The study of some structural parameters of the flora of chink Dongyztau (Aktobe region)

The results of the study of structural indices of the flora of vascular plants chink Dongyaztau are presented in the article. According to the classification of life forms of I.G Serebryakov, the dominant share is occupied by perennial polycarpic herbs — 124 species, or 39.5 %, on the second position there are monocarpic herbs — 123 species, or 39.1 %. Semi-wood species make up 43 species, or 13.7 %, wood forms — 21 species, or 6.7 %. A high proportion of ephemera was noted which are 28 species, or 8.9 %. According to the classification of C. Raunkiaer in the flora chink Dongyztau is dominated by therophytes — 119 species, or 37.9 %. On the second place there is a group of hemi-cryptophytes — 104 species, or 33.1 %; in third place — chameophytes (46 species, or 14.6 %); in the fourth position — cryptophytes (31 species, or 9.9 %); on the fifth — phanerophytes (14 species, or 4.5 %). The ratio of life forms of plants according to both classifications confirms the climatic conditions of the region — sharp-continental and arid climate, timed to the desert zone of Kazakhstan. There are 10 useful groups of plants: fodder — 110 species; technical — 30 species; medicinal — 48 species; melliferous — 13 species; ornamental — 33 species; food — 33 species; vitamin — 11 species; poisonous — 32 species; insecticidal — 8 species; soil-, forest- and phytomeliorative — 11 species.

Introduction

The preservation of floristic diversity in Kazakhstan is an important task of our time, as defined by the Convention on the Conservation of Biological Diversity (1994) and the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources (2010) [1, 2].

In order to implement the provisions of the Convention, it is necessary to carry out an inventory of vegetation cover, especially for little studied regions, to determine the structural elements of flora, to assess the possibility of practical use of practical-valuable species of plants [3].

The bio morphological structure or spectrum of life forms of flora reflects the nature of the plant's adaptations to a set of environmental conditions in a certain physical and geographical area. Therefore, its analysis serves as a reliable tool for understanding the environmental parameters of a variety of habitats in a particular territory.

Chink Dongyztau (Aktobe region, the Western Kazakhstan) is a unique low-level region located at the junction of Aktobe, Atyrau and Mangystau regions, and is the northern mouth of Ustyurt [4]. Earlier floristic studies on the territory of West Kazakhstan [5–11] did not cover Dongyztau, so the natural flora of this region remained not studied.

The purpose of this study is to analyze the ratio of life forms, ecological groups and economic-valuable species of plants chink Dongystau.

Methodology

The subjects of the research were vascular plants Chink Dongyztau. Identification of species composition was carried out on the basis of own field gathering of 2017–2019, previously collected herbal materials of the Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction, Mangyshlak experimental botanical garden, Botanical institute named after V.L. Komarov. Based on the results of the analysis, a list of vascular plants of the investigated territory was compiled.

Allocation of vital forms of plants was carried out on the basis of a technique, developed by I.G. Serebryakov (trees, bushes, low shrubs, semi-bushes, semi-low shrubs, long-term herbs, biennial plants, annual plants, ephemeral plants) [12, 13] and C. Raunkiaer (phanerophytes, chamephytes, hemicryptophytes, cryptophytes, therophytes) [14, 15].

Practical-valuable groups of species are identified according to the data of scientific publication [16–26].

Results and discussion

Chink Dongyaztau is located in the natural desert zone, is the northern part of Ustyurt. The territory is located in the south-western part of Aktobe region between 46º08'–46º68' st. and 56°13'–57°60' Ed. [4].

Studies have shown that 314 species of vascular plants belonging to 170 genera and 40 families grow in the area under study (Table 1).

Table 1 Taxonomic characteristics of the vascular plants of chink Dongyztau

No.

Name of taxon

Amount of families, pieces

Amount of genera, pieces

Amount of species, pieces

1

Gnetopsida

1

1

2

2

Monocots

6

23

40

3

Eudicots

34

45

272

 

Total

41

69

314

Analysis of life forms according I.G. Serebryakov is presented in Table 2.

Table 2

Life forms of vascular plants of flora of chink Dongyztau (by I.G. Serebryakov)

No.

Types of life forms

Absolute number of species, pieces

% from general composition of species

1

Woody species

21

 

Trees

1

0.3

Upright bushes

14

4.5

Lianas bushes

1

0.3

Low shrubs

5

1.6

2

Semi-wood types

43

 

Semi-shrubs

26

8.3

Semi-low shrubs

17

5.4

3

Semi-carpic herbs

124

 

Core root

39

12.4

Long root

40

12.7

Short root

3

0.9

Turfious

17

5.4

Root offspring

2

0.6

Tuber forming

7

2.2

Bulbous

6

1.9

4

Monocarpic herbs

123

 

Perennial, biennial

4

1.3

Annual long-vegetative

89

28.3

Ephemers

28

8.9

The results showed that the dominant component in life forms is perennial polycarpic herbs — 124 species (39.5 %), the second position is occupied by monocarpics, including perennial, biennial and annual — 123 species (39.1 %). Woody forms occupy 21 species (Elaeagnus angustifolia L., Spiraea hypericifolia L., Nitraria sibirica Pall., Nitraria schoberi L. and others), accounting for 6.7 % of the total flora composition of vascular plants. The bulk is occupied by shrubs; trees, as a life form of natural vegetation, are not present in the region, only 1 species — Elaeagnus angustifolia L.

