The article is devoted to the study of documents and literature of the funds of state organizations of the Republic of Kazakhstan health care system as historical sources. The analysis of existing funds has been carried out for storage of health care historical sources. The author's approach to assessing the reliability of the under study historical source was developed and proposed, as well as the decision-making process about the possibility of its use in the process of scientific research of the particular object history. Studying the history of the formation and development of the healthcare system in independent Kazakhstan is of great scientific and practical interest. The process of establishing health care in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the formation of medical personnel, the modernization of equipment and processes, as well as the updating of the material base, took place in peculiar political and socio-economic conditions, which have great features. Meanwhile, the history of this process in Kazakhstani historiography has been completely studied insufficiently; there is still no comprehensive study devoted to this problem. Of particular note is the lack of scientific papers on the history of the development of the medical education system, the formation of medical personnel, issues of financing the health system and factors affecting the effectiveness of the reforms. The collection and analysis of data on the history of Kazakhstani medicine and the health care system helps to better understand and evaluate the positive experience of healthcare, to anticipate the main directions of its subsequent development. The history of healthcare is part of the social history of society and at the moment, as previously noted, is the least studied by researchers. This is because the problems associated with the organization of health care are located in an interdisciplinary space at the intersection of history and medicine. Understanding the social history of the Republic of Kazakhstan is impossible without studying the history of healthcare. The level of health care depended and depends on the general socio-economic and political development of the country and its individual areas. For a long time, public administration and the development of the social and healthcare sectors have been merged into one state body.
Meaningfulness, value and authenticity of sources is not exposed to the doubt by a scientific association in research of historical aspects of forming and development of societies, states, organizational structures and other educations. Documents and literature of state organizations of the system of health protection come forward one of major historical sources in the process of research of history of development of the system of health protection of the state.
Methodology and research methods
The theoretical and methodological basis for writing the article was made up of the fundamental principles and methodological tools of scientific knowledge. The research methods were: structural method, systematic approach, generalization, analysis.
It is necessary to understand «all complex of objects and documents of material culture under a historical source, that directly reflects one or another historical moment and imprinting certain events and facts, allowing to recreate an idea about one or another historical process» . There are a few approaches to classification of historical sources. So, on classification of I.G. Droysen historical sources must be classified as follows:
- customs, dispositions, organizations;
- it is business correspondence, protocols, state documents(normatively legal acts, orders, decrees, etc.); language or speech aspects;
- traditions, customs, dispositions of society;
- scientifically works, handicrafts, art, etc. .
Classification of the I.G. Droysen's approach was one of the first and, in our view, is not wide enough for the scope of all aspects of cognition of historical processes. Modern scientist L.N. Pushkarev offers more wide approach to classification of historical sources. So, he distinguishes only three types of historical sources:
- ethnographic .
In turn L.N. Pushkarev subdivides writing historical sources into: documentary and narrative. It is necessary to understand concreted documents under «documentary historical sources» (legal acts, orders, decisions, etc.), that reflect facts and reality upon the concrete date or period of history. The narratives are opinion of certain authors of one or another historical fact or process, comparing with documentary sources .
Writing sources come exactly forward basic historical sources within the framework in research of the health protection system of independent Kazakhstan. We will present scheme of this thesis (Fig. 1).
It is possible to consider sources with the high degree of authenticity, which allow to expose and analyze the historical features of forming and development of the health protection system at qualitatively high scientific level. It is necessary to mark that in the list of writing sources electronic databases, catalogues, the electronic versions of documentation are included. It is caused that electronic documents are legally equated with printed or printed to the ordinary carrier data (to the paper). The value and role of electronic circulation of documents increases with modernization of the system of state administration of Kazakhstan Republic and informatization of society. The traditional charts of circulation of documents are known as uneffective and out-of-date, giving up to a place the different informative systems with electronic circulation of documents.
