This article is devoted to the role of great scientist T.Kakishev's achievements who distinguished the national literature to create scientific school and his works have big value in the sphere of national scientific works. Authors try to investigate the works of great scientist and also their first aim is to research important ideas of his main works in accordance to nowadays point of view and estimating T.Kakishev's literary works. The subject of the research work can give systematic clear definitions for actual problems and authors try to analyze main problems and pay attention to their solution. Due to T.Kakishev's achievements in literary work and historical literature there are many valuable works which were integrated to literature.
In every century there are many activists who deal with actual problems of society they live in. Such kind of people are an objective historical and social need. The development of humanity depends on degree of compliance of these needs to requirements of history and dependent from socially historical care. The life and creativity of persons who worked in different areas of science and culture, policy and economy is as the example of it.
«Valorous appearances of fighters for justice and truth, peaceful life of the people always in memory and hearts of the people... The life of Tursynbek Kakishev receiver of not only creative but also vital feats of such historic figures, prominent teacher, creator, critic and writer is closely connected with the people's life of native land» said scientist with whose point of sight we agree [1; 134].
Also, as well as many social sciences the Kazakh national literary science tested a historical way of revival, development, formation and creative searches and disappointments. The path of birth and flourishing of Kazakh literature in connection with the growth of the national and social consciousness of Kazakh land the possession of critical, aesthetic, research value, the formation of the literary concept, proclaiming literary heritage and sharing the research process into stages the practical and theoretical significance of the test is important.
Criticism of literature goes hand in hand with fiction. The process of artistic development and prosperity of aesthetic aspirations interconnected despite temporary shortages. It is legal. Solving the problem about the degree of criticism which goes hand in hand with the fiction it is necessary to pay attention on subjective and objective reasons. Summing up, the aesthetic power measures by the height of fiction. The attention paid to sociological and aesthetic criticism samples must not be forgotten certain period depending on the literature covered truth of life.
Famous scientist and professor T.Kakishev sharing methods of birth and formation to specific period, during the study given the relationship of criticism and literary criticism, their development replenishing each other divides into three major periods. First period is the era of the birth of Kazakh literature criticism. The kazakh literature criticism was continued to the October revolution. Second period is the era of birth of literature science and formation of kazakh literature criticism as the genre. This process is the interval period of 1917–1937. The third period is the age of development of criticism of Kazakh literature and science in the formation of literary in 1938–1985 [2; 43]. These three periods are directly related to the history of national literature. Because literary criticism since the beginning of its formation expresses an opinion on the history of national literature and literary theoretical problems. Although systematic scientific verification of Kazakh science literature, literary theory development judgments methodological problems are complex research monographic work, we have a sufficient number of articles and works on this subject. We can see the problems of birth, methods of development of national science stories in the works of literary criticism about the history of Kazakh literature. When discussing the Kazakh national science literary scholar E.Ysmailov says, «If we return to the story we can see that there were two main periods: the first — training period of development ideologically creative principles. This period covers the era from the beginning of the revolution before the war. Second — post-war era, the era of the formation and development». In the initial period responding the life conditions science process of mastering the literary heritage and in the reason of teaching kazakh literature in schools and educational institutions became necessary writing of the first textbooks and anthologies[3; 197]. M. Auezov academician writes «The current state of Kazakh literature is entirely the result of the Great October revolution. The history of Kazakh literature and literary system came with the requirements of writing textbooks for secondary schools [4; 107].
If you look at the above said opinions despite the correctness point of view that the study of the history of literary scholarship from the Soviet era is necessary it can be seen that the historical origins before the formation of the science remains unaddressed. This facts also refers to some historical events.
At the present time when our history newly formes Eurocentric views and Marxism and Leninism teachings and Soviet ideology is directed in the wrong line the researches that could become a theory of scientific views is closely associated with a critical attitude to the problems of the history of the formation of literary science.
Everyone knows that no science is immediately formed and developed and the science gives its achievements to the world according to demands which people determine. Also Kazakh literature has traversed a long way since their first steps with understanding the work of art with a simple proposition which begins with an explaining of the spiritual and social importance, with introductions and interpretations of data and information about the history of the people, with the biographical researches.
These opinions lead to the new directions requiring to pay attention to the history of the formation, development of Kazakh literary. Everyone knows that no science can develop fully not deeply exploring the history of its origin only after investigating all features of history the science can be increased further.
Because these studies helping to achieve this good master of science, evaluating past problems and searches, opens the basic principles of research methodology and accompanies for the further development. Said above are directly related to Kazakh literature science.
The scientific systematic, complex verification of Kazakh science of literature, the process of development literary theoretic and research meanings and methodological problems is a monographic work we have articles and work devoted to this problem.
