Nowadays, it is very important to develop skills in working with text, since the failure of students to master a particular science is often explained by their inability to work with them. They cannot isolate the basic semantic units, single out the most essential information, trace all levels of evidence, isolate the basic terms, etc. The text is, perhaps, the main educational-methodical unit of training. For the most complete and adequate use of it, the teacher needs to clearly imagine and then use the content and structural features of the text as the basis for the teacher and students to compose their own speech works in a foreign language. This article reveals the concept of text, provides a classification of the stages of working with text, provides techniques, and considers the nature, methodology and effectiveness of working with text in a foreign language lesson.
Nowadays, all areas require the use of different technologies to succeed in their work, and even an English teacher uses a variety of textbooks to achieve the effectiveness of learning a foreign language in the classroom.
Modern foreign language lessons are a complex educational work with the use of computers, Internet technologies and modern technological means. However, despite the many innovations that increase the interest and motivation of students to learn a foreign language, one of the most effective tools for teaching a foreign language today is the text, or rather, work with a well-organized text.
Some scholars consider the text to be only an oral monologue, others consider the text to be only a written speech, and a third group of scholars recognizes the text as any speech plan. Many people consider text to be structured and organized speech.
M.M. According to Bakhtin, the text is the «main truth» of all humanities and humanities and philology in general. «The text,» he wrote, «is a subject, an immediate reality, a reality of thought and experience, from which you can begin to think.» If there is no text, there isn't any object for research and thinking» [1; 287].
G.V. Kolshansky connects the definition of the text with the end of the minimum act of communication — that is, «the exchange of information or exchange of ideas between partners» [2; 10].
According to Sorokin, «text is the formation of the mind, which in linguistic literature is called the integrity of the text» [3; 62].
One of the most successful definitions of the text in modern linguistics is belongs to Halperin: «Text is a product of the writing process, taking into account the completeness of information in the form of a written document; work consisting of a theme and a number of special units (phrases) combined with various lexical, grammatical, logical, stylistic connections with a certain focus and pragmatic approach [4; 139].
It is known that learning brings great benefits to personal development. O.A. Rozov wrote: «Read- ing is a very complex process, which is characterized by conscious brain activity.» The human brain is active when reading. While reading a book (the left hemisphere works) constantly imagines different images of events in the plot (the right hemisphere works when you know). A person can not only enjoy reading, but also train and develop his brain skills [5; 141].
In addition, reading is an important part of speech activity and should be given special attention in the learning process. Psychologists and methodologists say that reading develops and enriches our speech, expands our vocabulary, teaches imagination and thinking, raises thought-provoking questions, and helps to see the problem from different angles.
Recognizing the text as a basic communicative unit and using it to understand the language in its communication expands the horizons of linguistic research according to the level of speech and thinking activity. The text looks like a «direct expression of thought», and its functional significance is determined by the role of people as a means of social interaction . A similar concept, in our opinion, is being developed by representatives of the cultural sciences. For them, the text is «an object in its semantic nature, where it meets a person elsewhere, expresses his message to the world in which he expresses himself... The purpose of the text is to allow a person to connect with others, himself and the environ- ment.» Therefore, being a proven form of the act of communication, the text assumes the presence not only of the subject of communication and its author, but also the recipient [7; 256].
This work is relevant, because any teacher sometimes has difficulty working with text materials. The purpose of this work is to consider the nature, methods of working with text in a foreign language lesson and the effectiveness of the text-based method. In this work, the following tasks are solved to achieve this goal:
- Study of theoretical approaches to working with textual information in English lessons;
- Consider the types of reading and stages of working with the text.
Text as a system of formation of various skills
Words, as you know, are the main linguistic unit of content in foreign language teaching. Text is the main language unit for teaching foreign language content. Reading is an independent form of speech that promotes the development of written communication. It plays an important role in application and accessibility, as the development of speaking and writing skills is based on reading skills.
Writing comprehension skills (reading comprehension skills) are also important, because in everyday life we often deal with different types of writing — reading books, newspapers, magazines, watching a lot of movies, Internet services, etc.
In addition, reading is closely related to listening, as the basis of both is the perceptual-cognitive activity associated with the perceptual and analytical-synthetic processes. Reading is also related to speech. Reading aloud is called «controlled speech». When it comes to reading aloud, it is inner listening and speaking at the same time.
