The article is devoted to the results of a linguistic-personal research conducted on the basis of political Internet commentaries published on Russian sites. The article considers such aspects of the topic as: Internet communication, text-derivatology, linguistic-personology. In this study, special attention is paid to the virtual linguistic persona, reconstructed on the basis of their political Internet comments which manifest the linguistic abilities in the mental and psychological aspect. Methods of comparative-contrastive, descriptive methods and the method of quantitative estimation were applied in order to study this subject, and the research is based on the text-derivative analysis of derived texts, which are considered in the formal, content and functional plans. The purpose of the study is to determine the factors of personal text generation of Russian political Internet comments in the linguistic-personalological aspect. In the proposed article, a linguistic personality is reconstructed on the basis of political internet comments which reflect her linguistic abilities. In the course of linguistic analysis, the following methods were used: linguistic description, derivatological analysis technique, sampling method. As a result of analysis of political Internet comments, the parameters of the personal factor of text generation were revealed.
Interpretation and assessment of political events is closely intertwined in the minds of an ordinary native speaker, acting as a reader of political media texts and their commentator, with everyday knowledge. The increased research interest in everyday linguopolitology is explained by the fact that society considers the importance and necessity of political decisions and statements through the prism of everyday ideas, life values, everyday practice; people's reactions become the subject of scientific reflection. However, unlike scientific knowledge, ordinary knowledge can be both true and false [1; 42].
Political discourse is a type of institutional discourse in which communicants have a certain social status. The purpose of political discourse is, first of all, the struggle for power.
To achieve the goal, politicians strive to influence their addressee using different methods of manipulating people's consciousness.
Participants in political communication are the addressee (speaker), the direct addressee (listener) and the observer addressee (people) [2; 15]. A.P. Chudinov distinguishes between three types of addressees: political like-minded people, political opponents, and «voters» (population), since political discourse is characterized by group and mass addressees [3; 75].
Political linguistics appeared at the intersection of linguistics and political science, the tasks of which are solved through language, since any political action is carried out using linguistic means. In the process of vigorous activity of mass communication, language becomes an instrument of influence and manipulation. Using a language, one can influence its carrier, use it as an instrument of categorization, as well as an understanding of political phenomena [4; 5].
One of the main features of a political language is metaphor.
Considering this concept in a cognitive aspect, E.V. Budaev and A.P. Chudinov define the metaphor as «not a linguistic phenomenon, but a mental one: the linguistic level only reflects thought processes» [3; 35]. The metaphor is one of the main tools for expressing political concepts, which allows you to influence the consciousness of the addressee, in addition, it enriches and at the same time decorates the speech of the politician, and is also a «natural way of creative thinking» [3; 122].
Another characteristic feature of political discourse is creolization. From the point of view of E.I. Sheigal, «the semiotic space of political discourse is a system of signs oriented to serving the sphere of political communication» [5; 97]. In the semiotic space of political discourse, verbal, non-verbal and mixed signs stand out. Verbal signs include words and stable phrases, precedent statements and texts (political aphorism), nonverbal signs include flags, emblems, portraits, busts, buildings, symbolic actions, symbolic personalities of politicians themselves. The mixed signs include the anthem and coat of arms [5; 98].
Today, the attention of linguists is not only the political communication of politicians or political organizations that manipulate the consciousness of the people, but also the speech activity and linguistic consciousness of unprofessional communicants who show interest in politics, reacting to political actions of state authorities and current political events in country and interpreting them, that is, ordinary linguopolitology, studying the ordinary linguistic consciousness «on the basis of ordinary political Sgiach texts and fragments of the language system» [6; 67].
The increased interest in the problem of everyday linguistic consciousness in political discourse is associated with the fact that society recognizes and is aware of politics both through everyday views obtained in everyday life (in practice) and through scientific knowledge, that is, a finished product, the result of research. However, everyday knowledge can be both true and false [7; 42].
According to E.V. Kishina, the everyday political consciousness is «spontaneously formed ideas of social groups about politics, the activities of its institutions and their representatives. As a rule, these ideas, based on everyday experience and common sense, are distinguished by superficiality, stereotype, the presence of many illusions and contradictions, and a tendency to personify political problems» [7; 42]. She also defines everyday political consciousness as a psychological reality that allows not only to understand, but also to evaluate political life in the country.