A significant proportion of ephemeral species is 28 (8.9 %) (Anisanta tectorium (L.) Nevski, Ceratocephala falcata (L.) Pers., Ceratocephala testiculata (Crantz) Bess., Consolida rugulosa f. paradoxa (Bunge) Iranshahr., Alyssum desertorum Staph., Alyssum linifolium Stephan ex Willd., Alyssum stenostachyum Botsch. & Vved., Chorispora tenella (Pall.) DC., Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl, Erysimum leucanthemum (Stephan ex Willd.), and long-root plants — 40 species, or 12.7 % (Medicago falcata L., Melilotus officinalis (L.) Potus. and others).

This ratio is due to the fact that the chink Dongyaztau is located in the desert zone of Kazakhstan, characterized by acute moisture deficiency. Arid conditions allow for the successful existence of herbaceous

plants with a short spring cycle ovegetation, as well as long-spring species adapted extracting moisture from deep soil horizons. The growtof wood molds is limited by narrow ecotopes along streams, temporary watercourses, in inter-axial downsides, in places with close occurrence of groundwater.

Semi-wood forms occupy 43 species (13.7 %) — Anabasis eriopoda (Schrenk) Benth. ex Volkens., Anabasis truncata (Schrenk) BungeAtriplex cana Ledeb., Arthrophytum lehmannianum Bunge and others. This is because semi-shrubs and semi-low shrubs are typical of arid habitats, and have quite a variety of adaptations to harsh living conditions, including salted soils and sands. The studied area is characterized by the pronounced heterogeneity of the vegetation cover associated with different types of soils, edaphic versions of the desert and the neighborhood witthe steppe zone [5].

Analysis of life forms by C. Raunkiaer allowed determining the prevalence of therophytes — 119 species, which is 37.9 % of the total species composition (Table 3).

No.

Life forms

Amount of species

Total

%

1

I. Phanerophytes — Ph

14

4.5

1. Meso-phanerophytes (МP)

2

0.6

2. Micro-phanerophytes (М)

7

2.2

3. Nano-phaerophytes (N)

5

1.6

2

ІІ. Chameophytes (Ch)

46

14.6

3

ІІІ. Hemicryptophytes (Hk)

104

33.1

4

IV. Cryptophytes (Kr)

31

9.9

5

V. Therophytes (Th)

119

37.9

Table 3 Life forms of vascular plants of the chink Dongystau according to C. Raunkiaer

A rather large percentage of therophytes can be explained by the involvement of weed and ephemeral annual plants in the study flora. The prevalence of this life form testifies to the aridity of the territory [5]. The families Amaranthaceae and Brassicaceae take the leading positions in terms of the number of therophytes (Table 4).

No.

Family

Life forms, amount of species

Ph

Ch

Hk

Kr

Th

1

Amaranthaceae

4

24

39

2

Asteraceae

7

24

1

7

3

Brassicaceae

1

9

19

4

Poaceae

18

3

5

5

Fabaceae

2

1

16

1

5

6

Boraginaceae

6

2

8

Spectra of life forms (according with C. Raunkiaer) of vascular plants in the chink Dongyztau by leading families

Table 4

Among hemi-cryptophytes take the first place species from the family Asteraceae (Achillea santolinoides subsp. wilhelmsii (K. Koch) Greuter., Artemisia nitrosa Weber ex Stechm., Artemisia tomentella Trautv., Centaurea scabiosa subsp. adpressa (Ledeb.) Gugler, Centaurea squarrosa Willd., Cichorium intybus L., Cousinia astracanica (Spreng.) Tamamsch. And others); the next there are members of the family Poaceae (Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Schult., Agropyron fragile (Roth) P. Candargy., Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir., Colpodium humile (M.Bieb.) Griseb., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski. And others) and Fabaceae (Astragalus lasiophyllus Ledeb., Astragalus lehmannianus Bunge., Glycyrrhiza aspera Pall., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Medicago falcata L., Trigonella arcuata C.A. Mey., Melilotus albus Medik., Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall., Onobrychis arenaria (Kit.) DC., Pseudosophora alopecurioides (L.) Sweet.) and others).