Texts themselves are the basis of communicative tasks in teaching speech and reading. It is on the basis of these texts that important skills such as listening and writing are formed. Using the text, in addition to language materials, you can get information about the life, traditions and customs of other peoples. G.V. Rogova's Teacher's Guide to Methods of Teaching English in Secondary and High School states that «learning is the unity of content and action plans. Language-oriented education not only promotes respect for foreign culture, but also develops a sense of patriotism for their homeland» [8; 224] «During the study, students learn to navigate the text, to identify universal values and, ultimately, to gain moral satisfaction of the learning process» [9; 60-62].
Reading literacy is one of the most important competencies that characterize a person's readiness for life in modern society. «Reading competence» means a sufficient level of skills and abilities of students to use written information: search for the necessary texts, their proper selection and classification according to the given topic, their reading and interpretation, oral and written presentation. From the above, the following concepts of reading competence are «literacy» (reading, writing, counting and working with documents), «minimum literacy» (ability to read and write simple messages) and «functional literacy» (ability), i.e. use of reading and writing skills in terms of human interaction with the outside world [5; 142].
The same can be said about texts in a foreign language, as a foreign text is «the purpose and means of teaching to get acquainted with another subject area.»
Types of education
In the process of learning English, as in any other foreign language, there can be two important functions in the learning process:
- the learning process itself can be a learning goal;
- this activity can be a basis for learning other activities.
Developed reading skills — the ability to master all types of reading, depending on the goals of the reader. Authors of foreign English language methods distinguish several types and reading skills that help to solve various communicative problems related to the use of written texts:
- skimming (determination of the main theme / idea of the text);
- scanning (search for specific information in the text);
- detailed reading (deep understanding of the text not only at the level of content, but also about its meaning) [10; 35].
In order for students to work effectively in English lessons, the teacher should, if possible, use all forms of learning. In addition, the main issue here is to choose the right text. A well-chosen text stimulates students' linguistic activity as much as possible. Texts are selected on the basis of the foreign language program and the number of lexical units mastered during a certain period of study.
To successfully master the study:
- Selection of texts according to the age, life experiences and interests of students;
- Texts should be entertaining and interesting, accessible in terms of language difficulties;
- Texts should be relevant and include comments, thoughts, etc. should promote expression .
Principles of teaching reading in foreign language lessons
Reading is an active process. The student should be interested in the content of the text. Must know the words in the text, understand the arguments, express their views on the position of the author. If these conditions are not met, then in this case the reading is superficial and the read text will soon be forgotten.
Students need to be motivated. If the student is interested in the content of the text, he will learn much more than expected. The process of memorization will be more active, but it should be noted that the organization of this process should be consistent with the content of the learning material used in the learning process. It should be noted that it is a content that creates a positive motivation among students, the need to study in a foreign language [12; 14].
The teacher should encourage students to pay attention not only to the linguistic phenomena of the text, but also to its meaning. The teacher should create a comfortable environment in the classroom so that each student can respond to the message in the text and express their experiences, views and feelings.
The main factor in learning is prediction and assumptions. The teacher should prepare students to work with text materials. It is a good idea to prepare a variety of stimulating materials to work with the text. It can be a variety of images, photos, interesting headings of the text, and finally the teacher himself.
Identification of tasks and topics. When organizing work with the text, the teacher should choose the right exercises, questions and tasks for the text that will help to solve the tasks and stimulate students to read.
It is necessary to work with the text to the end. The text contains new as well as familiar, as well as various grammatical phenomena, speech patterns, theses, etc. There are many words. All this should be used as much as possible for the development of the student.
Methods of working with text
Reading, as well as speaking, writing, listening are the main types of reading and speaking activities in the teaching of foreign languages. Now the interest in reading among students has decreased, theydo not like to sit and read. Here it is very important for the teacher to create the right strategy for a fun and interesting learning process in foreign language lessons.
For this type of reading and speaking activity to become an interesting and productive basis, it is important for the teacher to teach students to work with text materials. Therefore, it is important to base your work on the following stages: (see Figure 1)
Figure 1. Reading stages 
The purpose of the pre-reading stage is to arouse and stimulate interest in working with the text; reduce language and speech difficulties; updating students' personal experience by linking school subjects with knowledge from other areas of education; predict the content of the text based on students' knowledge, life experiences, themes and pictures.
At this stage, the preparatory work for the learning process begins: acquaintance with the topic of the text, language units, and different speech patterns found in the text material. In addition, it is important to create a warm atmosphere in the classroom to arouse the interest of students, to form a positive attitude to learning. An example of the following exercises and tasks can be used at the beginning of working with text material:
- «Brainstorming» (comments on this topic);
- «Glossary» (updating and reviewing the dictionary on the topic of the text);
- Forecast / «Forecast and Impact». (Try to guess the content of the book by looking at the pictures);
- Content / «Content prediction guide» (true — false, agree — disagree, before — after);
- Answer questions before reading the text, etc.
