One of the urgent, both in scientific and in public terms, problems of the recent history of Kazakhstan is the study of political repression. For the period from the 1920–1950s. Totalitarianism has firmly entered into life, has become a reality, entrenched in the consciousness of more than one generation of Soviet people. This article discusses the historiography of the scientific and creative intelligentsia of Karlag. The author has made an extensive review of the main works of Soviet and modern authors. The study showed that the history of the scientific and creative intelligentsia of Karlag was not the subject of special research in the domestic scientific literature.
The 20–50th years of the 20th century are special in the 74-year history of the USSR and Kazakhstan. During this period, the usurpation of power and the Stalinist dictatorship were in all layers of society. Totalitarianism has firmly entered into life, has turned into reality, has entrenched itself in the minds of more than one generation of Soviet people. In the conditions of a totalitarian regime, power turned out to be a supervalue of the highest-order.
One of the actual problems in domestic history is the study of the topic «the intellectuals and the camp». It is not calculated how many talents have been destroyed, and of course, we will never know how many were strangled in the embryo, who did not have an opportunity to say their word in science. We are unable to know their names. Some were exiled, shot, rotted in camps, others were poisoned by ideological inquisition, others were driven into «sharashka», the fourth ones were without pupils who got into the myriad of «ene- mies of the peoples», the fifth were fleeing to emigrate.
The system of concentration camps, created by the Soviet government, was aimed at developing poorly studied and hard-to-reach regions of the country with the help of forced labor and the exploitation of human intellect. One of the main places of concentration of scientific and creative potential was Karlag. Their contribution to science and art is still not fully disclosed, their names are mostly not known, the conditions in which they had to create and conduct scientific research seem quite vague to the modern generation.
Methodology and research methods
The theoretical and methodological basis of the research was modern ideas and concepts of historians, political scientists and other social scientists who studied the social and political problems of Soviet society. This study is based on the principles of objectivity and historicism. The application of the principle of objectivity in historiography implies the freedom of the historian from the «social order», an unbiased analysis of the available historical literature, the rejection of the role of «judge» of his predecessors, and the consideration of the national historiographic tradition. The principle of historicism made it possible to consider events and phenomena in historical science on the basis of observing the time sequence, the continuity of the change of periods and stages of its development.
When writing the article, various general scientific methods were used: methods of theoretical knowledge; general logical methods and techniques of research — analysis and synthesis, analogy, a systematic approach. Special historical methods were also used: comparative-historical, chronological, as well as the method of logical analysis and the method of periodization of the historical process.
In the historiography of the given problem, two groups of studies can be picked out: works devoted to the study of political repression, the history of the GULAG and Karaganda ITL, as well as works on the history of political repression of the scientific and creative intellectuals and researches on the intellectuals of Karlag.
The first group includes works of Soviet, foreign (West European, Russian) and domestic authors.
The first subgroup includes works of Soviet authors of the 1940s–1980s. This subgroup is the most scarce, because during the Soviet era, under the conditions of a totalitarian regime, the problem of political repression was virtually under an unofficial ban. Any attempts at interpreting the period of socialist transformation in a different way, going against the generally accepted norms, continued to be pursued.
In the classical Soviet interpretation of USSR's history, namely in the official Stalinist version, that prevailed until the mid-1950s, the phenomenon that we now call «Stalinism» was defined as «the construction of socialism». But, despite the fact that after the death of Stalin, some prisoners were rehabilitated, it was prohibited to speak about the incident in a full voice.
The situation begins to change dramatically in the end of the 1980s, connected with the Gorbachev course of «perestroika» and glasnost. Scientists for the first time tried to study objectively the «white spots» in the history of the USSR without strict censorship and political control.
In the Soviet publications of the late 80–90s of the XX century appeared materials, covering such aspects as totalitarianism, Stalinism, the world of the Gulag, genocide, human rights violations in society. One of the first attempts, to comprehend the history of those years, Soviet historians, philosophers and writers undertook in 1988, which was covered in the publication of edition «Historians argue» .
In the edition «The harsh drama of the people, published in 1989, scholars and publicists from various, sometimes mutually exclusive points of view, considered the legacy of Stalinism in order to find the optimal way of development of society in the complex 1980s .
A special place among the works of this group, in our opinion, takes the ones of A.I. Solzhenitsyn. One of his famous works was «The Gulag Archipelago» published in the late 1980s and translated into more than 30 languages . The author is a former prisoner of Steplag, and then separated from Karlag- EkibastuzLAG, in detail and vividly described the conditions of camp life and work. For us this work was particularly interesting, because the author paid a lot of attention to the description of the state of Karaganda culture of the 50–60s of the XX century as «the largest capital of the camp world». Referring to the work of Solzhenitsyn A.I. is explained by the fact that for many researchers of that time it served as the initial source and inspired for the further development of the theme.
A great help in the study of the political situation in the 1930s-1950s, the understanding of the policy of the Soviet state was provided by the work of the prominent military historian D.A. Volkogonov, published in two volumes in 1989, . In it, the author expresses his personal attitude to the phenomenon of Stalin, the scale of his crimes, as well as his unprecedented influence on the masses.
In parallel, various publications began to appear in the media about the essence and nature of Stalinism. During this period a number of editions and articles containing valuable factual information on the scale of mass repressions, lawlessness and specific court cases were published. These are the works of Yu.S. Borisova , V.A. Antonova-Ovseenko , Yu. Goland , RA. Medvedev  and others.
