In the article the features of the updated curriculum of education are presented. According to authors, the subject programs are based upon the spiral curriculum model and knowledge and concepts are revisited as learners move up through the grades. Values are covered in the State educational standard through learning objectives and tasks of education. According to State educational standard the values of education are patriotism of Kazakhstan and civil responsibility, respect, solidarity, transparency, continuing education. Authors focus on a differentiated approach as an important way of teaching. The program was created taking into account the age characteristics of students. Education aims to instill in students national and common human values that will become sustainable life positions in the future.
New realities and challenges of time necessitate a systematic update of the content of secondary education, which is planned to be implemented as part of the transition to a school education model.
Today we need to move away from the traditional forms of work, where the teacher is a speaker, and students are passive listeners. How to increase the motivation of students, so that children would be interested in learning, so that the material under study was accepted by them and learned, so that they would understand how to learn.
In the context of the updated curriculum of education is primarily a revision of the model of secondary education, its structure, content, approaches and methods of learning and education. The program assessment system follows the students' achievement [1; 2].
An important principle underlying the design of the subject programme is the concept of the spiral curriculum. The spiral curriculum is predicated on cognitive theory advanced by Jerome Bruner in his «The Process of Education» (1960). He believed that even the most complex material, if properly structured and presented, can be understood by very young children.
Bruner hypothesized that human cognition progresses through three relatively discreet stages:
- enactive (learning by doing);
- iconic (learning by means of images and pictures);
- symbolic (learning by means of words or numbers).
They are used to inform the development of a spiralling curriculum. The key features of the spiral curriculum based on Bruner's work are:
- the student revisits a topic, theme or subject several times throughout their school career;
- the complexity of the topic or theme increases with each revisit;
- new learning has a relationship with old learning and is put in context with the old information.
The benefits ascribed to the spiral curriculum by its advocates are:
- the information is reinforced and solidified each time the student revisits the subject matter; the spiral curriculum also allows a logical progression from simplistic ideas to complicated ideas;
- learners are encouraged to apply the early knowledge to later course objectives.
The subject programs are based upon the spiral curriculum model, with knowledge and concepts revisited as learners move up through the grades. Learning objectives are organized into unifying strands and sub-strands in order to make clear how learning will progress [2; 203].
In schools make the transition from simple knowledge to interactive and conduct student-centered learning approach. The students develop the skills of thinking and cognition, the functional literacy of knowledge. A number of features should be noted. Values equated to learning objectives. Education not only determines the system of knowledge and skills, but also includes life values and ideals in the content of the activities. Values are covered in the State educational standard:
- in aims and tasks of education;
- in missions of schools on implementation of ideas uniting people of Kazakhstan: «Mangilik Yel», «Kazakhstan is our common home», «Kazakhstan is my Homeland». Values of the national idea «Mangilik Yel».
According to the values in State educational standard, the following is considered as guidance in the list of values: Kazakh patriotism and civil responsibility, respect, solidarity, transparency, continuing education.
They form the behavior, lifestyle, activities, in general personality. Education aims to instill in students national and common human values that will become sustainable life guidelines.
The expected results of learning and education are formulated in a wide range of skills: the ability to apply knowledge, the ability to think creatively and critically, continuing education, communication in any community, research skills, the ability to work individually and in collaboration with others through pair and group activities, responsibly solve tasks and problems.
Another feature is the trilingual education and learning.
Modern teaching methods in recent years are the methodology of integrated learning. In the practice of educational development, the question arose of an integrated approach to teaching various subjects at school.
The results of integrated learning are manifested in the development of students' creative thinking. It contributes not only to the intensification, systematization, optimization of educational and cognitive activity, but also the possession of culture: linguistic, ethical, historical, philosophical.And the type of culture determines the type of human consciousness; therefore integration is extremely relevant and necessary in modern school.All this is achieved through the implementation of interdisciplinary connections in the learning process. A foreign language is considered as an integrated discipline that makes a significant contribution to the development of professionally significant skills of students and to uncover their creative potential and enhance the culture of communication.
Students can develop the language skills and culture of other countries through learning three languages (Kazakh, Russian and English). In the English – speaking society between cultural people communication is conducted in three levels of politeness: official, neutral and familiarity. All the polite words and expressions can be classified according to stylistic features and referred to formal, neutral and familiar style of speech. Official level of civility implies a polite communication when the predominant importance of any age, gender or personal dignity and social status of the companions and their positions. Neutral level of polite communication is carried out between strangers and acquaintances among those who are not in official relations or familiarity. Familiar level of politeness characteristic of communication in the family related terms as well as between friends. Politeness in communication involves an understanding of the situation, taking into account age, gender and social status of communications partner .
