In the modern world, pedagogical practice and science solve the problem of improving language teaching methods and forms aimed at solving the problems of modernizing education, improving the quality and efficiency of vocational training. In the article, the author focuses on the question of the formation of communicative competence in language education. Communicative competences are seen as a broad term that is based not only on the structural features of language, but also includes its social, pragmatic, and contextual features. Considering that the leading methodological principle in teaching languages is the principle of communicative orientation, the authors consider it important to select and organize linguistic material, specify situations and spheres of communication. On the basis of the analysis of the educational material, the authors conclude that the content of school language education is important, focused on the development of motivation of students to learn languages and on the formation and improvement of skills of cognitive, communicative, practical and creative activity.
In the conditions of integration, which currently covers almost all spheres of public life, the requirement of language knowledge is dictated by vital necessity. It is the search for work, better living conditions, realization of their creative and intellectual abilities and skills, career growth and achievement of success in professional activity, education abroad, advanced training and many other things. Such need of life is the best motivation for learning languages, including foreign languages.
We believe that the main purpose of language teaching is to develop communication competence of students, to master language as a means of communication; to achieve communication competence at the threshold level, i.e. knowledge not only of language forms (learning vocabulary and grammar), but also belief about how to apply them for the purposes of actual communication. Perhaps the heavy learning burden for students at school does not allow to devote more time for language learning, but this issue requires, in our view, special attention. In addition, participation in other cultures and participation in cultural dialogue is considered important in the acquisition of second and other foreign languages now. This goal is achieved by creating a capacity for intercultural communication. Exactly training organized on the basis of communication tasks, communication training on the basis of modern methods and techniques that is a distinctive feature of the lesson of language, Russian language (Russian language and literature), including.
It should be noted that communication is based on the theory of speech activity. Communicative language instruction is of an activity nature, as speech communication is realized through «speech activity,» which in turn serves to solve the problems of productive human activity in conditions of «social interaction» of communicating people. Participants of communication try to solve imaginary and actual tasks of joint activity through language. The activity essence of communication-oriented language education is carried out in the context of a humanistic approach to learning. This approach creates positive conditions for dynamicand creative development of the individual in the activity. A humanist approach involves learning that is student-based. This means that teaching, or rather interacting students, is the center of cognitive activity in the lesson.
As for the definition of the concept, according to etymological studies, the development of communicative competence of students is based on the concept of «competence,» which has Latin roots and comes from «compete,» which is translated into Russian as «compliant,» I achieve, «I approach.» This concept has been applied in pedagogical literature for a long time, but increased interest in it has appeared only recently. This is obviously because modern education must meet the demands of the rapidly changing reality around us. In connection with the fact that the purpose of language education is to develop a culture of communication in the process of forming all components of foreign-language communicative competence, these competences involve the formation as purely linguistic skills (lexical, grammatical, phonetic) as their normative application in written and oral speech. The studied speech topics, texts are oriented to the creation of different types of speech activity, the development of sociocultural skills, which provides application for language as a means of communication, self-education, self-development, creativity, an instrument of interaction and cooperation in modern society.
Therefore, it is doubtless that the leading methodological principle in language learning is the principle of communicative orientation. This principle defines all components of the disciplinary-educational process by language. Consideration of language as a phenomenon of social (it provides communication of people) brings to the fore training for the communicative purpose — to learn to communicate on it using as graphic as sound code, highlighting first of all reading. The principle of communicative orientation determines the content of training — selection and organization of linguistic material, specification of situations and spheres of communication. At the same time, it is important what communicative skills are necessary to enter into communication, to carry it out in written and oral forms, and by what means it is possible to ensure mastery of the communicative function of language. According to the researcher S.D. Mukhamedzhanova, the principle of communicative orientation puts the teacher before the need for appropriate organization of training, application of different organizational forms for realization of communication. At the same time, the communicative goal of language learning is a common learning strategy [1; 1254].
It is common knowledge that the implementation of the main directions of reform in the teaching of languages implies ensuring the unity of education and education of students, their solid mastery of the basics of their native, Russian and foreign languages, and their ability to apply languages in practice. Thus once again emphasizes the practical — communicative orientation of the educational process by languages. Language curricula refer to increasing attention to moral, creative education of students; special emphasis is placed on the independent work of students in the lesson and out-of-school time, and the need to use computer technology is stressed.
As D.K. Vasichkina notes, the leading component in communicative competence is speech (communicative) skills, which are formed on the basis of country and linguistic knowledge, as well as language skills and knowledge [2; 52]. For example, in a foreign language, the minimum level of communicative competence includes the following skills:
- to communicate orally in standard situations of cultural, educational and work spheres;
- to read and understand authentic, simple texts (with understanding of the main content and with full understanding);
- orally briefly tell about yourself, environment, express opinion, retell.
- ability to write and transmit any information.
