Evaluation of successful introduction of plants from Lamiaceae familyin the conditions of the Karaganda and Zhezkazgan cities

Evaluation of the success of plant introduction is an important stage of determining the possibility of industrial cultivation of individual taxa from an economic point of species. The success of the introduction is assessed on the basis of multi-year observations based on the evaluation of a number of indicators. The purpose of this study is to analyze the success of the introduction of species from the Lamiaceae family in the conditions of the cities of Karaganda and Zhezkazgan. The article presents the results of the assessment of the success of the introduction of plants of the Lamiaceae family on the territory of the cities of Karaganda (E.A. Buketov Karaganda University) and Zhezkazgan (Zhezkazgan Botanical Garden). In the city of Karaganda, 20 species from 13 genera were analyzed, in the city of Zhezkazgan — 14 species from 9 genera. Promising groups have been identified that allow recommending plants for industrial cultivation. In the conditions of the city of Karaganda, 6 species are classified as highly perspective, 4 species are perspective, 8 species are low perspective, and 2 species are not perspective. In the city of Zhezkazgan, 2 species are highly perspective, 3 species are perspective, 4 species are low perspective, and 5 species are not perspective. Plants suitable for cultivation in the conditions of the city of Karaganda and Zhezkazgan have been identified. The obtained results can be used for production of raw materials for food, aromatic and pharmaceutical industries.

Introduction

The introduction of plants is one of the initial stages of the cultivation of plants in order to verify the possibility of their growth under certain soil and climatic conditions, as well as for industrial production of raw materials.

Usually, introductory research is carried out in botanical gardens of various levels and botanical organizations [1]. As a result of the introduction into the culture, the question arises of assessing the success of their introduction [2], that is, the isolation of objects suitable for further cultivation and practical using.

Representatives of the Lamiaceae Lindl. family today are species of flora with a fairly large content of biologically active substances (aromatic, phenolic, lipid, steroid compounds, resins, organic and mineral substances), widely used in official and folk medicine. Organs and herbs of plants of this family are raw materials for pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, technical and many other industries [3–11].

In Kazakhstan, this family is represented by 233 species, united in 45 genera [12]. Species of Lamiaceae participate in the formation of various types of plant communities, are harvested as essential and medicinal plants, are used as excellent meadow, ornamental and fodder plants [5].

Earlier, in the territory of the Karaganda region, a primary assessment of the distribution of wild species of the Lamiaceae was carried out, maps of ranges [13] were compiled; resources of some species were determined [14]. So, out of 50 identified species, 43 species were assigned to essential-oil plants, to medicines — 32 species, to honey — 47 species, to feed — 28 species, to technical — 6 species, food — 7 species, decorative — 18 species and vitamin — 5 species [15].

There is information on the introduction of certain species [16], however, the introductive potential of all representatives has not been practically investigated. Evaluation of the success of plant introduction allows you to choose the species that can be successfully grown in the conditions of the Central Kazakhstan, to be used as a source of raw materials for various industries.

Based on the above, the purpose of this study is to assess the success of the introduction of plants from the Lamiaceae family in the conditions of the Central Kazakhstan (the cities of Karaganda and Zhezkazgan).

Materials and methods

The object of the study was the collections of natural flora and medicinal plants of E.A. Karaganda Karaganda University and the Zhezkazgan Botanical Garden. The data analysis covered the period of observations of collectible plants of the Lamiaceae family from 1998 to 2018.

The success assessment of the introduction of medicinal plants was carried out according to visual observations on a 100-point scale developed by R.A. Karpisonova and supplemented by A.N. Kupriyanov (2004) [17, 18]. Such indicators as winter resistance, resistance to diseases and pests, the general state of plants, methods of reproduction in culture, the general state of plants during the growing season were evaluated.

Species with 90 to 100 points were classified as highly perspective plants for a given region; from 80 to 90 points — to perspective; from 60 to 80 points — to low perspective; below 60 points — to not perspective (Table 1).

Table 1 Evaluation of introduction success indicators based on visual observations

Parameters

Measure Evaluation Time

Points

0

5

10

15

20

Winter resistant

In spring, after growing plants

completely freeze after winter

more than 50 % of individuals freeze

30–50 % of individuals freeze out

less than 30 % of individuals freeze

plants without winter damage

Resistance to diseases and pests

During plant flowering

die due to pests or diseases influence

It is damaged annually and abundantly (more than 50 % of the sheet surface is damaged)

damage severe, but not annual

annual or nonannual non-severe damage (less than

50 % damage)

plants without damage

The general state of plants

Towards the end of the growing season

 

low-power plants that do not reach their natural size in culture

 

do not differ in size from plants in natural habitats

plants are more powerful than in nature

Methods of reproduction in culture

Towards the end of the growing season

 

grow, but do not flower or form seeds

bloom, but do not bear fruit

seed ratio small or not annual

annually bloom and form seeds

The general state of plants during the growing season

Based on the results of many years of observations

 

re-engagement in culture

artificial vegetative reproduction

natural vegetative reproduction

subsequent reproduction

Results and discussion

The points of introduction — Karaganda and Zhezkazgan differ significantly in the complex of soil- climatic conditions [19]. So, Karaganda is located in the steppe zone. The climate is continental with a temperature difference from 20 to 40 ºC. The winter period lasts from mid-late October to April. The average length of the warm season is 180–195 days; the average January temperature is –15.1 ºC (Table 2), July +20.2 ºC. Maximum positive temperatures up to +45–47 ºС, in some years there were decreases in temperatures up to +42 ºС. A stable snow cover forms in the 1st-2nd decades of November and lasts until midMarch. The depth of snow cover is from 30 to 120 cm.