The while-reading stage is the reading of a text or its individual parts to solve a specific communicative problem formulated in a given task. The object of learning control should be its concept (the result of action). At the same time, the control of reading comprehension should be related not only to the communicative tasks assigned to students, but also to the type of reading. At this stage, it is recommended to use different methods of obtaining information and converting the structure of the text and language material.
An important role in monitoring and managing the process of understanding the content of the text is played by the task of finding and writing the necessary information. The teacher should understand that it is not right to read the same text several times, because the content is already known. This is important only when students need additional information. The learning phase involves the use of different methods of obtaining information and changing the structure and language of textual material:
- «Reading in a circle» (Alternative reading); «Reading in pairs»;
- «Reading with a notebook;
- «Find the difference» (read the text and remember as much information as possible to find some discrepancies);
- «Performance» (play the read scenes);
- «Jigsaw» (Restore the original text and arrange the selected phrases or fragments of text).
The purpose of the post -reading period is to develop the ability of students to express their thoughts through the content of the text, both orally and in writing. Exercises at this stage should be aimed at developing the skills of the following plans: reproductive (writing lexical dictation, correct performance of the task, etc.); reproductive and productive (court decision, etc.); productive (written and oral speech, word formation, comparison of different phenomena in language, ability to draw conclusions, etc.).
Possible tasks for the post-text period:
- «Post-text questions» (assessment related to the critical analysis of the text, reflective questions);
- «Bloom Daisy» (six leaflets — six questions: simple, clear, practical, explanatory, creative, evaluative);
- Cinquain (Development of students' ability to express their creative abilities, synthesizing the basic concepts, basic ideas, knowledge acquired in what they read) ;
- «True, false, no information»;
- «Changing perspective» (Changing the text from the positions of the characters);
- «Debate» etc.
Tasks in the classroom can be divided individually, taking into account the interests and desires of students, that is, a differentiated approach in the context of joint activities, which include different types of organizational work: individual, pair, collective, group. There can be discussions, questions can be asked in case of any misunderstandings, and there can be an exchange of views on what has been read, and the level of understanding of the content of the text can be determined. Thus, the text of the lesson and the tasks that require qualified help from teachers in the classroom. You can choose simpler texts for self-study at home, or you can use the main text in this lesson to help you prepare for further reading.
At each stage of learning a foreign language it is necessary to work with the text in detail when studying any topic. Let's consider the steps in working with the text in the example of Edgar Allan Poe's story «Mael- strom» (see Figure 2):
“ADescent into the Maelstrom” by EdgarAllan Poe
- was visiting Norway when I met an old fisherman. He t∞k me up one of the mountains near the coast to show me the famous whirlpool or Maelstrom. The sea was calm when we got to the top of the mountain but then we heard a frightening sound in the distance. Suddenly the sea became rough and the whirlpool appeared, going round and round and making a louder noise than Niagara Falls. We watched it for some time and then started to go down the mountain again. Then the fisherman started to speak.
''About three years ago. something terrifying happened to me. Those six hours of terror have broken my body and soul. You think I am a very old man - but I am not. It took less than a single day to change my hair from black to white. One day in the summer, my two brothers and I were coming back from the islands, where the fishing is excellent. Our boat was full of fine fish after a good day's work. All at once the horizon was covered with a cloud and in less than a minute we were in a terrible storm. It was the worst storm I have ever seen.
An enormous wave covered our boat and I watched in horror as my younger brother fell overboard. Our boat survived and I was trying to recover when my elder brother put his mouth close to my ear. and screamed out the horrifying word “Whirlpool!” With the wind and waves, we were going in the direction of the whirlpool and nothing could save us! We soon heard the horrible noise of the whirlpool in the distance and got closer and closer to it. It may seem strange but at that moment, when we were on the very edge of the whirlpool. I felt less frightened than when we were moving towards it. We went round and round, nearer and nearer to the edge of the whirlpool.
Suddenly, we went over the edge. I said a prayer to God: I thought my life was over. But moment after moment went by and I was still alive. The boat was on the inside of the enormous whirlpool and we were going round in circles at great speed. I saw clearly that there were other objects in the whirlpool — trees, barrels, parts of ships and even pieces of furniture. Gradually, we went down and down towards the bottom. I noticed that the heavier objects went down more quickly than the smaller, lighter ones. So I tied myself to a barrel to help me float and got ready to throw myself into the water. I tried to make my brother understand but he was terrified and stayed in the heavy boat. Without waiting, I dived into the sea to try and escape.