Of course, all this apply fully to both the native language and the Russian language. In the process of speech communication people use the means of language — its dictionary and grammar. This is necessary to build statements that are understandable to the addressee. However, knowledge of dictionary and grammar alone is not enough for communication in a given language to be successful. It is also important to know the condition of the use of certain language units and their combinations. This means that in addition to grammar itself, the learner must learn «situational grammar,» which requires the application of language not only in accordance with the meaning of lexical units and the rules of their combination in the sentence, but also depending on the nature of the relationship between the speaker and the addressee, the purpose of communication and other factors, the knowledge of which, together with the language knowledge itself, constitutes the communicative competence of the speaker.
According to I.F. Komkov, the use of language and its study include the actions of a person, in the process of carrying out which he develops several competences: general and communicative language. At thesame time competences mean the sum of knowledge, skills, skills and personal qualities, which allow a person to perform various actions. General competencies include competence, declarative knowledge, learning ability, skills. General competencies are not linguistic, they provide any activity, including communicative. Communicative linguistic competences include linguistic, pragmatic, sociolinguistic components and allow to carry out activities using language means.
Following the author, we list and define the following components of communicative competence:
- Sociolinguistic competence — the ability to choose and apply adequate language means and forms depending on the purpose and situation of communication, on the social roles of communication participants, that is, who is a communication partner.
- Formal or grammatical linguistic competence is the systematic knowledge of grammatical rules, phonology, and dictionary units that transform lexical units into meaningful utterances.
- Discursive competence — the ability to build holistic, logical coherent statements of different functional styles in written and oral speech on the basis of understanding of different types of texts in auditing and reading; implies selection of linguistic means depending on the type of statement.
- Cultural competence — knowledge of cultural peculiarities of the speaker of the language, their habits of traditions, standards of etiquette and behavior and ability to understand and adequately apply them in the process of communication, while remaining the bearer of another culture; formation of sociocultural competence implies integration of the individual in the system of national and world cultures [3; 38].
Communicative competence suggests that the person who has learned it is able to apply languages productively. For example, to use foreign language as a means of intercultural and inter-linguistic communication. Consequently, with the introduction of a competency approach, there is also a cultural approach that involves full interactive communication between individuals and cultures. According to E.N. Solovova, the formation of communicative competence of students is a common didactic problem. The author notes that various ways of solving the problem of creating communicative competence of students are popular in world practice [4; 10].
The content of school education is focused on the development of motivation of students to learn languages and on the formation and improvement of skills in all types of speech activities, the development of general educational skills, and the acquisition by students of experience of educational, cognitive, communicative, practical and creative activities. The main purpose of language study is to form a communicative competence, i.e. the ability and willingness to carry out interpersonal and intercultural communication with native speakers. The teacher can solve this problem most fully by developing communication competence of students according to the principle of spirality. Modern education should be conducted in such a way that students have an interest in knowledge, initiative and independence in work. During education, students should not only master the system of knowledge, skills, but also develop their abilities and creative skills. For this purpose, it is necessary that the school give a special place in such forms of classes as ensure active participation in the lesson of each student. At the same time, the teacher should organize and direct the work of the students to a greater extent. Thus, communication-oriented language training should take into account the peculiarities of real communication in reality.
Then, we consider it necessary to consider those types of competence that are directly relevant to the study of the Russian language. In this context, language competence is the practical mastery of the material of the language system. Linguistic competence includes knowledge of the basics of Russian language science, learning the conceptual base of the training course and formation of educational and linguistic skills to work with language material. Of course, the purpose of teaching Russian in the conditions of bilingualism in our state is related to the formation of communicative competence of one of the priority categories of lingvodidactics and the basic component of culture. This defines the content of Russian language education, which aims to:
- knowledge of linguistic knowledge (information competence);
- formation of ability to solve and set language tasks (competence) of problem resolution — selfmanagement;
- application of language facts in written and oral communication.
