next moment in the text: «The Kazakhstan censors did not miss the movie «Magic Skullcap» in a hire and threw on a regiment. And meanwhile Zhumagul — Jim Carrey's beloved — became pregnant, and the kid was born. When colleagues saw the born baby, chorus exclaimed: «Same it is obvious!» The word is «obvious» in translation into Kazakh means «айқын». And called the kid «Aykyn».
This creative task also trains students in work with the text, work on its composite structure. During the work on the subject line at authors of notes logical thinking becomes more active, the language competence at students of the Kazakh office of not language higher education institutions thereby is implemented.
Students think out unexpected outcomes of subject lines during performance of exercises: «Twelve years later, when Jim Carrey became a celebrity, the picture «Mask» suspiciously similar in a plot to the movie «Magic Skullcap» came out. «Mask» made deafening success in world film distribution. And our directors, having been indignant with such impudent plagiarism, laid out all facts to the press about that from where Americans have this scenario and told about the illegitimate son Jim Carrey».
«Having met the son, Jim Carrey suggested it to move to America. But Aykyn refused because to him it is comfortable in Kazakhstan».
«At the end of article it was written that this news — an April Fools' joke which was thought up for a raising of mood of readers».
Problem training — the system of methods and tutorials as which basis modeling of real creative process due to creation of a problem situation and management of search of a solution acts [3; 18].
Examples of tasks when studying colloquial style:
When studying colloquial style we paid attention that especially many mistakes are made in management. The following tasks were offered examinees:
• Compare texts below and specify, how they differ.
Told about arrival of the father (book) — told that the father arrived (colloquial); to be going for examination — to prepare to take examinations; the father with mother — the father and mother.
• Correct errors in the offer given below.
«Preliminary investigation assumes about deliberate acceptance of doping» (the Telecast. Sport. 15.7. 2009.).
At problem statement of new knowledge us not only what we will speak about, but also that will be done at the same time by students to a large extent worries. We induce students to vigorous cogitative activity, and we do it not only means of presentation, by means of the emotionality, but also the logic of creation of the stated material which is thought over by the system of educational problems.
Task on creation of a small handbook on Russian.
For example, drawing up by students experimental group of a small handbook in Russian in which theoretical material, exercises, texts for the analysis, the rebuses, crossword puzzles were collected, which are picked up by students from various sources, was a result of mastering partial and search methods.
In the beginning, the subject «Functional Styles of the Speech» was studied.
The choice of this subject is explained by its value for conscious understanding by students of linguistic communications and distinctions of styles of Russian, for purposeful formation at their linguistic competences. It puts students in a need situation to accurately open and define the internal reasons (or others) communications, for example, between the facts and the phenomena of lexical and syntactic features of styles.
We suggested students to call as much as possible genres of language. Students extracted material independently.
Students called stories, novels, short stories, messages and album poems, sonnets and stanzas, epigrams and anthological verses, bylinas and fairy tales. In total 22 genres turned out. Not each of them is mentioned in all textbooks, 7–8 genres usually are considered. When the source of knowledge and a way of their receiving was clear, difficult concepts did not seem such difficult any more.
Drawing up textbooks by students was a product of creative activity of group of students, result of their partial and search work conducted independently with assistance of the researcher. In a year again come students having an opportunity to get acquainted with the textbook made by their predecessors showed unusual interest these books.
Besides such creative tasks for development of creative abilities of students well organized and systematized research of students has huge value. Educational and research activity of students is a possibility of the solution of research tasks which are personally significant for the student and at the same time promotes formation of new knowledge. In order that the student wanted to develop actively the creative abilities, he by all means needs the help of the teacher.
Research activity of students is developed both in classroom, and in out-of-class activity. The primary classroom research activity are independent activities of students for the solution of the problem tasks of occupation set by the student. Besides occupation, students can carry out research which consists in independent tasks of research character in various objects. Research independent tasks have to be supplied with accurate, clear and logical instructions for performance of the tasks formulated by the following words: Investigate …., define …, observe …, study and compare …, draw a conclusion …, describe what was seen …, compare and analyse...
Task for search of loan words.
When studying foreign-language lexicon it was offered to students to investigate materials of sports periodicals and to find out how many loan words are used in periodicals. Trainees assumed at once that it will be more anglicisms. Subsequently the assumption was confirmed.
Research was carried out both to school hours, and in the course of independent work, a significant amount of words was found, their interpretation is given.
So, for example, in work of the student Karina Abdulova, the following words were presented: the provider, kidnapping, exclusive, the teenager, the speaker, the speech writer, tolling, the skinhead, the sponsor, the press attache, the drive, the timer, the producer to lobby, derby, an online discussion, etc.
