Verbal values of a secret language

In article the author analyzes the sphere of the use of a jargons in the speech, describing the confidential speech in Kazakh. Explains their essence and Proves existence of own feature of the use of jargons in the speech. Proves existence of the hidden sense and the classified information which met in communication of members of social little groups, having taken as a basis publications about a research about jargons in the conclusions of the Kazakh researchers and works of the Russian linguists. The authors analyzes and explains the purpose of use of jargons which occur in the works published in times of the Great Patriotic War. Thereby tells about use of the special speech in the Kazakh linguistics with the purpose to code personal information from foreign people and importance of a concept of essence of these jargons for language history. Also gives a set of examples in this article, proving use of jargons in the Kazakh fiction to open an image of the hero in the work.

Introduction. For centuries people have been tend to use a variety of conventional methods of communication or secret codes to get isolated and communicate securely.This is natural, since human society and nature is full of mystery as well the codes humans use for interaction. Therefore, we consider the natural wonders, human inner world through a secret philosophical. Consequently, a good interaction between some members of the community through the use of secret codes may be witnessed even on the state level.

Language is one of need of society which reveals secrets of activity of the people, a mirror of the life of people, past and present history of these people, culture, traditions and customs. Language which provides need of society can have different characteristics. Because, language cannot be the steady phenomenon, it develops without being interrupted, all the time.

Discussion. Till today the problem of secret communication in language was not a main objective of a research in spite of the fact that different definitions were given to secret communication in several works, ways of transfer are not analyzed, but neither groups of researchers nor certain scientists deny that this communication uses different receptions of language with the purpose to conceal, hide certain information from some persons. For example, the scientist — the linguist E.D. Suleymenova in the works shows that there is a system of word formation and the lexical structure, superiority a secret and mystery in the communication of the isolated public groups (the wandering dealers, art critics, beggars) [1; 25]. The opinion of the scientist shows a possibility of use of a peculiar speech in certain groups of society and use of this speech with the purpose to hide, conceal some information. Priyemysheva M.N. who was especially investigating secret communication in Russian once again proved use of a secret language with the purpose to conceal, hide personal from the stranger, on interpretation «A secret language — the adjusted system specific in group communication which main objective — to hide sense of communicative intentions from strangers» [2; 35]. From this opinion one can notice that the secret understanding is one of the types of communication that is used for individual purposes or among special groups. According to V.L. Schultz, T.M. Lubimova «It is a set of conventional communicative signals used by humans for communication in a community: the language of itinerant street traders and craftsmen» [3; 4]. In Kazakh there are two ways of transfer of a secret language: verbal and nonverbal values. — Save me, My God, my feet are clean — told Esentay, fussing opportunities to leave together with you. If not to read the offer «fussing opportunities to leave together with you», it would be possible to understand expression «clean feet» in a direct sense of this offer. Then, the value of expression «clean feet» is not clear. What can it mean? In scientific research use of similar expression, is shown how a slang with the purpose to hide a secret. For example, in works G. Kaliyev and Sh. Sarybayev the general definition «the special words and expressions used in not big social groups is given, on purpose it will be pleasant to these groups», «the slang is in most cases used among the noble aristocracy and society of the bourgeoisie». «Language of slang is inherent for representatives of thelower estate. The slang was appeared with the purpose to conceal the classified information and actions» [4; 8]. A. Makhmutov in the works wrote «if the slang is feature of the speech of representatives of the highest group of the dominating groups, the slang — is feature of the lower group of society. The slang appeared with the purpose to hide secret information and action from strangers, at communication. The slang differs from the general concepts used in the people, and became conditional value of little groups. Elements of slang meet also in Kazakh. For example, apzhsar — zhapsar (the thing was on a joint), yldu — zhyldu (to quickly take a thing) and others [5; 139]. And in I. Kenesbayev and T. Zhanuzakov's works such definition «By means of the norm of communication is given, «Slang» is conditional language of a certain social group, the word of a slang, and the slang — is not clear language to all people which have no lexicon and the peculiar grammatical building. It is also called slang [6; 20]. Therefore they are language which is used for the purpose of allocation of the shameful environment, the criminal world. The slang is formed on the basis of loan words from other languages. The slang is conditional language which groups people in a social status, to interests, age, specialty and shows a variation of social group in oral communication» [5; 43]. For example, a slang «fur coat» gives information on the future to threat and danger, and use of such slangs as «stepukha», «pension» is inherent in youth. In the first example, there is a secret value, «fur coat» means to speak asks value about danger and threat among robbers. This word which exchanged on slang completely lost the standard value and is used in absolutely other value. The word «grant» in the second example, it is possible to use the standard word among most of youth. The scientist D.S. Likhchev, investigated and analyzed language of thieves, gives such definition as «It is natural gift to criminalists», a slang of thieves or language of criminalists did not appear accidentally [7; 7]. Indeed, they achieved a goal, using secret, secret languages, such as slang.