Table 2 Main climatic indicators of Karaganda and Zhezkazgan

Month

Indicator

Average air temperature, ºС

Relative air humidity, %

Precipitation, mm

Karaganda

Zhezkazgan

Karaganda

Zhezkazgan

Karaganda

Zhezkazgan

January

–15.1

–16.1

60

80

14

23

February

–14.8

–14.6

80

80

14

22

March

–8.7

7.2

82

80

15

23

April

3.0

6.2

68

61

22

17

May

13.1

15.5

55

47

31

13

June

18.6

21.5

53

42

39

20

July

20.2

24.0

55

40

41

18

August

17.3

21.2

58

42

29

13

September

11.8

14.4

70

47

21

10

October

2.8

4.8

80

61

27

15

November

–6.8

–5.1

80

78

17

14

December

–13.3

–12.0

82

80

16

20

Average per year

2.3

4.3

66

62

282

208

Zhezkazgan city is located in the desert zone. The climate is sharply continental, strongly arid, temperature differences reach 50–60 ºС. The winter period lasts from early November to early March. The average January temperature is –16.1 ºС; for July is +24.0 ºC. A stable snow cover is formed in late November — early December and remains until the 1st-2nd decades of March. That is, the growing season is longer, but less precipitation.

Under the conditions of Karaganda, 20 species of plants from the Lamiaceae family [20], which belong to 13 genera, underwent an introduction test (Table 3).

Table 3 Indicators of the success of the introduction of plants of the Lamiaceae family in the conditions of Karaganda

Genus

Species

Introduction Success Rates, Points

Hyssopus L.

H.ambiguus (Trautv.) Iljin

95

H. officinalis L.

90

Lavandula L.

L.angustifolia Mill.

90

Leonurus L.

L.cardiaca L.

100

L. glaucescens Bunge

95

L.quinquelobatus Gilib.

95

Lophanthus Adans.

L.schrenkii Levin

50

Melissa L.

M.officinalis L.

80

Mentha L.

M.arvensis L.

75

M.longifolia (L.) Huds.

80

M.piperita L.

65

Nepeta L.

N.pannonica L.

85

Origanum L.

O.vulgare L.

75

Phlomoides Moench

Ph. tuberosa (L.) Moench

90

Salvia L.

S. officinalis L.

50

S. stepposa Shost.

95

Stachys L.

S. officinalis L.

80

Thymus L.

Th.marschallianus Willd.

95

Th.serpyllum L.

80

Ziziphora L.

Z. clinopodioides Lam.

90

According to the results of long-term observations, species received from 50 to 100 rating points for the success of introduction. The highest score (100 points) was for Leonurus cardiaca, the minimum (50 points) for Salvia officinalis. The last object received low scores due to extinction in winter. The remaining species practically did not suffer from winter conditions.

In general, most species received scores from 80 to 95 points, that is, they successfully grow under crop conditions, are resistant to winter conditions, pathogens and can successfully reproduce.

In the city of Zhezkazgan, 14 species from 9 genera underwent an introduction test (Table 4).

Table 4

Indicators of the success of the introduction of plants of the Lamiaceae family in the conditions of Zhezkazgan

Genus

Species

Introduction Success Rates, Points

Hyssopus L.

H. officinalis L.

90

Leonurus L.

L. glaucescens Bunge

100

Melissa L.

M. officinalis L.

55

Mentha L.

M. longifolia (L.) Huds.

80

M. piperita L.

60

Phlomoides Moench

Ph. tuberosa (L.) Moench

95

Salvia L.

S. aethiopsis L.

25

S. officinalis L.

25

S. sclarea L.

55

S. stepposa Shost.

90

Scutellaria L.

S. baicalensis Georgi

55

Stachys L.

S. betoniciflora Rupr.

90

S. officinalis L.

65

Thymus L.

Th. marschallianus Willd.

65

In desert conditions of Zhezkazgan, 5 species received low success scores, minimum (25 points) were noted for Salvia aethiopsis and S. officinalis, maximum (100 points) — Leonurus glaucescens. The current situation is explained by the fact that on the territory of the city of Zhezkazgan more severe climatic conditions are observed [19], which leads to low indicators of plant introduction.

The results showed that in the conditions of the city of Karaganda:

- 6 species are assigned to the group of highly perspective species (Hyssopus ambiguus, Leonurus glaucescensL.cardiaca, etc.);

- 4 species are assigned to perspective species (Hyssopus officinalis, Nepeta pannonica, Phlomoides tuberosa, Ziziphora clinopodioides);

- low perspective species include 8 species (Thymus serpyllum, Stachys officinalis, Mentha longifolia, M.arvensis, Origanum vulgare, etc.);

- not perspective — 2 (Lophanthus schrenkii and Salvia officinalis).

In the city of Zhezkazgan:

- 2 taxa are assigned to highly perspective species (Leonurus glaucescens and Phlomoides tuberosa);

- perspective species — 3 (Hyssopus officinalis, Salvia stepposa, Stachys betoniciflora);

- low perspective species — 4 (Mentha longifoliaMentha piperitaStachys officinalisThymus marschallianus);

- the remaining species belong to the group of not perspective — 5 taxa.

Species included in the group of highly promising and promising can be used for industrial cultivation in order to obtain raw materials.

Conclusion

Thus, according to the results of research, the results of the successful introduction of plants of the Lamiaceae family in the conditions of the Central Kazakhstan were determined; taxa that can be grown on an industrial scale were determined. The obtained results can be used to organize industrial cultivation of plants for the needs of the food, pharmaceutical and aromatic industries.

Acknowledgements

The article has been prepared as a part of complex survey of river valleys of the Karaganda region (the Central Kazakhstan) carried out within the framework of cooperation between E.A. Buketov Karaganda University and Altai State University (Barnaul).

 

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Year: 2020
City: Karaganda
Category: Biology