In third place are chameophytes. In this life form group take maximum positions species of family Amaranthaceae (Anabasis aphylla L., Anabasis cretaceae Pall.ex Benge., Anabasis eriopoda (Schrenk) Benth. ex Volkens., Anabasis truncata (Schrenk) Bunge., Anabasis turkestanica Korovin ex Iijin., Anabasis salsa (C.A. Mey.) Benth. ex Volkens., Arthrophytum lehmannianum Bunge, Camphorosma lessingii Litw., Halocnemum strobilaceum (Pall.) M. Bieb., Kalidium caspicum (L.) Ung.-Sternb., Kalidium foliatum (Pall.) Moq., Suaeda microphylla Pall., Suaeda physophora Pall.).

Further, cryptophytes adapted to carry an unfavorable season and having a supply of nutrients in underground organs are dispersed. These include species from family Liliaceae (Rhinopetalum karelinii Fisch., Tulipa biflora Pall., Tulipa schrenkii Regel.), Alliaceae (Allium caspium (Pall.) Bieb., Allium iliense Regel., Allium sabulosum Stev.ex Bunge.), Asparagaceae (Asparagus breslerianus Schult. et Schult.fil, Asparagus inderiensis Blum ex Pacz., Asparagus persicus Baker and others).

Phanerophytes are the smallest group to appear in the following species: Elaeagnus angustifolia L., Spiraea hypericifolia L., Nitraria schoberi L., Nitraria sibirica Pall., Anabasis gypsicola Iljin., Haloxylon ammodendron (C.A. Mey.) Bunge ex Fenzl., Haloxylon persicum Bunge., Salsola arbuscula Pall., Atraphaxis spinosa L., Tamarix elongata Ledeb., Tamarix hispida Willd., Tamarix laxa Willd., Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb.

At the last stage we analyzed the possibilities of practical use of plants Chink Dongyaztau. We have been allocated 10 economic-valuable groups (Table 5).

Table 5 Groups of Practical useful plants on the chink Dongyztau

Practical useful group

Amount of species, pieces

% from general amount of species

Amount of genera, pieces

% from general amount of genera

Amount of families, pieces

% from general amount of families

Feed

110

35.0

69

40.5

19

47.5

Technical

30

10.0

31

18.2

15

37.5

Medical

48

15.0

46

27.0

23

57.5

Melliferous

13

4.1

13

7.6

9

22.5

Ornamental

33

11.0

30

17.6

17

42.5

Food

33

11.0

26

15.2

14

35.0

Vitamin

11

3.5

12

7.0

9

22.5

Poisonous

32

10.1

23

13.5

16

40.0

Insecticidal

8

2.5

8

4.7

7

17.5

Soil-, forest- and phytomeliorative

11

4.0

7

4.1

5

12.5

The largest number of species is suitable as feed plants is 110 species, or 35.0 % of the total species composition. These include plants such as Aeluropus littoralis (Gouan.) Parl., Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Schult., Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski., Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski., Lathyrus incurvus (Roth.) Willd., Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall., Onobrychis arenaria (Kit.) DC. and others.

The second position is taken by medicinal plants is 48 species, or 15.0 %. Among this group are: Nitraria schoberi L., Capparis spinosa L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Anabasis aphylla L., Suaeda physiophora Pall., Limonium gmelinii (Willd.) O. Kuntze, Rheum tataricum L., Nepeta pungens (Bunge) Benth., Artemisia austriaca Jacq., Cichorium intybus L. and others.

On the third place there are 2 groups — ornamental and food plants, including 33 species (11.0 %). In the fourth place is poisonous plants — 32 species (10.1 %), in the fifth is technical — 30 species (10.0 %). The remaining groups are represented by a small number of species.

Conclusion

Thus, features of structural elements of flora of vascular plants of chink Dongyztau are defined, including analysis of life forms, ecological groups and practical-used species of plants.

The ratio of life forms according to C. Raunkiaer and I.G. Serebryakov is a confirmation of the specificity of this region — sharp-continental and arid climate. Thus, the analysis of life forms by C. Raunkiaer showed the prevalence of therophytes (37.9 %) and hemi-cryptophytes (33.1 %). The share of chametophytes — 14.6 %, cryptophytes — 9.9, phanerophytes — 4.5 %. This ratio of life forms brings this territory closer to the desert flora, as the high specific gravity of therophytes is characteristic of arid zones.

According to the classification of I.G. Serebryakov in the flora of chink Dongyaztau is dominated by herbaceous plants (124 species for herbaceous poly carpics and 123 species for herbaceous mono carpics). The high proportion of herbaceous plants and ephemera indicates arid habitat conditions.

10 valuable-useful groups of plants have been separated, which of them: fodder, medicinal, decorative and food plants occupy the leading positions.

 

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Year: 2020
City: Karaganda
Category: Biology