A great value represents the book under the general editorship of A.N. Yakovleva «Rehabilitation. Political Processes, «written on the basis of reliable documents and telling about the study by the Politburo Commission of Central Committee of the CPSU of materials related to the repressions of the 1930s and 1940s and the beginning of the 1950s . The issues of the emergence and functioning of the Soviet camp system were considered in the work of S.I. Kuzmina , where the author analyzes the origins and causes of the establishment of the camp system in the USSR.
The book of L.A. Gordon and E.V. Klopova «What was that?» is dedicated to the Stalin's period of the country's development, social and economic reforms conducted by the official authorities and their followers . This book explains why the strategy of forced development has won, it is telling how much the Soviet people have paid for establishing the regime of Stalin's personal power.
In the same subgroup should be included the works of Kazakh historians, published in the Soviet period. The analysis of the totalitarian regime in Kazakhstan was studied by a lot of Kazakhstani historians and social scientists of the late 20th century. In particular, these are the works of Zh. B. Abylkhozhin, M.K. Kozybaev, M.B. Tatimov , W. Auman , T. Kulbaev .
In the edition «What was not said» is placed an essay of V. Dik about Karlag «History and fates» . «This is not an abbreviation. These six letters are the signal of the highest social danger. This is a political testament of hundreds, thousands of Karlag prisoners of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Special regime. «With these words the author begins his narration about the «state of Karlag». In general, the author analyzes the reasons for the formation of labor camps on the territory of Kazakhstan. Moreover, in this article, for the first time, the well-known names of the former prisoners of the camps — A. Chizhevsky,
N. Timofeev-Resovskiy, L. Gumilev, A. Solzhenitsyn — were heard. The very fact of the publication of this article and its extraordinary material caused a stormy stream of thematic surveys throughout the country to start. A number of Karaganda culture workers began to search the archives, collect memoirs, camp drawings and paintings of exiled and repressed artists, and arrange their exhibitions.
In 1989, in the magazine «Prostor» was, for the first time, published an article of G. Stepanova- Klyuchnikova on the camp of wives of «traitors of the motherland», which was named «ALZHIR» .
During this period, the works of local historian Yu. Popov , as well as journalists — B. Yskakov , A. Tasymbekov , G. Ermekbayev , V.N. Nikolaeva , E.V. Kuznetsova became popular . Although these works were not of a scientific nature, they, nevertheless, contributed to the increasing interest of public on the Karlag problem, and also stimulated the development of new researches.
Thus, the Soviet historiography of this problem (before the collapse of the USSR) did not go beyond the rigid ideological framework in assessing neither the political nor the social, economic or cultural history of the USSR. For a number of reasons neither historians, nor political scientists, nor economists were able to fully and objectively study these processes, even after «perestroika».
The second subgroup includes the works of foreign authors, which includes American, West European and Russian researches.
In Western historical science the phenomenon of totalitarianism was studied using the example of Soviet history and practically was the methodological basis in the studies of Z. Brzezinski , M. Djilas , H. Arendt , H. Ortega y Gasset , M. Reiman , F. Hayek . Their works have become classic on the problems of the totalitarian regime.
B.Yakovlev's study «Concentration camps of the USSR» was, for the first time, published in Munich in 1955 . The work describes the punitive bodies of the USSR, presents the stages of the formation and development of camps from 1918 to 1954, analyzes the main management structures of the ITL, an alphabetical list of concentration camps and their map is created, and the description of individual camps is given. In the third section of the book, repressive legislation was analyzed in detail. It is clear that the source for the author was primarily oral evidence, however, nevertheless, it was possible right from here to get the initial information about the camps in the USSR, in particular, in Kazakhstan.
Studies of E. Carr , L. Beladi and T. Kraus , S. Cohen , A. Boff , M. Geller and A. Nekrich , R. Könckgest  have significantly expanded the notion of a period of mass repression in the USSR. Almost all of the above works were translated into Russian in the late 1980s and thus became available to a wide range of readers. The authors researched a wide range of issues of formation and development of punitive policy in the Soviet state, proposed versions of periodization of the history of repression.
Thus, Western European and American researches revealed the scale and significant moments of political repression in the Soviet Union, however, they also had a number of shortcomings. First of all, the lack of archival documents and materials influenced on the quality of these works, which led to many inaccuracies in assessing the activities of the camp system. The regional specifics, internal processes, that took place during the implementation of repressions and in the GULAG units, and on the ground, were not sufficiently taken into account by the authors.
A subgroup of Russian studies on this subject is represented quite widely.
In 1991–1992, a part of the materials of the Gulag special protection facility, being in the State archives of the Russian Federation, became available to a wide range of researchers. By the mid-1990s, as a result of the accumulation of source material, a significant number of published editions of documents and special researches on this topic appeared. So camp topic was reflected in the works of Russian historians: O.V. Khlevnyuk , V.N. Zemsky [37, 38], V.P. Popov .
Researches of V.N. Zemsky, V.P. Popov were directed to a statistical study of the contingent of prisoners in the Gulag system. They examined the dynamics of changes of the numbers and a wide range of characteristics of the camp contingent, exile settlers, exiles, exiled, deported peoples, etc. The authors provide statistics on the number of labor camps and corrective labor colonies that existed, information on the total number of repressed and executed, and data on the national composition and educational level of prisoners of the Gulag.