Tm telling you this story now - so you see that I did escape. I will bring my story quickly to a conclusion. Some times after I left the boat, with my brother in it, it sank once and forever into the bottom of the whirlpool. Soon afterwards, the whirlpool grew gradually less and less violent. The sky was clear, the winds calmer and the moon was shining. I was still tied to the barrel and the waves soon carried me to an area where the other fishermen were. In the end, a boat picked me up. I was completely exhausted. The fishermen were my old companions but they did not recognize me. When I told them my story, they did not believe it. Now I have told you, and 1 cannot expect you to believe me more than the fishermen did.
Figure 2. The story of «Maelstrom» 
- (Lead-in. Speaking act.) Show the picture of Edgar Allan Poe and say his name or ask what his name is. Then ask question: «What kind of writing is he well-known for?» Students give their answers. After a little discussion tell a short biography to compare with students' assumptions. Then ask students if they know the names of any writers from their own country who are well-known for writing crime or horror stories.
Edgar Allan Poe (1809–49) is most famous for his short stories, especially crime and horror stories. Poe was an orphan and when he was young, a businessman, Richard Allan, looked after him. He left university after a year and went into the army before becoming a literary critic. After his wife died in 1847, Poe became ill and he died two years later.
Poe's first books were of poetry and he first started writing short stories to make money. He was the inventor of the modern detective story with stories like The Murders in the Rue Morgue 11841) and The Mystery of Marie Roget (1842-3). He also wrote stories about horror and fantasy such as The Pall of the House of Usher (1839) and The Cask of Amontillado (1846).
- (Pre-teaching vocabulary) Give students worksheets with definitions/meanings. The key words from the story are presented on the board: barrel, fisherman, fishing boat, horizon, wave, whirlpool, overboard, exhausted. The students match them working in pairs. After finishing, check as a whole class.
- a cylindrical container bulging out in the middle, traditionally made of wooden staves with metal hoops around them.
- a long body of water curling into an arched form and breaking on the shore.
- a small vessel propelled on water by oars, sails, or an engine.
- a rapidly rotating mass of water in a river or sea into which objects may be drawn, typically caused by the meeting of conflicting currents.
- from a ship into the water.
- the line at which the earth's surface and the sky appear to meet.
- drained of one's physical or mental resources; very tired.
a person who catches fish for a living or for sport.
- (Speaking and visual activity) Show the picture of maelstrom. Ask students to describe the picture and predict «what the story will be about» using the key words. They share opinions. Then say the title «A Descent into the Maelstrom». Explain what the «Maelstrom» means.
- (Reading and Listening) Give worksheets with sentences about the story events to order. Give students time to read through the sentences (a-j) and guess the order of events before they listen to the story. They work in pairs. Then they listen to the story; get the general idea of the story and characters and after compare/ check their predictions retelling what they've understood. If it is necessary ask more questions on details to check the understanding of the whole text.
Order these sentences.
- A wave washed his younger brother overboard but the boat survived.
- They were coming back from the fishing trip when there was a terrible storm.
- He tied himself to a barrel and dived into the water.
- The boat got closer and closer to the edge of the whirlpool.
- The writer and the fisherman saw the whirlpool from the top of the mountain.
- His elder brother disappeared into the bottom of the whirlpool.
- When some fishermen picked him up, he was exhausted.
- A fisherman and his two brothers had an excellent day's fishing.
- The boat went over the edge into the whirlpool.
The writer met the fisherman with completely white hair.
- (Reading) Students are given a text with missing paragraphs in one paper and gapped paragraphs in another worksheet (see Figure 3). Their task will be to put these paragraphs in the right place (match them with gaps) in the text. Point out that in order to fit in the missing paragraphs, students need to understand the gist of the story. They should pay attention to linkers and reference words. Give students time to read through paragraphs 1-4. Then they work individually, reading the story and fitting in the missing paragraphs. You can ask students to compare answers in pairs before checking answers. When checking answers, encourage students to explain the reasons for their choice of paragraphs.
Post -reading stage
- (Speaking act.) After divide students into two groups. Ask to answer the following questions working in groups. They should discuss whether they think the story is true and give reasons for their opinion, discuss other stories or films which are set at sea, either from real life or fiction and give answers/ share opinions as a class.