Writing narrative historical sources are on questions of forming and development of the health protection system in medical libraries or library funds of Kazakhstan Republic Ministry of health mainly, and also in regional medical organizations (policlinics, establishments, etc.) For today.
So, for example, the Republican scientific-medical library of Kazakhstan Republic Ministry of health (further RSMLHM of KR) is opened from 1939. Today this library is confessed to be the largest depository of scientific literature on questions of health protection and medicine in a country. RSML of KR is a head scientific establishment, that carries out informatively-bibliographic and library service in the field of medical science and history of health protection in Kazakhstan. RSML of KR is also known as the organizational-
ly-methodical and scientific center of regional medical libraries of Kazakhstan. A library fund consists of 350 thousand units of scientific medical literature .
There are 67 branch libraries sanctified to the questions of medicine and health protection in Republic of Kazakhstan:
RSML — 1;
scientific centers and research institutes — 14;
medical higher educational establishments — 9;
medical colleges — 23;
medical organizations — 20 .
RSML became one of the first libraries, that began to provide data not only in the printed version but also in electronic.
From our point of view, narrative historical sources can be used as an additional information generator about one or another historical period of development of the health protection system. Electronic databases are most comfortable for a search and work with legal documents. So, it is possible to distinguish most popular internet resources:
the informatively-legal system of normative legal acts of Kazakhstan Republic «Adilet» (http://adilet.zan.kz). Contains 243 408 operating and anniented legal documents on Kazakh, Russian and English languages, and also system of search on a database and possibility of the free use. This system works at support of Kazakhstan Republic Ministry of justice and contains all legal documentation of sphere of the system health protections;
the Informative system «Paragraph» (https://online.zakon.kz). It contains the standards of documents for filling, reviews, scientific comments of updating of legal acts on the Kazakh, Russian and English languages besides operating legal documents. There is the on-line system of search on a database. Only limit informative resources are accessible in a free version. A database belongs to Ltd «Info&Service»;
On-line resources of the health protection system of Kazakhstan Republic state organizations. For example, unofficial web-site of health protections Ministries of Kazakhstan Republic (http://dsm.gov.kz). A level and plenitude of filling documents are different. The web-site of central vehicle is most complete, in our view. So, on this resource not only normative legal acts the projects of legal acts are published, but also official lectures and accounting on the state and rates of development of the Kazakhstan health protection system.
The authenticity of information generators becomes the major criterion of selection and use in the process of historical research realization. A.O. Chubaryan suggests understanding «property of historical information / historical source as «historical authenticity», which characterizes the degree of their accordance of historical reality» [5; 98].
These or other historical aspects of the formation and development of healthcare in independent Kazakhstan are reflected in the dissertations and scientific works of Kazakhstani scientists. So, G.S. Doskeeva, in her dissertation «Financing the health care sector of Kazakhstan in a competitive environment: theory, methodology and practice» for the degree of Doctor of Economics (2010), reveals some historical aspects on health financing. Also, Kalazhanov M. B. when writing a dissertation on the topic «Formation, provision and assessment of the quality of medical care as the basis of public health management» for the degree of Doctor of Medical Sciences, raises some historical issues on the quality of medical care to the population.
Without reflecting the problematic periods of the development of the health care system, historical fullness and objectivity in the study of the developmental period will not be achieved, which will significantly reduce the scientific and historical significance of the work. The very fact of creating barriers to access to negative information on the part of government officials is a sign of incorrect alignment of the public service system. Errors must be analyzed to reduce the risk of their recurrence in the future.
Thus, in this article, as a historical source, documents and literature of health funds are reviewed. The problems of searching and using historical sources are highlighted, and an approach to assessing the reliability of documents and literature of the health funds of the Republic of Kazakhstan has been developed and proposed. This approach is universal and can be used in the process of researching historical processes in various areas of society and the state.
The methodology of estimation of level of authenticity of historical sources was not found by us in a scientific environment. Continuously, the problem of choice of one or another source stands before every researcher. We suggest ranging sources in accordance with an order presented in a Table 1.