Ordinary linguistic consciousness manifests itself in the interpretation of political discourse, since it is in the comments that reflect the subjective representations of the recipients based on their life values. When perceiving and interpreting the primary political text, the addressee creates his own model of the text containing evaluative elements, with the help of which the awareness of textual information and attitude to the described political events and realities is explicated [8; 77].
Researcher A.M. Vakhovsky believes that the emergence of a communicative new means of — the Internet — has caused changes in the political and communication strategies used by participants in the political process. He considers the Internet as an environment and a means of interaction between political commentators, realizing their interests and needs [9; 15].
Researcher S.I. Agagyulova, studying the concept of «Internet» in the ordinary and professional consciousness of people, lists the characteristics of the concept that exist in everyday language consciousness: «The Internet is a source of information»; «The Internet is a means of communication»; «The Internet is en- tertainment»; «The Internet is a place»; «The Internet is a community», and it also provides an understanding of the concept of «Internet» in the professional linguistic consciousness: «The Internet is technology»; «The Internet is a way of life»; «The Internet is the place of work»; «The Internet is a source of unlimited possibilities»; «The Internet is a drug» [10; 12, 13].
One of the hallmarks of Internet communication is dialogue. If the monologue dominates in the traditional media, then the dialogue on the Internet. Any monologue message in the Internet space is potentially dialogical, since «any information posted on the World Wide Web can cause (and usually causes) dialogical reactions of Internet users» [11; 129]. Any published material becomes the subject of discussion by Internet users. They begin to actively analyze the publication based on their ideas, ask questions to the author of the message, attracting and drawing into the dialogue both the author and other communicants.
The following interpretations are given in the dictionary of T.F. Efremova: «1) explanations for the text, its interpretation, explanation; 2) explanatory notes to the text of the writings of the author; 3) reasoning, explanatory notes about smth.; 4) information material, analyzing, explaining some. events or facts of social and political life» .
Internet commentary is a statement aimed at evaluating a motivating object; it is distinguished by dynamism, conciseness, and expressiveness. V.A. Kameneva is of the opinion that «Internet comments are very expressive and contain evaluative vocabulary that allows you to clearly understand the author's attitude to the content of the incentive article» [13; 16], they clearly show the commentator's positive or negative attitude to the stated problem. M.V. Betz classifies Internet commentaries as natural written speech (term by N.B. Lebedeva), it makes it possible to create a portrait of a virtual linguistic personality, constructing an image of an ordinary linguistic picture of the world through the prism of texts of different discursive orientations [14; 6].
As a result, an object of everyday linguopolitology is the Internet commentary on a political article in the virtual space, that is, an estimated interpretation of a text on a political topic by ordinary native speakers. A written statement on the Internet is characterized by publicity, anonymity and democracy of communication, dialogue and interactivity, collectivity of authorship.
Political Internet comments are produced mainly by unprofessional interpreters, they reflect the ordinary consciousness of the authors, the level of knowledge of the political system, their language educational level, as well as national characteristics. All this is manifested in the mental and linguistic activity of commentators, embodied in text form.
So, the object of our study is the texts of Internet comments on Russian political articles, the choice of research material is due to the fact that the development of information technology in the modern world made it possible, firstly, to quickly and efficiently obtain various information, and secondly, the interaction of people in a virtual space, virtual communication on the Internet; the result was the emergence of various genres of network communication. Among them, Internet commentary on political articles that reflect the cognitive-communicative characteristics of a linguistic personality, in our case, a virtual linguistic personality, deserves special attention.
I.V. Savelieva notes that the peculiarity of manifestation in the political comments of the ordinary consciousness of ordinary native speakers is stereotype and intertextuality. «Moving from text to text, political slogans, quotes of political figures, metaphorical statements» grow «with the poly-appraisal of speech subjects, the numerous opinions and interpretations of» ordinary «native speakers, becoming an integral part of both individual and public consciousness» [15; 6].
N. D. Golev defines ordinary consciousness as «the empirical level of a person's mastering of reality in different spheres — political, legal, economic and the like» [6; 179].