In the work of O.V. Khlevnyuk the phenomenon of forced labor in the economy of the USSR is considered. The author gives the economic indicators of the camps of the Gulag, which explain the economic prerequisites for the creation of the penitentiary system.
Thus, the significant scientific value is represented by statistical and geographical information obtained from the collection of documents of the GULAG, on the number of prisoners in the USSR in 1934–1953 years, on the composition of repressed by categories, on their settlement in regions of the country in certain periods, which allows us to understand the scale of the system GULAG.
The research of the policy of repression and its consequences in the domestic historiography begins to be studied most actively in the 1990s and 2000s. One of the first monographs devoted to our topic is a historical research of the doctor of historical sciences, professor D.A. Shaimukhanov and candidate of historical sciences S.D Shaimukhanova . In their book «Karlag» the activity of the Karaganda correctional labor camp was, for the first time, studied more thoroughly among Kazakh scientists. The work is written mainly on the materials of the archive of the Department of internal affairs of the Karaganda region and the periodical press. The detention conditions of prisoners in the development of the Karaganda camp's own economy, the activities of prisoners scientists in various branches of science, the conditions and life of women prisoners in the camp department, the so-called «ALZHIR», are described broadly. A certain place in the book is devoted to the issue of the activities of foreign prisoners of war in Spassk and prisoners in a special camp No. 4 (Steplage). Further development of the topic was the monograph of Shaimukhanova S.D. «Political repressions in Kazakhstan» (30–40th — early 50s), published in 2000, which described the tragic events and the fate of our compatriots .
The article of Zh.B. Abylkhozhin «Camp economy» in the book «Peoples deported to Kazakhstan: time and fates» considers the camp economy in the scale of the whole Gulag . A certain place in the book is devoted to the living conditions of prisoners, the creation of special camps and the uprising in Steplag in 1954. In the materials of the chapter the documents of the Central state archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan and scientific publications of Russian scientists were used.
The journalist Kuznetsova E.B., who since the late 1980s has been studying the history of political repressions and the Gulag system, deserves special attention. A great contribution to the research of the given topic can be the edition, published by her in 1997, «The Book of Grief. Fired lists», dedicated to the victims of repression on the territory of Karaganda and Karaganda region. In it, for the first time, brief information was given about more than 3,600 people subjected to capital punishment — execution . One of the last works of Kuznetsova E.B. became published in 2013, the book «Karlag: space and fates» , which described the overall history of KarLAG, as well as the fates of its prisoners.
In 1997, under the aegis of the year of national consensus, dedicated to the victims of political repression, the social scientists of the city of Pavlodar published the book «It is not subject to oblivion», prepared with the assistance of the Akim of the region D.K. Akhmetov . In the book there are essays, dedicated to the repressed Pavlodar people: Zh. Aimautov, E. Bekmakhanov, Zh. Shanin and others. A significant place in it is devoted to the memories of former prisoners, members of their families and letters miraculously preserved by relatives and that came to us from different regions of the GULAG empire. Also verses and poems, written by prisoners of Stalin's camps or dedicated to them by the authors, who were local poets and relatives of the repressed.
A significant contribution was made by the Kazakhstani historical and educational society «Adilet» (Justice) and by the employees of the institute of history and ethnology of the Ministry of education and science of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the release of a series of books «Azaly Kitap» (The Book of Grief). The firing lists on Almaty, Alma-Ata and Zhambyl, South Kazakhstan, Mangistau, Pavlodar, Kyzyl-Orda, Karaganda, Ural regions, etc. .
It is necessary to mention the doctoral thesis of T. Sadykov «Жезқазған өнеркəсіп аймағының қалыптасу жəне даму тарихы (ХIХ ғ. ортасы — ХХ ғ.)» . The fourth chapter of the study is devoted to the creation and functioning of the Steppe and Dzhezkazgan camps. Considerable attention is paid to the organization of everyday life and medical support for prisoners.
In 1999, the candidate thesis of Zhumasultanova G.A. on the history of political repression in Kazakhstan was defended in Karaganda . The work also has a separate chapter, dedicated to the Akmola branch of the Karlag, whose content is more based on oral testimonies of former prisoners.36
S.Dilmanov's work concerns the problems of employment of prisoners of the Gulag . In particular, based on archival data, the author shows the military-industrial, agricultural and industrial achievements of the Kazakhstani camps.
In the monograph of A.R. Kukushkina, in order to research the topic, there were studied the works of many domestic and foreign authors, as well as the problem of repression during the totalitarian regime in general . An important source of the research are the materials from the Central state archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Archives of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the State archives of the Russian Federation and the State archive of the Akmola region. The author, in order to research the problem, studied legislative acts, publications of Kazakhstani and foreign authors and materials of museums in Karaganda, Astana and Malinovka settlement of Akmola region. The work significantly focuses on the political and ideological and economic prerequisites of the foundation of the Gulag, the organizational and regulatory bases of the formation of the Akmola camp as an integral part of the Gulag, the regime, the conditions of detention and organization of work for the prisoners of ALZHIR, as well as the social consequences of repressions against family members of «traitors of the Motherland».
V. Mikheeva in her thesis discloses the issues of the staying of foreign prisoners of war and interned foreign citizens on the territory of Central Kazakhstan . The author analyzed the conditions of detention, material provision and employment of foreign prisoners of war and internees of Spassky camp No. 99, Dzheskazgan camps No. 39 and No. 502, and Balkhash camp No. 37.