- was visiting Norway when I met an old fisherman. He took me up one of the mountains near the coast to show' me the famous Wliirlpool or Maelstrom. Hie sea w7as calm when w,e got to the top of the mountain but then w7e heard a frightening sound in the distance.
"About three years ago, something terrifying happened to me. Hiose six hours of terror have broken my body and soul. You think T am a very old man - but T am not. Tt took less than a single day to change my Iiair from black to wlιite. One day in the summer, my two brothers and I w,ere coming back from the islands, where the fishing is excellent.
An enormous wave covered our boat and I watched in horror as my younger brother fell overboard. Our boat survived and I w,as trying to recover when my elder brother put Iiis mouth close to my ear, and screamed out the horrifying w'ord "Whirlpool!” With the wind and waves, w,e w,ere going in the direction of the Wliirlpool and notlιing could save us! We soon heard the horrible noise of the Wliirlpool in the distance and got closer and closer to it. It may seem strange but at that moment, when w,e w,ere on the very edge of the Wliirlpool. I felt less frightened than when w,e w,ere moving tow7ards it. We w,ent round and round, nearer and nearer to the edge of the whirlpool.
I saw' clearly that there w,ere other objects in the w,lιirlρool - trees, barrels, parts of ships and even pieces of furniture. Gradually, w,e w'ent down and down tow'ards the bottom. I noticed that the heavier objects w,ent down more quickly than the smaller, Iigliter ones. So I tied myself to a barrel to help me float and got ready to throw' myself into the w'ater. I tried to make my brother Imderstand but he w,as terrified and stayed in the heavy boat. Witliout w'aiting, I dived into the sea to try and escape.
Our boat was frill of fine fish after a good day's w'ork. All at once the horizon wias covered witlι a cloud and in less than a minute we were in a terrible storm. It w7as the w7orst storm I Iiave ever seen.
Γm telling you this story now’ - so you see that I did escape. I will bring my story quickly to a conclusion. Some times after I left the boat, with my brother in it, it sank once and forever into the bottom of the whirlpool. Soon aflerw'ards, the whirlpool grew gradually less and less violent.
Suddenly, w,e wieιιt over the edge. I said a prayer to God: I thought my life was over. But moment after moment wieιιt by and I wias still alive. Hie boat wias on the inside of the enormous whirlpool and wie wiere going round in circles at great speed.
Suddenly the sea became rough and the whirlpool appeared, going round and round and making a louder noise than Niagara Falls. We w,atched it for some time and then started to go dow'n the Iiiormtain again. Hien the fisherman started to speak.
Hie sky w7as clear, the winds calmer and the moon w,as shining. I w,as still tied to the barrel and the w,aves soon carried me to an area where the other fishermen w,ere. In the end, a boat picked me up. I w,as completely exhausted. Hie fishermen w,ere my old companions but they did not recognize me. When I told them my story, they did not believe it. Now’ I Iiave told you, and 1 cannot expect you to believe me more than the fishermen did.
Figure 3. Task for the story «Maelstrom» 
- Do you think the story is true? Why or why not?
- What other stories or films do you know which are set at sea?
- (Written, visual and drama act.) They continue working in groups. They should present/ retell the story in a creative way. The 1st group's task is to make comics according to this story, and the 2nd group's task is to write the scenario (in a dialogue form) and act out the story (role-play).
(These tasks can be given as a home task too. Then the groups evaluate each other's work by assessment sheet with criteria. These sheets will be different because the tasks differ.)
Based on the above stated, we can say with confidence that reading texts in a foreign language, working with text materials in foreign language lessons, using many exercises, greatly contributes to the expansion of vocabulary, comprehension of unfamiliar words, grouping different parts of grammar, improving speaking skills. At the same time, the educational nature of reading cannot be ruled out: reading develops a person's culture, allows him to think about different problems and aspects of our lives. As Ray Bradbury views, «You don't have to burn books to destroy culture. It's enough to force people to stop studying». Most researchers consider modern learning technologies as a way to implement a personality-oriented approach in the classroom, where students act as active creative subjects of educational activity. Modern educational technologies include the following forms of student-centered approach: collaborative learning, project technologies, distance learning, language portfolio, tandem method, intensive teaching methods, and use of technical means. Learning technologies contribute to the development of communicative characteristics of the student's personality, enrich the knowledge on the topic and reveal the child's creative abilities, i.e. the formation of a creative environment in the learning process. It is impossible to teach a foreign language without the widespread use of various methods and tools, the purpose of which is to form the knowledge of students through a person-centered teaching method that allows to qualitatively increasing the level of cognitive interest of students.
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- Source: Compiled by the author.
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