O. V. Tvarzhinskaya differentiates the concepts of professional and everyday interpretation. So, if a professional interpretation is characterized by a system, then the ordinary one is spontaneous, devoid of a logical structure, and depends on the level of mastery of knowledge, well-read and individual-psychological characteristics of a person. She believes that «an unprofessional interpreter actualizes attention on individual components, highlighting particular elements — motive, theme, images, keywords, which a professional identifies, but rarely reaches broad and deep generalizations, since he does not correlate them with the corresponding scientific provisions» [16; 211].
The relevance of the study lies in the fact that the question of the relationship between man and language in the mainstream of communication, especially in text generation, comes to the fore. The text is considered as the subject (potential) of derivational functioning, where the varied strategies of the linguistic personality realize the derivational potential of the text, which are objectified in a variety of derivatives (secondary) texts.
Materials and Methods
Materials for this study were based on the texts of Russian Internet commentaries which were left to the articles of political subjects located on the information portals Gazeta.ru, Politrussia.com, Segodnya.ru. The purpose of the study is to determine the factors of personal text generation of Russian political Internet comments in the linguistic-personalogical aspect.
In the course of linguistic analysis, the following methods were used: linguistic description, derivatological analysis technique, sampling method.
The study is carried out using the methods of text-derivatological analysis of derivative texts considered in the formal, substantial and functional plans. Moreover, the text is considered as a carrier of the potential of derivational functioning, the study focuses on «the variability of the derivational potential realization of the text, which is objectified in a variety of derivatives (secondary) texts» [17; 14].
Results and Discussion
The technique of text-derivatological analysis allows us to identify the factors of text generation of political Internet comments, as well as determine the tactics used by the commentator. The results of the analysis are presented in table 1.
Parameter of associativity. This tactic is associated, first of all, with the mental-cognitive thinking of the subject, since on this basis language means are chosen to convey emotions or express intentions. In the parameter of associating text generation, the subject is related to the stated problem in that the author uses associative tactics to describe a keyword or phenomenon.
Gde je Rossiya vzyala takuyu bolshuyu shapku nevidimku_ chtob nakrit celii «buk» vsyakie vidio s transportirovkoi ustanovki po territorii DNR/LNR est _i glavnoe chto v otkritom vide bez chehla, da esche i na grajdanskom tyagache,_ a to chto kogda eta ustanovka peresekala granicu RF net ni so sputnika ni s aifo:))) Da esche pro sapogi skorohodi zabili...:))) [Where did Russia take such a large cap of invisibility to cover a whole «beech»? there are all sorts of videos with the installation across the territory of the DPR / LPR (and most importantly, in open form without a cover) and even on a civilian tractor), and the fact that when this installation crossed the border of the Russian Federation there is no satellite or iPhone!:))) Yes, even the walkers forgot about the boots]
In this commentary to the article «Krushenie bez imen» [The crash without names] from the news portal Gazeta. ru. As you can see, both textual and subjective factor of text generation is manifested. Subjectivity is reflected in the fact that the author associates a rocket that shot down an airplane with a large invisibility cap that covers an entire airplane, so he ironizes that he is not satisfied with the results of the study. He also associates the rapid disappearance of a rocket or the failure of its companions to find boots with walkers. In general, the commentator interprets the primary text, including his associative thinking, comparing it with the events from the article, which indicates a personal factor and the parameter of associativity.
Parameter of irony. Consider the commentary on the political text ««Putin_ vvedi voiska» — po dannim SMI_ liviici poprosili RF nachat voennuyu operaciyu» [«Putin enter the troops «- according to the media, the Libyans asked the Russian Federation to start a military operation»] from the news portal Politrussia.com.
A platit za banket kto bude? [And who will pay for the banquet?]. The commentator interprets the political text using a rhetorical question, thereby conveying his own ironic attitude to the event described in the source text. The author of the comment was confused by what was stated in the text: «Tripoli hochet poluchit ot Moskvi ne tolko strelkovoe orujie_ no i aviaciyu» [Tripoli wants to get from Moscow not only small arms, but also aviation]. With the help of irony, he shows that the proposed resolution of the problem is unacceptable for him, that this military operation will require costs, and their source will be funds to which the commentator is directly related. The comment is ironic, it lacks the formally meaningful components of the source text, but there is a functional complication: a subjective assessment of the event by the commentator is expressed, conveyed using ironic tactics.