In 2011, in Karaganda there was published a monograph of Eleukhanova S.V., for the first dedicated to the armed guard of the Karlag . The author studies the legal and socio-economic condition of the militarized security of the Karlag, reveals the reasons for bringing prisoners to guard the Karlag.
There should be mentioned the great role of the Central Kazakhstan scientific and research institute of actual problems at the university of Bolashak, which to this day works in the framework of scientific and research projects, dedicated to the history of mass political repressions of the 20th century. In the scientific and research and historical and educational center work scientists, lawyers, philologists, and historians of Karaganda university «Bolashak». The authors published 15 monographs in three languages, dedicated to the history of correctional labor and special camps of Kazakhstan. A particularity of these works is that almost all books are written on the basis of documents from the State archives of the Russian Federation, published for the first time.
In 2010, an employee of the center, T. Allaniyazov, prepared for publication a book, dedicated to the Kengir uprising . He identified and analyzed the main causes, nature and stages of the uprising. The author assesses the investigative processes over the participants in the uprising, as well as the place and role of this event in the history of political repression.
The history of Japanese prisoners of war in Central Kazakhstan was also described in the book, published by the scientific and research center at the University of Bolashak . The scientists researched the number of prisoners of war, their detention conditions, the level of food and clothing provision, the quality of medical care, the types of diseases and mortality, the scale and nature of labor use, and repatriation to their homeland.
In 2011, there will be published essays of the history of the Steppe camp, which was the special camp of the MIA of the USSR for special prisoners . On 808 pages of the edition the authors published documents, taken from domestic and foreign archives. The materials reveal the composition of prisoners, the regime and conditions of their detention, the level of food and clothing provision, the quality of medical care, the types of diseases and mortality, the scale and nature of labor use.
Documentary materials on the history of formation and functioning of the Karlag are contained in the regular edition of the center — Essays of the history of the Karaganda labor camp . It is noteworthy that new Russian archival materials are being introduced for the first time. However, it would be wonderful if the authors tried to compare and analyze the documents of Russian and Kazakh archives.
In 2014 and 2015, books on the history of the Special camps of the USSR were published [57, 58]. It is known that by the end of the 1940s, 12 special camps were established throughout the Soviet Union, four of which were concentrated in the territory of Kazakhstan. The authors of the center have already published 2 solid books, which reveal the history of 8 special camps, including the history of Kazakhstan's special camps (Stepnoy, Peschaniy, Lugovoi, Dalny). In the near future, the last edition is planned for the remaining four special camps. The published works contain a substantial amount of statistical data, since a completely new archive material has been used, from the funds of the state archive of the Russian Federation, which requires careful analysis.
Thus, the analysis of foreign and domestic literature makes it possible to note that a research of the repressive policy of the Soviet government was quite productive abroad (Europe, USA) until the end of the 1980s. However, in the last decade, Russian and Kazakh historiography has made a tremendous breakthrough in the study of the theme of repression. Deep knowledge of Kazakhstani specialists in the stages and features of the development of the regions, where the camps are located, gives them the opportunity to work with declassified funds of local and central archives of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation.
The second group is represented by works on the history of political repression of the scientific and creative intelligenсe, as well as on the intelligence of Karlag. We also suggest to divide this group into Russian and domestic historiography.
Since the early 1990s, works began to published in the Russian historiography devoted to the problems of repressed science.
In 1991, a group of Russian researchers published the book «Repressed science», which included documents, telling about the processes in Soviet science, that occurred in the 1930s–1960s under the influence of the administrative-command system of state administration .
In the foreword of the given book, academician D. Likhachev notes: «In science, a notion was introduced that from the very beginning of research only one way, one true direction, one scientific school and, of course, only one principal scientist, the «leader» of his science, can be correct». The choice was made for political reasons of a scholastic nature and the chosen direction was declared «truly Marxist». It was believed that in science there are two points of view — the correct Marxist and wrong, hostile to it [59; 5, 6].
There particularly should be mentioned the articles of M.G. Yaroshevsky «The fate of Soviet science», N.L. Krementcova «From the agriculture to medicine», V.S. Kirpichnikov «Vavilov and genetics», etc. In parallel, the fates of individual scientists, repressed for ideological and political reasons, are covered here. In general, the authors note that the main mechanism in the fight against scientists was specially organized ideological discussions, the main purpose of which was the complete subjection of all Soviet scientists to party and administrative control.
In 1998, an interesting article of Yu.I. Polyansky was published, dedicated to genetic scientists who were subjected to political repressions . The author notes that genetics has suffered most among all natural sciences. Only in 1964 that this science will be rehabilitated, and from the end of the 1960s the genetic laboratories and departments will begin to open in the Union.
The history of science in the Gulag was covered in the scientific studies of historians E.V. Markov, V.A. Volkov, A.N. Rodnogo, V.K. Yasny [61, 62]. The authors examine the fate of the scientific intelligence, who were imprisoned in the Vorkuta and Pechora camps of the Gulag. Researchers show the scientific and research activities of scientists-prisoners, based on previously classified documents, and also emphasize their contribution to the discovery, development of remote regions of the country.
Much was published under the guidance of the society «Memorial». In particular, in 1990 the book «Creativity in camps and exiles» was published , and in 1998 — «Creativity and way of life of the Gu- lag» . The works are dedicated to the research of the activity of the creative intelligence in the imprisonment.