Many of the problems of birth, development techniques and literary history of the national science we can find in research works investigating literary criticism and they help with future researches.
Study of the history of literary criticism — analysis of the consistency and disagreement works of writers and scholars in literature and in the history of literature, searches and disruptions of methodological studies consisting of different directions and theory.
For the formation and development of science requires historical preconditions.
Because science as a form of social consciousness and knowledge systems in a certain stage of human society as a result of scientific research passed steps in the Renaissance. It can be called prehistoric period.
Literary scholarship should begin then when it formed the main subject of fiction. These prehistoric period must be reeceived as source of literary criticism. First professor who examined national literary processes of this period which was not accepted by Eurocentric view was T.Kakishev.
The current criticism of Kazakh literature and literary criticism obliges to disassemble idea, thought, aesthetic significance and the edification of each art work. Since the formation of literary criticism questions related not only to the creative challenges of social policy but it is impossible to miss this point in the history of literary criticism. Sociological and aesthetic criticism depends on the degree of ascension of the fiction.
Prerevolutionary Eurocentric view did not recognize the critical and aesthetic, scientific, literary and theoretical thoughts and opinions which were the source of wrong decisions of 40s and literary classes and principles were particularly exalted. For example, «In the cultural history of the Kazakh people still short history of literary criticism. This — young scientist. This science divided into sectors such as «Literary Criti- cism», «Theory of Kazakh literature», «History of Kazakh literature» and just developing study. When Kazakh literature was formed, the first beginnings and current achievements in the full sense was a victory of the Socialist Revolution. Before the October Revolution, we did not have any productive heritage» [3; 55], — such thoughts were barriers in the history of Kazakh literature and criticism.
To destroy such opinions is not easy. T.Kakishev professor was one of the first who worked on similar scientific research directions in the period when the Soviet ideology was considered one honest word as Nazism.
During the review process of artistic development and criticism of aesthetic opinions scientist draws attention to the problems of scientific research, literary and theoretical nature, and speaks about the research in the field of national science.
Professor T.Kakishev «He was a great reward for the Kazakh literature by his methodologies and instructions, research papers compiling anthologies» [4; 64].
T.Kakishev's research on the Kazakh literary criticism requires special attention. It must be emphasized that one of the three components of the Kazakh literary criticism, formerly known as literary criticism T.Kakishev who was created the genre of science in the new history. If we look at the scientist's research in that area, we will witness the great scientific courage. Literary criticism is the most difficult field of literary criticism. As a result, the monographs «Critical trip» (1971), «The only family» (1982) were created. In 1994 the textbook «History of Kazakh literature criticism» was published.
Where there is a population, there will be literature derived from the spiritual need of the nation. Art and literature develop according to the nature of beauty, elegance, beauty, artistry, and respond to certain demands. That is the word art and criticisms come together and parallel. There is no one without it. Thus, the essence of literary criticism lies in the popular aesthetics, which has caused the art of paralyzing, which has split the beauty of the beauty into a cradle of magnificence. In particular the history of the Kazakh literary criticism has been studied in a separate section from the depths of the folk aesthetics in the «Critical trip».
The newspaper «Kazakh» was not mentioned in «The Son of Prayer» which was published in 1971. Later the gap was replaced by a considerable publication of the literary opinions in the «History of Kazakh Literature criticism» (1994). A. Baitursynov, M. Dulatov, A. Bukeikhanov, R.Maksekov and etc. works had been widely proved in his articles as a great school, new direction, high standard in the development of the Kazakh literary criticism. Thus, for the first time in his work, scientific works had been studied in the literary views of Alty Alash ancient Central Asian Association of peoples raised the problems, saddened by the absence of poverty and injustice. Also his critical materials published in the newspapers «Saryarka», «Abai» magazine, which had previously been «closed».
The development of literary criticism is directly related to the development of fiction. The Kazakh professional writing literature, which began to develop in the beginning of the twentieth century, created an objective precondition for the activation of critical thinking. Materials about the new books were published in the press. The researcher classifies them into genres-formal types, such as argumentative criticism, advertising critique, annotation, student letter, review, aitys article, publicist criticism, problematic article, review, biography, report, critical article, research article depending on their structural, content, target features.
Generally speaking, the twentieth year of T. Kakishev's literary process in the history of the Kazakh literature is quite obvious when it comes in the era of literary criticism. The social nature of the literary criticism calls for its linkage to the social and political conditions at that time. That is why literary criticism is closely linked to the political and social situation of that era. Especially it is widely mentioned literary opinions of prominent figures such as Alashorda movement, A. Bukeikhanov, A.Baitursynov, M. Dulatov, M.Zhumabayev are considered as a tribute to the development of critical thinking.