It is known that one of the most urgent tasks of modern Kazakhstan education is the formation of a multilingual personality. The urgency of the problem under consideration is due to the triune language policy of our state, the need for a phased implementation of the cultural project «Trinity of Languages», improving the quality of teaching Kazakh as a state language, Russian as a language of international communication and English as a language of successful integration into the global economy.And it is precisely for this reason that the development of a particular language should be based on current world trends and cover various areas of language use in order to prepare students for life in the conditions of multilingualism and globalization, for dialogue in intercultural communication.
The principle of balance of the Kazakh (state) and Russian languages in the content of education is the need to take into account the features sociolinguistic situation of a particular region. Russian language is less active in the southern regions of the country, while in the North – has a wider scope of use .
Trilingualism today is an absolute necessity. With multilingual education, languages are simultaneously both a means and a goal of the educational process. Such an approach makes it possible to perceive languages not just as academic subjects, but as one of the conditions for obtaining direct knowledge. It should be understood that ignorance of languages can condemn the future generation to the loss of competitiveness in the labor market both outside the country and inside it.
Today, trilingualism is necessary. The knowledge of different languages allows us to perceive languages not just as academic subjects, but as one of the conditions for obtaining direct knowledge. Kazakh, Russian and foreign languages are subjects of study and at the same time an important means of communication and cognition. The time for learning the languages in the school curriculum is very limited and their practical use is very valuable, as it gives students the opportunity to show the acquired skills in other clas- ses.Students can practice trilingualism in Russian language lessons, working on texts of various genres:summary, essay, annotations. Presenting research projects, students write annotations in three languages. By learning the works of A. Kunanbayev, M. Makatayev, poetry evenings are held in three languages. By learning history and literature, students do not forget about the role of William Shakespeare in the development of English literature.
The principle of language and culture co-learning – languageteaching forms the attitude to the language not only as a means of intercultural communication, but also as a social value, as a reflection of national cultural heritage, a tool of knowledge of the surrounding reality [5; 137].
Many linguists believe that the basis of trilingual (multilingual) education should be properly structured system of teaching target (three) languages, corresponding to the real situation of scientific and methodological developmentand methodical base of the Kazakh, Russian and English languages [6, 7].
In the update of the content of educational program of communicative language teaching activities are important. There are:
- Information-Gap activities – learners practice a role-play.
- Jigsaw activity – learners piece together parts of information to complete the whole.
- Task completion activities – give a situation for brainstorming and solve.
- Information gathering activities – learners collect information and present it to the class.
- Opinion sharing activities.
- Task-completion activities: puzzles, games, map-reading.
- Project work.
- Information gathering activities: surveys, interviews, searches.
- Information-transfer activities – learners take information that is presented in one form, and present it in a different form.
- Others – make two dialogues with the given words; role plays with cue cards; find mistakes game, etc.
Language researchers and teachers use the concepts of four language skills: Listening, Speaking, Writingand Reading. They are related to each other by two parameters:
- the mode of communication: oral or written;
- the direction of communication: receiving or producing the message .
Listening as a cognitive process suggests three stages where information reaches the listener, and is then filtered through his or her short termmemory, working memory and long term memory. The first two stages are important in secondlanguage teaching and learning because in these stages listeners need to effectively use strategiesin order to recognize which information is relevant so that it can rеаch the long term memory.
Speaking is oral language. It differs from written language and requires different processes. One of the first approaches that offered a clear perspective on the learning of speaking skills wasaudiolingualism. Audiolingualism focused on the importance of input before output.
Writingshould also be taught and learnt in the cultural and social context. Learners have different needs at different stages of theirlearning and therefore teachers need to accommodate this.
Reading can be taught for effective reading strategies in order to improve their reading comprehension. Reading strategies enable learners to take responsibility for their own learning and this way solve learning problems. There are three stages of reading strategies. In the pre-reading stage, learners learn how to use pictures, titles and other clues to guess the content of the text and therefore help them read more effectively. In the while-reading stage, the text, they learn how to distinguish between important information and details, including how to increase the speed of reading and how to decode unfamiliar words. In post-reading stage, learners might be asked to reread, find certain information and summarize.
The effective learning to improve reading comprehension. The best way to understand a text is to ask yourself questions as you read it. The answers to some questions are easy to find, while the answers to others are more difficult to work out.
Understаnding studеnts is very іmportаnt to teaching. In order to plan how to teach your students or ways to present a subject in an interesting manner a teacher needs to know what motivates the students, what background the students are bringing to the classroom, as well as the students' interests. As we learned in Philosophy and Organization of the school students are changing cognitively, socially, and physically which all affect their learning. Students are also impact by their culture, neighborhood, and peers. Knowing a little of this background helps the teacher understand students and in turn can answer question, such as: «How canI help this student to learn better?» or «What in the students life can I relate this topic to so it is interesting?» Anyone can stand up and teach a class about any topic, but understanding the students completes a teacher.