Studying Russian historiography, we came to the conclusion that a quite large number of publications on the activities of the intelligence in the conditions of the camps, their tragic fates appeared in the 1990s.
One of the first publications is an article of R.B. Suleimenov and L.Ya. Gurevich, published in the journal Izvestiya of the AS of the Republic of Kazakhstan , where the authors analyze the phenomenon of repressed science in Kazakhstan.
In 1997, the books of memories of the prisoners of Stalin's camps were published. Among these works it's worth to note the books of Zhaik Bekturov «Tanba» (Label) and Edmund Ter-Poghosyan «Liberty was late for a lifetime» [66, 67]. In the book «Tanba» its author Bekturov J. tells about the atrocities, perpetrated by the Stalinist regime to the intelligence in Kazakhstan.
It is very interesting for us to study the activity of the intelligence in the conditions of the Karlag. In the early 1990s, works appeared, where the names of repressed artists were published for first time, which was the result of painstaking work in the archives of Almaty and Karaganda. In Karaganda, there were published catalogs of exhibitions of creativity of artists — former prisoners of camps, special settlers, exiles. The authors of these materials were artists Pletnikova L.N., Safarova G.M., Ivanina N., Gavrilova E.P., local historians Popov Yu.G., Mogilnitsky V.М.
In 2001, with the support of the Foundation Soros-Kazakhstan, the media-Project «The trajectory of destiny» was established. At the origins of Karaganda art», created by the creative group «Desht-i-Art Cen- ter», whose curators were Pletnikova L.N. and Safarova G.M. The creative result of this exhibition was the book «When art leaves memory...» — a reference book about the fate of around 50 repressed artists .
The work of Gavrilova E.P. «Memorial of Karaganda: Karlag, culture, artists», published in 2003, is a great value . The book presents a large amount of material about the artists of Karaganda, among them prisoners of Karlag, special settlers on the territory of the Karaganda region. The work has a large amount of archival material, which is considered as a particular value.
For many years Valery Mogilnitsky the journalist and local historian has been studying the fate of prisoners of the GULAG. His book «The Constellation of talents», published in 1993, tells about the famous prisoners of Stalin's camps . It, on the basis of archival materials, tells about the tragic pages of the life of A.Chizhevsky, L.Gumilev, N.Zabolotsky, A.Solzhenitsyn, L.Ruslanova, V.Khoruzha, G.Eichler, A.Esenin, G.Fogeler, and others, those, who were unfairly imprisoned in the period of Stalinism. In 2001, the book «Stars of the gulag» was published, which is a supplemented version of the first work . Accumulating the material, the author publishes the book «Black roses of the marshal» in 2006, and in 2011 — «Not bending his head» [72, 73]. The author of books spent many years of his life working in the archives of Karaganda and Zhezkazgan, museums and libraries. He collected valuable material, that formed the basis of this book.
A great contribution to the study of Karlag, the personalities of his prisoners, was made by the local historian Yuri Grigorievich Popov. A great value represents the works of Yuri Grigorievich, published in 2008 in St. Petersburg: «The last days of Henry Vogeler», «I will soon go to where I was known to be young», «Alexander Leonidovich Chizhevsky in Karlag, Steplag, Karaganda [74–76].
In 2012, within the framework of the project «Memory for the name of the future», another book of Popov Yu.G. «Karaganda in the fates of artists» was published, dedicated to artists-special settlers .
In the framework of the «Karlag» project «Memory for the name of the future», the head of which is the rector of the «Bolashak» University N.O. Dulatbekov, a number of books were published, dedicated to the creative and scientific intelligence of Karlag. In particular, in 2009, the book «Karlag: creativity in captivity» was , published jointly with the International historical and educational, human rights and charitable society «Memorial» (Russian Federation).
In 2012, the album «Karlag» was released . The uniqueness of this work is that it was based on unpublished archival materials, reproductions of paintings and sketches of camp artists, photographs of monuments, memorial complexes, exhibits, exhibited in museums in memory of victims of political repressions.
Thus, the analysis of Kazakhstani historiography on this issue showed that the history of the scientific and creative intelligentsia of Karlag was not the subject of a special research in the domestic scientific literature. Despite the widespread interest in this issue, it can be stated that the topic «intelligence and camp» remains insufficiently developed and studied on the basis of archival documents. In modern Kazakhstan's historical science there are no comprehensive and generalized researches, that study various aspects of the camp life of the scientific and creative intelligence of Karlag. In this regard, this fact makes it possible to characterize the selected topic as unresearched and innovative.
These materials and the conclusions contained in it can be used to study the problems of political repression in Kazakhstan. The results of the study can also be applied in the development and reading of training courses on the history of Kazakhstan and local history.
- Lel'chuk, V.S. (1988). Istoriki sporiat [Historians argue]. Moscow [in Russian].
- Senokosova, Yu.P. (1989). Surovaia drama naroda [The harsh drama of the people]. Moscow: Politizdat [in Russian].
- Solzhenicyn, A.I. (1989). Arkhipelah HULAH: Opyt khudozhestvennoho issledovaniia: 1918–1956 [GULAG Archipelago: An Experience of Artistic Research. 1918–1956]. Moscow: Sovetskii pisatel; Novyi mir [in Russian].