There were also reports of S.Seifullin, M.Auezov, A.Asarina, A.Beydildin, M. Kushekov, Zh.Aimauytov, G. Tugzhanov, T. Arystanbekov, D. Iskakov, Zh.Sarsenbina, K.Kemengerov, Sh.Tokzhigitov, S. Saduakasov, Y.Mustanbayev, I. Kabylov, A.Musin, H. Zhusupbekov, M. Kaipnazarov, K.Utepov, R. Ualiakhmetov and etc. The works of many critics involved in the literary process of that time were analyzed. In the midst of the stormy times, he is not only hiding the plight of the literary critics, who have lived a decent life.
The first characteristic feature of the research work of the scientist was the fact that the history of the literature and the man were indivisible. The young scientist «who is dreaming both hope and suspicion, until a pen in his hand falls on the ground» as if he had chosen his course in literary science.
Tursynbek Kakishev is a person he is not looking for cheap possessions, he has a deep study in literature. The literary region has a whole epoch which has been discovered only by its secret power and passion in the Kazakh literature. He is the commander of a literary school every day. One of the most painful researchers in the world was the history of the twentieth-century literature.
Kazakh literature in the 1920s is a very difficult period of Kazakh literature. After all, at that stage — a new era has begun in our human history. It is true that every new society will create different political forces that will be able to resist and persist when it comes to life. The twentieth anniversary is the beginning of twentieth century has been a turning point between the political parties and literary movements.
The twentieth-century literature is a golden gaze, which is constantly studying and exploring every aspect of the scientist. In this regard, «October Tree» is the main work of the scientist in this period, the teacher — E.Ismailov, the author of the book «The first epoch of the Kazakh Soviet Literature» by M. Dyusenov («The history of the Kazakh literature», volume 3, book 2), which is a contributing part of such a serious chapter as «The Sacred Visit», «The Sacred Oauen» (the school-made work in Kazakh Literature), «Red Sun», «Saken Seifullin», S.Sharipov, E.Bekenov, collection of literary heritage of Zh.Tlepbergenov greet mark and more complete search began researching on the proceedings. If you compare these full-fledged works, you will find an overview of the object «The Early Soviet Kazakh Literature», an article titled «Octo- ber Tree» — a literary method, a study of the nature and fate of streams, «The only family» — literary model of periodical literature, various portraits — («The Dawn of the Figure»), we see the twentieth-century literature through the fate of individual talents and the results of the study.
From this point of view, outstanding scientist, Doctor of Philology, Professor Tursunbek Kakishev and other scientists who study the Kazakh literature of the twentieth century will serve the interests of the present day. Tursynbek Kakishev, another scientist, who works in the difficult period of our literature, is one of the roofs. The scientist who studied various aspects of the epoch of literature in his work. For example, Professor Tursunbek Kakishev's research:
Firstly, the result is a comprehensive study.
Secondly, he made his works a scientific concept.
Thirdly, scientific works are full of archival data. It increases the relevance and scientific significance of the work.
Fourthly, Professor T. Kakishev has a great deal of scientific findings. The research works reflect the political situation, social status, literary process of the whole epoch. His works are as portraits of the epoch.
History is good or bad, it should only be judged truthfully. In the study of the history the formation of the Kazakh literary science, Professor T. Kakishev said, «Looking at the example of what we have to do is not only to learn from it, to defend the candidate's thesis, to defend his doctoral dissertation from the Soviet literature, to gain a reputation, under the banner of socialist realism, let's now openly admit the fact that we have come to the conclusion of the Kazakh literary science». This is a heartwarming opinion of T.Kakishev a simple and amazing talent.
In conclusion, we can see the huge work invested in the Kazakh literature which took most of life of researcher T.Kakishev. Because of these valuable works towards science as a special person, he was a citizen, a patriot of his people and fighter for the happy life of the people, honest, in education was an influential scholar.
- Smaġulov, Zh. (1999). Kazak adebiettanu hylymynyn tarikhy [History of Kazakh literature science]. Almaty: Kazak universiteti [in Kazakh].
- Kiikishev. T. (2003). Kazak adebieti synynyn tariky. I bolim [History of Kazakh literature. І chapter]. Almaty: Bilim [in Kazakh].
- Áýezov, M. (1991). Adebiet tarikhy [Histoet of literature]. Almaty: Ana tili [in Kazakh].
- Kikishev, T. (1995). Ker zamannyn kerehar oilary [The thoughts of ancient times]. Almaty: Atamura-Kazakstan [in Kazakh].