- Parameter of aggressiveness. Commentators often do not understand or do not support the position of other communicants on the Internet, therefore they include insults in their statements that help to lower the authority of the interlocutor. This phenomenon can be seen in reaction to the secondary texts of one of the commentators of the political text. «Krushenie bez imen» [The crash without names] from the news portal Gazeta.ru:
S yuridicheskoi tochki zreniya — katastrofa. Ruki organizatoram referenduma nujno otorvat [From a legal point of view — a disaster. Hands of referendum organizers need to be torn off.]. It should be noted that the commentator verbalizes a pronounced negative emotional assessment, which determines the subjective potential of the secondary text. No formal or substantial components of the source text that generated the derivative were used in the commentary; this suggests that the secondary text is generated by the tactics of aggressiveness of the personal factor.
- Parameter of conjecture. The parameter of conjecture is explained by the fact that the commentator interprets the initial article, writing his own text on the basis of his own experience and information received, thereby unfolding the subject of the source text along a subjectively specified path.
Dlya vas slova «visokii reiting» i «neizmennii reiting» _ sinonimi 2. Po povodu hromaniya ekonomiki do padeniya cen na neft _ posmotrite statistiku. Daje pri visokih cenah na neft rost ekonomiki v poslednie godi _do padeniya, silno zamedlilsya. Rosla na 2_3 %_ nesmotrya na visokie ceni. Takje zamedlilis rost zarplat_ investicii i prochee. Da i voobsche_ daje esli etogo ne schitat_ ya ne dumayu_ chto mojno nazvat zdorovoi ekonomiku_ kotoraya pri padenii cen na neft letit k chertyam i valyuta... [For you, the words «high rating» and «constant rating» are synonyms? 2. Regarding the lame economy before the fall in oil prices — see the statistics. Even with high oil prices, economic growth in recent years (before the fall) has slowed significantly. Grew by 2–3 %, despite high prices. Also, the growth of salaries, investments and so on slowed down. Anyway, even if this is not taken into account, I don't think what can be called a healthy economy, which, with falling oil prices, goes to hell and the currency...]
The impetus for the production of the following text was the comment of the previous communicant. The author began to discuss the economic situation of the country about which the previous one spoke, deploying it from a different economic situation. He argues for the fall and increase in oil prices, which, in his opinion, is the main factor in economic growth. He cites digital indicators to support his case. However, in his speculation there is no connection with the primary text, he does not use keywords that convey the content of the text, nor any indirect descriptions of events. Therefore, this commentary is produced on the basis of subjective factors, using the parameter of conjecture.
As a result, using a person-centric analysis of secondary texts, we identified a number of parameters for personal text generation: associativity, irony, aggressiveness, and conjecture. These parameters reflect the linguistic-personalological potential of secondary texts, in our case, Internet commentaries to political articles.
Thus, according to the results of a linguistic analysis of political Internet comments, the following were revealed:
- personal factors of text generation of political Internet comments;
- parameters of the personal factor — associativity, irony, aggressiveness, conjecture;
- the presented conclusions of linguistic analysis are connected with the ordinary political consciousness of an ordinary native speaker, in which their life experience, images from thinking, national identity, and the level of political awareness are manifested.
Thus, in the field of studying linguists is the speech activity and linguistic consciousness of unprofessional communicants who show interest in politics, react to the actions of the authorities and current political events in the country and interpret them. Political texts posted on Internet portals or sites are currently an important source for linguistic analysis. Internet comments resemble spoken language, which is transmitted in writing in a virtual space. This is a public dialogue that realizes the intentions of both the author of the source text and the author of the commentary, the goal of the latter is to comprehend the source political text, interpret the information contained in it, and express your attitude to the problem raised.
The commentary is produced by the linguistic personality, therefore, it reflects its inherent linguistic abilities, which together constitute its mental image embodied in the secondary text — comments, that is, the linguistic-personalological factor also influences the realization of the derivational potential of the text: the individual, his intentions and linguistic abilities, since behind each commentary text there is a person belonging to a particular linguistic community, having national-cultural features, manifested in its value GOVERNMENTAL, ideological, cultural, and personal settings, which means that the specificity of the political Internet communication is, including, in particular, have lingvokulturologicheskij character.
This article was supported by a grant from the MES RK, project АР08053314 «Problem of a valuable national picture formation of the world in the context of society and the state modernization (based on the material of Kazakhstan's ordinary political discourse)», № 607, 19.08.2019
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