- Volkogonov, D.A. (1989). Triumf i trahediia: Politicheskii portret I.V. Stalina [Triumph and tragedy: Political portrait of I.V. Stalin]. Moscow: Izdatelstvo APN [in Russian].
- Borisov, Yu.S. (1989). Stranitsy istorii sovetskoho obshchestva: fakty, problemу, liudi [Pages of the history of Soviet society: facts, problems, people]. Moscow: Politizdat [in Russian].
- Antonov-Ovseenko, V.A. (1989). Stalin i eho vremia [Stalin and his time]. Voprosy istorii — Question of history, 1–10, 36– 78 [in Russian].
- Goland, Yu. (1990). Politika i ekonomika. (Ocherki obshchestvennoi borby 20-kh hodov) [Politics and Economics (Essays on the Social Struggle of the 20s)]. Znamia — Banner, 3, 73–84 [in Russian].
- Medvedev, R.A. (1990). O Staline i stalinizme [About Stalin and Stalinism]. Moscow: Prohress [in Russian].
- Yakovleva, A.N. (1991). Reabilitatsiia. Politicheskie protsessy 1930–1950-kh kodov [Rehabilitation. Political processes of the 1930–1950s]. Moscow: Politizdat [in Russian].
- Kuz'min, S.I. (1988). Politiko-pravovye osnovy stanovleniia i razvitiia ispravitelno-trudovykh uchrezhdenii (1917–1936 hh.) [Political and legal foundations of the formation and development of correctional labor institutions (1917–1936)]. Moscow: Politizdat [in Russian].
- Gordon, L.A., & Klopov, E.V. (1989). Chto eto bylo?: Razmyshleniia o predposylkakh i itohakh toho, chto sluchilos s nami v 1930–1940-e hody [What was that?: Reflections on the premises and results of what happened to us in the 1930s and 1940s]. Moscow: Politizdat [in Russian].
- Abylhozhin, Zh.B., Kozybaev, M.K., & Tatimov, M.B. (1989). Kazakhstanskaia trahediia [Kazakhstan tragedy]. Voprosy istorii — Questions of history, 7, 53–71 [in Russian].
- Auman, V.A. (1989). Sovetskie nemtsy vchera i sehodnia [Soviet Germans yesterday and today]. Sovershenstvovanie natsionalnykh otnoshenii i internatsionalnoe vospitanie trudiashchikhsia — Improving national relations and the international education of workers. Alma-Ata: Kazakhstan [in Russian].
- Kul'baev, T. (1991). Deportatsiia: neobiavlennaia voina narodu [Deportation: an undeclared war on the people]. Alma-Ata: Kazakhstan [in Russian].
- Dik, V (1990). Karlah. Istoriia i sudby [Karlag. History and fate]. O chem ne hovorili: dokumentalnye rasskazy i ocherki — What they did not say: documentary stories and essays. Alma-Ata: Zhalyn [in Russian].
- Stepanova-Klyuchnikova, G. (1989). Kazakhstanskii Alzhir [Kazakhstan Algeria]. Prostor — Scope, 9, 75–101 [in Russian].
- Popov, Y.U. (1990). Vrahi naroda iz Nurinskikh stepei [Enemies of the people from the Nurinsk steppes]. Industrialnaia Karahanda — Industrial Karaganda, 7 yunia [in Russian].
- Yskakov, B. (1990). Zhezkazhan zherіndehі tamuk nemese «Steplah» punkterі [Inferno in Zhezakazgan or «Steplag» sections]. Parasa — Parasa, 2, 21–25 [in Russia].
- Tasymbekov, A. (1997). Myn olіp, myn tіrіlhen [Raised thousand, Died thousands]. Kazak adebietі, 27 mamyr [in Russia].
- Ermekbaev, T. (1989). Karlah sulbasy [Karlag scheme]. Leninshil zhas, 2 tamyz [in Russia].
- Nikolaev, V.N. (1990). Ne vse stoiali na koleniakh [Not everyone was on their knees]. Rabochaia tribuna — Working tribune, 10 yanvaria [in Russian].
- Kuznecova, E.B. (1988). Strakh [Fear]. Industrialnaia Karahanda — Industrial Karaganda, 22 dekabria [in Russian].
- Bzhezinskij, Z. (1990). Bolshoi proval [Great failure]. Moscow: Politizdat [in Russian].
- Dzhilas, M. (1992). Litso totalitarizma [The face of totalitarianism]. Moscow: Novosti [in Russian].
- Arendt, H. (1996). Istoki totalitarizma [The origins of totalitarianism]. Moscow: TsentrKom [in Russian].
- Ortega-i-Gasset, H. (1989). Vosstanie mass [Rise of the masses]. Voprosy filosofii — Questions of philosophy, 4, 123–165 [in Russian].
- Rejman, M. (1990). Stalin kak fenomen sovetskoho obshchestva [Stalin as a phenomenon of Soviet society]. Rabochii klass i sovremennyi mir — The working class and the modern world, 2, 121–129 [in Russian].
- Hajek, F. (1990). Doroha k rabstvu [The Road to Slavery]. Voprosy filosofii — Questions of philosophy, 10–12, 46–58 [in Russian].
- Yakovleva, B. (1955). Kontsentratsionnye laheria SSSR [Concentration camps of the USSR]. Myunhen [in Russian].
- Karr, E.H. (1990). Istoriia Sovetskoi Rossii [History of Soviet Russia]. (Vol. 1). Moscow: Prohress [in Russian].