Secret codes that ensure secure communication in the Kazakh language can be of various types. Because people reach understanding not only by means of different verbal codes, but also hidden actions, signs and gesturers. That is, the act of speech is accompanied by a variety of mimics, gestures and signs. For example:

-Apaskapar, sepin mepinipi kepeshipir. Mepin sepinipi zhapyksypy kopere tupursapam da sepinipin shepeshepennipin apaitkapan sopozdeperipi zhupurepegipimdipi tipilipip opetkependepei bopoldypy. About this in the encyclopedia of the Kazakh language given the definition that secret verbal codes «are a method of mutual secret speaking of the Kazakh people, one of the youth's slangs» and given this example: «Sekin makygakyn kekil [sen magan kel] (come to me)». That is, in this sentence, each word is divided into syllables, and before each divided syllable added syllables as ‘-Ki', ‘- Ki', ‘- Ki', ‘- Ki', it causes confusion in society [8; 36]. This method in everyday life is rather common as a means of communication between users, not only for entertainment, but also for delivering a secret message from others. During the study, we noticed that such techniques could be found in other languages as well. For example, Several Russian correspondents-scientists state: «It differs from other conventional languages by the presence of most common words. Traditionally words are divided into syllables and the same masking element is affiliated, for example: ‘-fer' (voferdafer — voda [water])» [9; 22]. Types of syllables can vary in languages. In this regard the ethnographer E.R. Romanov says: «Most of the concepts were expressed by a means of most common Belarusian words by adding specific inserts, prefixes: ‘-ku', [10; 12]. His opinion clarifies the confidentiality of the verbal codes. Several researchers share a similar opinion in the works: «The most common and most relatively old language demonstrate ‘kher' affiliation between each syllable of a word spelled, and the secret syllable is also attached to the beginning, and sometimes to the end of the word» [11; 234]. One can see conversations characterized by adding syllables between sounds.

Therefore, the secret codes are special words used by the Kazakh people for mutual understanding, one of the youth's slangs. Thus, in order to preserve the intimacy of conversation, the interlocutors by adding extra sounds between syllables in a word carried out their private talk. Young people choose extremely familiar codes for communication. For the addressee who fails to find the code key, this does not function as a means of communication.

The novel, by the classic of Kazakh literature G. Musrepov «Oyangan olke [Awakened Land]», demonstrates well the existence of secret communication among young people like Nazykesh and Seyit and serves as a social discord in the Kazakh steppe of the last century.

 Nafa-zyfy-kefesh, mefen sefe-nifin tifi-lifin-difi-defe afa-lafa-safan kefe-lefe-zhafat-kafan kufyl- kyfyn safa-ryfy-nyfy kyfy-myfyz-bifit-tifi defep kafai-tafar-shyfy, — said Seyit.

 Ofe-tifi-rifik afait defei-sifiz befe! — said Nazykesh.

 Ofe-tifi-rifik efe-mefes afal-dafai safal.

 Afal-dafau mefen ofe-tifi-rifik efe-gifiz-defe-mefei-tifin-befe-efe-difi.

 Ofo-syfy-nyfyn safa-gafan kofa-zhafaiyfynsyfy-gafa-nyfy-nafa zhyfy-nyfym kefe-lefe-difi!

 Kyfy-myfyz nefe-gefe zhyfy-lyfyp kefet-kefen. Safa-pyfyr-safan-shyfy defe-gefen dafau-syfyn efes- tifi-gefen-defe kafai-dafa kafa-shafa-ryfym-dyfy bifi-lefe afal-mafai kefe-tefem.

Let draw some attention to what Seyit and Nazykesh hidden from outsiders by adding between each letter and such syllables as ‘fa, ‘fe'. It was just said:

 Nazykesh, if you want me to be obedient to you, chase away sary who is coming, by saying that koumiss is over...

 You want me tell a lie?

 Not lie. Just cheat, — said Seyit in jest.

 How does it say, cheating and lying are twins? — said Nazykesh.

 I'm angry that he tries to rule you.

 Why does koumiss get cold?

 Are you afraid?

 No, I do not want to hear.

In this passage, why did Nazikesh and Seyit use the verbal codes? Certainly, the purpose of this appeared from the desire to hide their intentions from sary.