When the student suggested fellow students to explain word meanings, students could comment not each word. Only after work with the dictionary of foreign words, penetrating into sense of the dictionary entry, trainees understood a new word, sometimes it was even possible to remember sounding and writing of a word in English.
In work of the student data that from 20 to 60 % of foreign words occur in articles were submitted.
One of forms of free creativity which is carried out by certain rules is a cinquain.
Rules of writing of a cinquain are as follows:
- - on the first line there is one word — a noun registers (It and is a subject of a cinquain);
- - on the second line two adjectives opening a subject of a cinquain are written;
- - on the third line there are three verbs describing the actions relating to a subject of a cinquain register;
- - on the fourth line there is the whole phrase, the offer consisting of several words is placed by means of which pupils characterize a subject in general, define the position to a subject. The popular expression, the quote, proverb or the phrase made by pupils in a context with a subject can be such offer;
- - the fifth line is a word summary which gives new interpretation of a subject, expresses the personal relation of pupils to a subject.
Making cinquain, students realize the personal abilities: intellectual, creative, figurative, etc. Correctly made cinquain has pronounced emotional coloring.
The appeal to an essay genre in practice is of great importance. This genre allows the student to learn to argue, compare, analyze, compare, to state the point of view and to defend it. That is why it is necessary to enter the essay as soon as possible to give the chance training to speak on interesting its topics, to give a scope to imagination, fancy.
The listed methods become base of self-modeling of students, and not so much technological how the personal growth, complete self-organization and synthesis of the activity and personal experience.
Creative occupations have a number of advantages as are characterized by aspiration to activity, independence; imitation of students of each other; satisfaction of needs of students for realization of vital and art impressions; a peculiar interaction in collective. Often, in ordinary consciousness creative abilities are identified with abilities to different types of art activity, with ability it is beautiful to draw, write verses, to write music. Creative activity is understood as such human activity as a result of which something new is created — be it a subject of the outside world or the creation of thinking resulting in new knowledge of the world or the feeling reflecting the new attitude towards reality.
Work on development of creative abilities of students gives the chance in time to see, make out abilities of the student, to pay attention to them and to understand that these abilities need support and development. The level of creative development of the student, the higher it working capacity is higher. The system of vocational training on development of creative abilities of students focuses them on manifestation of interest in independent intellectual activity, the need for own researches of processes and the phenomena, aspiration to substantiality of solvable tasks, persistence on achievement of intellectual abilities, the need for vigorous creative activity [4; 160].
Thus, we see that a main objective in the course of application of various creative tasks is training of students in thinking, the analysis and generalization of the language facts that in turn affects formation of language and communicative competence. During realization of the language opportunities when performing such tasks students learn to use expediently and correctly language means for expression of the thoughts.
In teaching student by means of creative tasks it is necessary to develop ability to own a word, to understand a word, to consider it in all its aspects. Students need to be put in a position of the author, researcher as often as possible and to give the chance to express the thoughts in an oral and written form, to analyze answers of other students, to take part in discussion for formation of language and communicative competences.
Creative tasks form the most important: the need for self-expression, for empathy, feeling of a word, ability to transfer and connect knowledge from different areas, to reflect over the different facts and the phenomena.
The formulation of subjects, their emotional representation is of particular importance, it is important to be surprising of students, major mood, interest in work. This aspect is very important for motivation of speech creativity. How the student will react to a task, in many respects defines its performance. Formulation by that has to answer the expected result: to multidimensional coverage of reality, manifestation of emotional and estimated judgment, i.e. to affect not only mind, but also its feelings.
Work for several years on creation of the creative environment for the purpose of development of creative abilities of students on occupations of Russian yields positive results. Proceeding from results, it is possible to draw a conclusion that systematic and purposeful work on inclusion of tasks of creative character in process of educational activity on occupations of Russian contributes to the development of creative abilities of students.
- Аleksandrova, L.A. (2005). Razvitiie lichnosti shkolnika v usloviiakh novoi obrazovatelnoi sredy [Personal development of the school student in the conditions of the new educational environment]. Obrazovaniie v sovremennoi shkole – Educational modern school, 5, 53–56 [in Russian].
- Ashevskaia, L.A. (2001). Razvitiie tvorcheskikh sposobnostei i lichnosti uchashchikhsia [Development of creative abilities and identity of pupils]. Russkii yаzуk v shkole – Russian at school, 6, 21–25. [in Russian].
- Vinokurova, N.K. (1998). Upravleniie protsessom razvitiia tvorcheskikh sposobnostei shkolnikov [Process control of development of creative abilities of school students]. Zavuch – Head teacher, 4, 18–3 [in Russian].
- Formirovaniie tvorcheskikh sposobnostei: sushchnost, usloviia, effektivnost: sbornik nauchnykh trudov (1990). [Forming of creative abilities: entity, conditions, efficiency: Collection of proceedings]. Sverdlovsk [in Russian].