- Beladi, L., & Kraus, T. (1989). Stalin [Stalin]. Moscow: Politizdat [in Russian].
- Koen, S. (1989). Bolshevizm i stalinizm [Bolshevism and Stalinism]. Voprosy filosofii — Questions of philosophy, 7, 46–72 [in Russian].
- Boff, D. (1990). Istoriia Sovetskoho Soiuza [History of the Soviet Union]. (Vols. 1, 2). Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia [in Russian].
- Geller, M., & Nekrich, A. (1991). Utopiia u vlasti [Utopia in power]. Moscow [in Russian].
- Kongvest, R. (1989). Bolshoi terror [The Great Terror]. Neva — Neva, 1–12 [in Russian].
- Hlevnyuk, O.V. (1992). Prinuditelnyi trud v ekonomike SSSR (1929–1941 hody) [Forced labor in the economy of the USSR (1929–1941)]. Svobodnaia mysl — Free thought, 13, 78–86 [in Russian].
- Zemskov, V.N. (1991). HULAH (istoriko-sotsiolohicheskii aspekt) [GULAG (historical and sociological aspect)]. Sotsiolohicheskoe issledovanie — Sociological research, 6–7 [in Russian].
- Zemskov, V.N. (1996). Vklad zaklyucheonnykh HULAHa v pobedu v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine [The contribution of the Gulag prisoners to victory in the Great Patriotic War]. Novaia i noveishaia istoriia — New and modern history, 5, 28–39 [in Russian].
- Popov, V.P. (1992). Hosudarstvennyi terror [State terror]. Otechestvennye arkivy — Domestic archives, 2, 31–42 [in Russian].
- Shajmuhanov, D.A., & Shajmuhanova, S.D. (1997). Karlah [Karlag]. Karaganda [in Russian].
- Shajmuhanova, S.D. (2000). Politicheskie repressii v Kazakhstane (30–40-e – nachalo 50-h hh.) [Political repressions in Kazakhstan (30–40s of the early 50s)]. Karaganda [in Russian].
- Abylhozhin, Zh.B. (1998). Lahernaia ekonomika [Camp economy]. Deportirovannye v Kazakhstan narody: vremia i sudby [The peoples deported to Kazakhstan: time and fate]. Almaty: Arys [in Russian].
- Berikbaev, R.K., & Kuznetsova, E.B. (Eds.). (2004). Kniha skorbi: rasstrelnye spiski [Book of Sorrow: Firing Lists. Comp]. Almaty [in Russian].
- Kuznetsova, E.B. (2013). Karlah: prostranstvo i sudby [Karlag: space and fate]. Karaganda [in Russian].
- Zabveniiu ne podlezhit (1997). [Not subject to review]. Pavlodar [in Russian].
- Azaly kіtap = Kniha skorbi. Rasstrelnye spiski. Karahanda, Karahandinskaia oblast (2000) [Azaly kitap = Book of sorrow. Firing lists. Karaganda, Karaganda region]. (Vols. 3). Almaty: Kazakhstanskoe obshchestvo «Adilet» [in Russian].
- Sadykov, T. (1998). Zhezkazhan onerkasіp aimahynyn kalyptasu zhane damu tarikhy (ХІХ ғ. — ХХ ғ.) [The history of formation and development of Zhezkazgan industrial zone]. Candidate's thesis. Almaty [in Kazakh].
- Zhumasultanova, G.A. (1999). Politicheskie repressii v Kazakhstane v usloviiakh totalitarnoho rezhima (20-e — nachalo 50-h odov) [Political repressions in Kazakhstan under a totalitarian regime (20s — early 50s)]. Candidate's thesis. Karaganda [in Russian].
- Dil'manov, S.D. (2002). Ispravitelno-trudovye laheria na territorii Kazakhstana (30-e — 50-e hody ХХ veka) [Forced labor camps on the territory of Kazakhstan (30s — 50s of the 20th century)]. Candidate's thesis. Almaty [in Russian].
- Kukushkina, A.R. (2002). Akmolinskii laher zhen «izmennikov Rodiny» [Akmola camp of wives of «Traitors to the Home- land»]. Candidate's thesis. Karaganda [in Russian].
- Miheeva, L.V. (2007). Inostrannye voennoplennye i internirovannye v Tsentralnom Kazakhstane (1941 — nachalo 50-kh hh. ХХ veka) [Foreign prisoners of war and internees in Central Kazakhstan (1941 — early 50's of the twentieth century)]. Candidate's thesis. Karaganda [in Russian].
- Eleuhanova, S.V. (2011). Karlah: sistema vooruzhennoi okhrany [Karlag: armed guard system]. Zh.T. Kul'baeva, T.T. Arshabekov (Ed.). Karagandа: Ai Astana [in Russian].
- Allaniyazov, T. (2011). Karlah: Kenhirskoe vosstanie. K istorii vosstaniia zaklyuchennykh 3-ho otdeleniia Stepnoho laheria MVD SSSR (16 maia — 26 iiunia 1954 hoda) [Karlag: Kengir uprising. On the history of the uprising of prisoners of the 3rd branch of the Steppe Camp of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR (May 16 — June 26, 1954)]. N.O. Dulatbekov (Ed.). Karagandа: Bolashak-Baspa [in Russian].