Sometimes when a tеаcher leads students in a fun activity the teacher becomes more human, not just a grown up that stands in front of the class. It makes teacher more approachable. The teacher should make reflection and thinks about the possibilities and difficulties of students in learning foreign language. The students love it because they get to do something fun with their teachers, and possibly the fun subject can be reflected back to something done in the classroom. That is why in the classroom activities differentiation is important way of teaching.
The tеаcher can observe hоw the students іnterаct with еаch other. Оbservіng behаvіor is also a way to survey student's personalities. Observing how the students interact can help a teacher plan a seating chart. I bеliеvе obsеrvеd behаvіоr is also іmpоrtant to undеrstаnding studеnts. As a tеаcher, I thіnk it is important to establish a comfortable rapport with the students so they feel comfortable expressing their concеrns to me as well as pаrticipаtе in clаss. Gіvеn the abоve pоints оn the tеаching of a fоreign languаgе, the effеctive use of basic skіlls like speaking, listening, writing and reading are very important. They are divided into two groups: rеceptіve (reading and listening) and productіve (writing and speaking) skills. Therefore, the teacher can cоvеr writing, speaking and listening through rеаding with the help of grаphic orgаnizers. Graphic organizers, done while reading, provide students with a reference for thinking and writing about reading. When students are asked questions about the text, they cаn rеfеr to thеir organizеrs. Organizеrs hold students' thіnkіng and help them rеcаll information, thoughts and questions they had while reading. Graphic оrganizеrs aid students in the writing process as thеy plan, support and record ideas and processes. This format of jobs used to represеntinfоrmationvisuаlly, show relationships betwееn ideas and help students think critically.
The main points in a growing range of short, simple texts are used in the process of teaching and learning. Independent understanding of a specific information and detail in short, simple texts, the detail of an argument, include some extended texts. Students use independent reading of short simple fiction and nonfiction texts. They deduce the meaning from context. According to the text, learners notice to the attitude or opinion of the writer to give main point of the topic [1; 3].
Comprehension means understanding what is read. Questioning:
- Questions based on a section of the text;
- Clarifying: resolves confusion about words, phrases, concepts;
- Predicting: guess what may happen next in the story or text;
- Summarizing: identifying the gist of what has been read, sum it up. Following Figures are used to check students' comprehension. (Figure 1-3)
The effective way of teaching also «thread» rich and meaningful opportunities for speaking, listening, reading and writing skills. Throughout the teaching sequence, teachers give significant time for learners to talk together to help learners:
- to think through ideas and plan their work;
- to clarify their understanding;
- to consolidate their understanding and communicate what they have learned;
- to practise new vocabulary and turn vague impressions into phrases and sentences that someone else can understand;
- to solve problems together [1; 27, 28].
As shown above, comprehension is the goal of reading. Using different methods and tools, we are going to follow the productive outcomes. Taking into account all the possibilities, we can conclude that it is not necessary to demand thorough information from the students on passed material, but we should teach them to see the main idea and be able to decompose systematically their thoughts.
In the program the formation of students' knowledge of man, nature and society for mastering the basic skills of reading, writing, speaking and listening is included. Teacher plans the lesson to develop students' skills of searching, analyzing and interpreting information, logical presentation of their thoughts. Teacher creates the task in accordance with age possibilities of students to get positive outcome .
Students acquire the ability to work in a group and individually. As a result, at the end of the school students will obtain:
- communication and collaboration skills;
- research skills;
- work hard to achieve better results;
- respect the cultures and opinions;
- think creatively and critically;
- be socially responsible and caring;
- use information and communication tools and technologies effectively;
- be ready for lifelong learning and self-improvement.
The whole complex of activities within the framework of updated the content of education is aimed at creating an educational space conducive to the personal harmonious development.
The results of the updated content of education should be that educational achievements will have a productive character; the educational process will be characterized by the active learning of the students «gaining» knowledge in each lesson. Under these conditions, the students are responsible for their studies. The teacher is the organizer of the cognitive activity of students.
Basically, the renewed education system is a program of competence and the importance of modern education, is critical thinking, research, practice, the use of ICT, communication, individual, teamwork, functional literacy, creativity and effective teaching methods necessary for effective communication and effective implementation.
The new standard ensures the involvement of students in learning and responsibility for their future already at school by selecting subjects in high school for self-determination and pre-university preparation.
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