Debate. M. Bitiyeva in the works explains use of a slang and slang among criminals with the purpose to execute confidential, secret actions, thus: «Professional criminals of all states have the special slang and different ways of the secret intercourses (by means of sounds, conventional signs, tattoos, gestures, a mimicry, etc.) giving the chance to communicate with each other is imperceptible for people around or so that none of profane persons were able to understand them» [12; 66]. The synchronous secret of conditional slangs is very changeable. For example, fighters against crime very well know this language, and communication of the criminal with the victim of crime by means of slang, it seems very ordinary phenomenon. For this purpose, in special criminal societies, are formed special the code — words. Such words occur in movies, between criminal agents and the Soviet spies at open exchange of letters. And in such situations in order that excess suspicion did not appear or a secret was revealed, the usual standard lexical meaning of such words does not move away. The privacy of language of criminals generally is wrong, intentionally raised, and in this situation, in many respects is defined by the purpose to separate opposite groups on «personal and others'». For example, to run –means to steal. The word «run» occurs in the standard lexicon. If to tell, «let's go, we will run about», it does not mean «to run about in the fresh air», it means intention to make theft, by means of this expression.

D.S. Likhachev shows the reason of emergence and existence of slang again, thus: The copiousness of the thieves' speech — reminds fertility of fishes — the more they bear calves, the more perishes [7; 56]. That is, the slang is very not steady in word meanings. For example: the word «father» in language of thieves, means the cook in prison. Meet word meaning in communication on a market, etc. Analyzing the aforesaid, it is necessary to understand that, the slang is a secret language of criminals, and the slang is a mere verbiage used in especially figurative sense, meeting among certain groups.

In days of patriotic war secret words with confidential value which understand only ««are always on the lips similar military group that is jargons can be quite natural, it is not inherent in literary norm, but can be lexicon of oral speech. For example, «According to information of stolen language, the number of guerrillas, police officers and heads became known and to settle accounts came out of the wood in dark night», in this offer «stolen language (in the work it can sometimes be used as «to bring language», «to catch language»), that is a phrase which is used with the purpose to obtain reliable information about enemies «to catch the person». That this expression became widely used in military lexicon the academician B. Khasanov gave such exact definition: «During war, the phrase «bring language», was often used. In this value, language — the person, but not the person in a direct sense, and the soldier or the officer of the enemy, people who can give the information about the enemy» [13; 10].

Therefore, this expression often occurs in many works written about war. For example, in the story by A. Koshkarbayev «Storm», the battalion commander Tverdokhleb, says: «The lieutenant, is, probably, the first language which you caught» (71 p).

Let's review other examples: … In group, this group was called «group of small persons». This rank seemed to them reliable. Even in official orders, they were designated as «group smaller» (263). Would bedangerous to charge such difficult and dangerous investigation to «small group» (288)». In these offers, expressions «group of small persons», «small group» are known only to military leaders, is expression meaning about young wars of guerrilla structure.

My God, who could see about a rain from snakes from the sky!

 I mean about artful fascists who went down a parachute (B. Maylin). In this case «dragons», are slang too.

And in the collection of sketches of «The beauty in difficult years» about life of guerrillas, many words and expression having the secret values meet. For example: Our big operation which is called the guerrilla national team «Concert» begins. 19 aged NurganymBayseitova answered «I am Nina, Nina».

«In this case if the word «Concert» is meant as a hard and big blow towards the back of the enemy, then Nina means the confidential name given by Nurgany during fulfillment of duties in group of guerrillas» it is possible to accept such definition.

Undoubtedly, they are also not the standard actions clear to all and some jargons, having fulfilled the duties, will cease to exist in the uses. For example, «Once, we received the big order on extermination of fascist fanatics located on two-storey barracks, object «H». The lieutenant colonel MergenbayevZhomart is a commander of a regiment, Part «K», the Ukrainian front. In these offers alphabetic values «H», «K» — are temporary confidential military names. Maybe values of places «Big place», «The small place» are also temporary confidential names.

Similar names which remain confidential for some time such as different military technologies or place names, the directions, etc. will cease to exist as jargons after become known in public use.

And about youth slang in Kazakh, A. Khasenov gives short definition in the work «Linguistics», and on pages of newspapers and magazines there are no definitions about it [14; 45]. Because, in Kazakh such words in a lexical system can meet, but their distinction are not discussed. Even some linguists, researchers do not support use of these words because they negatively affect standards of the literary language, the culture of language. Nevertheless, some workers of different specialties, age-mates and people with the identical purpose, can use in communication with each other.

However, use a slang of words by many students, pupils in oral language of communication meets.