- Dulatbekov, N.O. (Eds.). (2011). Yaponskie voennoplennye v Karahandinskoi oblasti [Japanese prisoners of war in the Karaganda region]. Astana: Regis ST-Polygraph [in Russian].
- Dulatbekov, N.O. (Eds.). (2011). Ocherki istorii Stepnoho laheria MVD SSSR [Essays on the history of the Steppe Camp of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR]. Astana: Regis ST-Poligraf [in Russian].
- Ocherki istorii Karahandinskoho ispravitelno-trudovoho laheria OHPU-NKVD-MVD SSSR (1931–1959) (2012) [Essays on the history of the Karaganda forced labor camp of the OGPU-NKVD-MVD of the USSR (1931–1959)]. Karaganda: Karagandinskij universitet «Bolashak» [in Russian].
- Dulatbekov, N.O. (Eds.). (2014). Osoblahi v Kazakhstane: Stepnoi. Peschanyi. Luhovoi. Dalnii [Specials in Kazakhstan: Stepnoy. Sandy. Lugovoi. Far]. Almaty [in Russian].
- Dulatbekov, N.O. (Eds.). (2015). Osoblahi: Mineralnyi. Hornyi. Dubravnyi. Berehovoi [Special Features: Mineral. Mountain. Dubravny. Coastal]. Almaty [in Russian].
- Repressirovannaia nauka (1991). [Repressed science]. Leningrad: Nauka [in Russian].
- Polyanskij, Yu.I. (1998). Sudby henetiki v nashem otechestve [The fate of genetics in our country]. Surovaia drama naroda: uchenye publitsisty o prirode stalinizma — Severe drama of the people: learned publicists about the nature of Stalinism. Moscow: Politizdat [in Russian].
- Markova, E.V., Volkov, V.A., Rodnyj, A.N., & Yаsnyj, V.K. (1998). Uchenye - uzniki Pechorskikh laherei GULAGa [Scientists — prisoners of the Pechora Gulag camps]. Novaia i noveishaia istoriia — New and recent history, 1, 19–31 [in Russian].
- Markova, E.V., Volkov, V.A., & Rodnyj, A.N., & Yаsnyj, V.K. (1999). Sudby intellihentsii v Vorkutinskikh laheriakh. 1930–1950-e hody [The fate of the intelligentsia in the Vorkuta camps. 1930–1950s]. Novaia i noveishaia istoriia — New and recent history, 5, 52–64 [in Russian].
- Tihanova, V.A. (1998). Tvorchestvo i byt GULAGa [Creativity and life of the Gulag]. A.B. Roginskii, N.G. Okhotina (Ed.). Moscow: Zvenia [in Russian].
- Tihanova, V.A. (1990). Tvorchestvo v laheriakh i ssylkakh: Hrafika, zhivopis, rukodelie, remeslo [Creativity in camps and links: Graphics, painting, needlework, craft]. Moscow [in Russian].
- Sulejmenov, R.B., & Gurevich, L.Ya. (1992). Lysenkovshchina v Kazakhstane [Lysenkovschina in Kazakhstan]. Izvestiia AN Respubliki Kazakhstan. Seriia obshchestvennykh nauk — News of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Series of social science, 3, 60–71 [in Russian].
- Bekturov, Zh. (1997). Tanba [Label]. Almaty: Izdatelstvo Kazakhstan [in Kazakh].
- Ter-Pogosyan, E. (1997). Svoboda opozdala na tseluiu zhizn [Freedom was late for a lifetime]. Almaty [in Russian].
- Pletnikova, L.N., & Safarova, G.M. (2001). Kohda iskusstvo ukhodilo iz pamiati [When art faded from memory]. Karaganda [in Russian].
- Gavrilova, E.P. (2003). Memorial Karahandy. Karlah, kultura, khudozhniki [The memorial of Karaganda. Karlag, culture, artists]. Karaganda [in Russian].
- Mogil'nickij, V.M. (1993). Sozvezdie talantov [Constellation of talents]. Karaganda [in Russian].
- Mogil'nickij, V.M. (2001). Zvezdy Hulaha [Gulag stars]. Karaganda [in Russian].
- Mogil'nickij, V.M. (2006). Chernye rozy marshala [Marshal's black roses]. Karaganda [in Russian].
- Mogil'nickij, V.M. (2011). Ne skloniv holovy [Without bowing your head]. Karaganda [in Russian].
- Popov, Yu.G. (2008). Poslednie dni Henriha Fohelera [The last days of Heinrich Vogeler]. Saint-Petersburg [in Russian].
- Popov, Yu.G. (2008). Ya skoro uedu tuda, hde menia znali molodym [I will soon leave for where I was known young]. Saint- Petersburg [in Russian].
- Popov, Yu.G. (2008). Aleksandr Leonidovich Chizhevskii v Karlahe, Steplahe i Karahande [Alexander Leonidovich Chizhevsky in Karlag, Steplag and Karaganda]. Saint-Petersburg [in Russian].
- Popov, Yu.G. (2012). Karahanda v sudbakh khudozhnikov [Karaganda in the fate of artists]. Karaganda [in Russian].
- Karlah: Tvorchestvo v nevole. Hudozhniki, muzei, dokumenty, pamyatniki (2009) [Karlag: Creativity in captivity. Artists, museums, documents, monuments]. Karaganda [in Russian].
- Karlah: albom (2012) [Karlag / Album]. Karaganda [in Russian].