At the same time, it is important to note the functioning of the Russian language as a language of interethnic communication in close unity with civilization and world culture. In the simulation of the lesson, it is important to focus on the spiritual improvement of the students on the basis of the dialogue of cultures. The components of such model of the lesson can be real reality, represented by subject matter (drawings, photographs, illustrations); subject-verbally (teleshows, films, performances); artistic literature; educationaland popular texts of an educational nature, as well as proverbs, phraseological units, statements of popular people. The teacher should remember that the student's involvement in culture takes place not only in the study of the language, but also influenced by what he hears, sees, reads, under the influence of the speech environment in which the trainees are immersed. Of course, one of the tools that forms the developing speech environment is text. It is common knowledge that human existence, activity and communication presuppose the existence of information in the form of text. As scientists note, the turn of linguistics to the text has become a revolution in linguistics « [5; 19]. The function of the text is sense-forming, communicative and creative. Within the framework of the relevant question for linguistics about the interaction of language, speech, text, we consider legitimate the definition of A.E. Suprun that the text is a form of language existence [6; 154]. Based on the dialectic of the relationship between language and speech, many scholars follow that the text is both a speech and language phenomenon. On the one hand, «the text refers to the system of language units, i.e. to the language, and on the other — to the communicative act» [5; 25]. It is common knowledge that the main features of the text are communicative orientation, structural-sense unity, integrity, connectivity, communicative completeness, text orientation to a certain type of reader, author's intention. In addition, the following characteristics of the text are described in the scientific literature: transformed character of the text, dialogue, presence of sense wells in the text, lacuna, multidimensionality of the text, presence of subtext [5; 26]. At the same time, texts should necessarily contain material for work on grammar, educational orientation and aesthetic value. The system of tasks in Russian language classes involves the creation of a ready-made educational product: writing a reasoned essay, creative work focused on the tasks and goals of communication. As a preparatory phase, students are engaged in integrated text analysis, comparative analysis, and linguistic analysis. The definition of style, type of speech, theme, idea becomes not the goal, but only a tool for achieving a particular goal.
In the context of updating the content of education, we note that the issue of language instruction based on the text, in particular the artistic text, is very relevant. Language instruction within the framework of integrated school subjects «Russian Language and Literature,» Kazakh Language and Literature, «in our opinion, requires maximum readiness on the part of the teacher. At the same time it is meant both theoretical and methodological side of training of the specialist. The difficulty of objective analysis of artistic text is explained both by its multilevel, multi-importance, and great influence in its perception of the personality of the reader. According to N. Rubakin, «every literary work has the strongest effect on the reader, whose mental organization is the most similar to that of the author of this work» [7; 59, 60]. Consequently, communication is a focused process, where speech is one of the means, and the landmark holistic form of organization is text. From a communicative point of view, the essence of a text cannot be defined by only one language feature, because the text is a product of purposeful activity. Therefore, taking into account the focus of the text on the reader, the relevance of the communicative approach to the study of the text, in particular the communicative-activity approach in the teaching of the language (including Russian, Kazakh and English) on the basis of the text is noted. Of course, this takes into account the fact that the text reflects a certain culture, implies different interpretation.
Thus, language teaching is based on the role it plays in the life of the whole society and of each individual, as a priority means of knowing the world around it and communicating. Students need knowledge of their native language as a means of knowing their native culture, knowledge of Russian as a means of obtaining additional scientific knowledge, as a means of intercultural communication, as well as knowledge of foreign language as a means of mastering the world information flow. Russian plays a major role in modern society not only in the training of highly qualified specialists, but also in the education of their moral and spiritual development. Russian language training activates the creation of communicative competence, nurtures a language personality capable of professional and business intercultural communication, aspires to self-education and self-development, and is able to think creatively. We believe that the formation of communicative competence in language teaching, including on the basis of artistic text, provides quality education, increases the intensity of learning, develops the skills and creative skills of students, forms various competences, helps to teach students according to their needs. This confirms to some extent our analysis of didactic material of textbooks of Russian, Kazakh and English languages. At the same time, the formation of communicative competence should ensure in the future the ability to adequately build communicative goals and strategies necessary in achieving professional tasks and goals taking into account the conditions of intercultural communication, in which knowledge of sociocultural and situational contexts of native, inter-ethnic and foreign-language community is updated.
- Mukhamedzhanova, S.D. (2016). Formirovanie kommunikativnoi kompetentsii uchashchikhsia pri obuchenii anhliiskomu yazyku [Formation of communicative competence of students in English language teaching]. (No. 10, 1254–1257). Kazan: Molodoi uchenyi. moluch.ru. Retrieved from https://moluch.ru/archive/114/ [in Russian].
- Vasichkina, D.K. (2013). Inostrannyi yazyk kak sredstvo razvitiia kommunikativnoi kompetentsii [Foreign language as a means of developing communicative competence]. Pedahohicheskaia nauka i obrazovanie v Rossii i za rubezhom: rehionalnye, hlobalnye i informatsionnye aspekty — Pedagogical science and education in Russia and abroad: regional, global and information aspects, 4, 52–57 [in Russian].
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- Maslova, V.A. (2008). Sovremennye napravleniia v linhvistike [Modern Directions in Linguistics]. Moscow: Izdatelskii tsentr «Akademiia» [in Russian].
- Mechkovskaya, N.B., Norman, B.Yu., Plotnikov, B.A., & Suprun, A.E. (1983). Obshchee yazykoznanie [General Linguistics]. Minsk: Vysshaiia shkola [in Russian].
- Rubakin, N. (1977). Psikholohiia chitatelia i knihi. Kratkoe vvedenie v bibliolohicheskuiu psikholohiiu [The psychology of Reader and Book. Brief introduction to bibliological psychology]. Moscow: Kniha [in Russian].