The slang of youth can be divided into two groups: rough and with a special positive.

1. Have a rest, disappear (leave), try to persuade teachers (the grade book, to persuade), to punch (to finish business), do not be a cockroach (do not butt in), a bag (the person not capable to fight), to drive (to approach), depart. For example, expression «disappear from here» sounds roughly. Asan can you pick up me?. Sounds roughly in comparison with «Can you come to me?». Expression «oh, you are suck» has more expressional meaning, than «not the capable person». «Askar, don't be a cockroach». — «Askar, do not interfere here» sounds more roughly.

  1. For example, a steshka, an antichka, the master have expressional meanings. The slang of youth is used to change names of things; if they call money as — air, cabbage, coin, time; examination is called — the gold bridge, the narrow bridge; the hostel — an arrow, the meeting place, a common fund; a finger — the hooligan homeless; candies — itch.
  2. After action: to part a subject (to talk), birdies flied (girls came), to try to persuade the teacher (to persuade to pass the exam), to pass; to beat a nail (to finish business), to chop off branches (to beat), do not lie, do not pull the wool over the eyes, do not tell anything, to lull, it is not necessary to lie. Threw — threw, to raise money — to take away from someone its money. For example: «Adeke, it seems my old bones are creaking?», «Is it going to rain?» — in this case, it is a joke.
  3. On mood: be not a star — do not pose as, air compresses (when someone is not pleasant), to burn out (to hesitate), etc.

Concluding by the above-stated examples, the youth uses a slang not only to replace names of things, but also on the expiration of time of action.

By data, among youth money has slang, such as — air, cabbage, time. They used this slang to transfer the classified information. For example:

Aisha and Saule sometimes came to the one-room apartment. At such moments Toyzhan and Kasymzhan asked each other:

 Do you have time? — asked each other. Girls did not pay attention to it, they thought this question means «Is there time to take a walk?». And actually, the meaning of the matter was known by two young guys. They for agreed with each other earlier that at the sight of girls not to ask «Do you have money?». In this example the word «time», is slang. Two guys agreed so in advance to call money and used as time.In this situation the word «time» has confidential meaning. Because, two guys were ashamed of the girlfriends whether to know about each other having money to take a walk with girls (S. Muratbekov).

Some the youth uses among themselves expression «pale», in meaning «not pleasant». This expression in particular uses by youth for this purpose that to express not a like to someone.

To communicate — to lie, do not talk nonsense — these expressions can be used in everyday life. Similar to it is slang «no doubt», means to agree, and «pick up» expression means to come. For example, to tell: «Askar, come to me» it is possible to express so «Askar, pick up». Fenya — the good person. He is a real fenya, means he is a good person. To express what a good person, instead of the word «good» use a slang «fenya».

Among youth — students, a slang about study widely uses. For example, shpor — a prompt, this is slang, it was created after reduction of the word «prompt». Similar to this «state» — means «state exam», a zarubezhka — foreign literature, «antichka» — «antique literature», the automat (home free) — to receive assessment without passing an examination, a tail — the passed examination not on time, pass «the gold bridge» — examination, «tank», «roof» is a student who has acquaintances from the above-put teachers; «stepukha», «pension», «steshka» so call a scholarship.

Conclusion. Investigating the nature of jargons, we can draw a conclusion, they are used not for formation of new words among the lower class and to use words with secret meaning among certain social groups.

 

References

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  2. Priyomysheva, M.N. (2009). Tainye i uslovnye yazyki v Rossii XIX v. [Secret and conditional languages in Russia of XIX century]. Sanit-Petersburg: Nestor Istoriia [in Russian].
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  11. Aiapova, T. (2003). Soileu ontohenezi [Ontogenesis of speech]. Almaty: Raritet [in Kazakh].
  12. Bitiyeva, M. (2009). Arho kriminalnoho mira [Slang of the criminal world]. Lingua-universum, 66–69. Nazran [in Russian].
  13. Chasanoff, B. (1998). Kazakh tili — kalkymyzdyn kalykaralyk katynas salasyndahy kaharly bolhan til [Kazakh — powerful language in the sphere of the international relations in the country]. Cultural contexts of Kazakhstan: history and modernity: Mezhdunarodnoho seminara, posviashchennoho 100-letiiu M.O. Auezova – International Seminar on the 100th anniversary of M.O. Auezov. (pp. 11–19). Almaty: NISA [in Kazakh].
  14. Khasenov, A. (1992). Til bilimine kirispe [Introduction to linguistics]. Almaty: Sanat [in Kazakh].
Year: 2019
City: Karaganda
Category: Philology