Table 1 Ranging of historical information generators on the level of authenticity (1 is a high level of authenticity)
Levels of confidence
Types of historical documents
Normative legal acts, management and financial statements on the performed works in this or that sphere
These historical sources are not subject to double interpretation. They clearly reflect the reality for a specific historical period of time
Research works (dissertations, scientific articles), statistical reports, results of sociological surveys, official reports, etc.
The results of scientific works are considered and studied by experts for scientific novelty, practical significance. At the same time, errors and incorrect conclusions on certain historical events are possible. Statistical reports can be distorted as intended to improve the performance of a sector, or unintentionally during technical failures
Textbooks, manuals, monographs
In these sources, the author's opinion is more independent and, in this regard, the risks of misinterpretation of a historical event or process increase
Media publications, feature stories, essays, autobiographies and others
The author has complete freedom to express his position without the need to strengthen his position by facts, to cite references to statements, etc.
Note. Compiled by the author.
The developed scheme for determining the reliability of historical sources can be used not only in the study of the development of the health care system, but also in the process of historical study of other spheres of Kazakhstan society.
Along with this, clear approaches to the definition and classification of information sources are needed. So, for example, the following definition is proposed for one of the sources: «a scientific article is a complete and logically integral work written within the framework of a specific scientific paradigm and highlighting issues that are part of the range of problems associated with the research topic.» Scientific articles may vary in form depending on whether they belong to the field of technical or humanities. The classification of scientific articles by the nature of the material presented is proposed:
- a short message containing a brief (synoptic) statement of the results of research work or their stages;
- an original article, which is a detailed statement of the main results and conclusions obtained in the course of research and development work;
- a review article, which summarizes the achievements in a particular area, fixes the existing state or outlines the prospects for future development;
- a discussion article that contains controversial scientific provisions with the aim of discussing them in print.
In some cases, we suggest classifying scientific ones by the nature of the tasks to be solved:
- scientific and theoretical, which contain reasoning, theoretical justification, calculated data or experimental results;
- scientific and practical, which are devoted to scientific experiments and real experience;
- scientific and methodological, which are dedicated to the review of processes, methods, tools, allowing to achieve scientific or applied problems;
- overview, where general information is given on any subject, event, analysis is carried out, attention is drawn to the problem.
Work on the formulation of definitions and classification of information sources is an important area for improving the system of scientific knowledge, not only in terms of studying the history of the healthcare system, but also in other areas of science.
Despite the apparent transparency and availability of historical sources of information on the development of the health care system, there are a number of problems in accessing a certain category of data. For example, if a public health system organization willingly provides information on successes in implementing development projects, then failures and disastrous projects are hidden. The negative results of the development of the health care system are not published on official Internet resources and access to them is complicated by the creation of various types of barriers. This forms a false notion about the exceptionally successful development of the health care system, the absence of mistakes and failures in the implementation of certain projects. Existing historical sources that negatively characterize the results for various reforms or projects of the health care system, as a rule, have a low level of scientific credibility — the publication in the media, analytical reports of economists on failed reforms and projects.
A number of studies can be distinguished, characterized by objectivity and a high level of scientific certainty. So, in the scientific literature, separate articles were devoted to the health history of independent Kazakhstan, the authors of which were K. Zhakupova («History of medicine of Kazakhstan according to archival documents (1920–1930)»), K.O. Shayakhmetova, K.Sh. Syzdykova, G.B. Rakhimzhanova («Problems of the development of health care in Kazakhstan at the present stage»), G.S. Narmatova («On the structure of the Kazakhstan health care system»), S.E. Orynbasarova («Current state and main directions of healthcare system reforms in Kazakhstan») and others.
There are scientific studies that have been devoted to the history of healthcare in a particular region or region of the Republic of Kazakhstan. So, for example, S. Kh. Dushmanov in his dissertation «The History of Health Care in Western Kazakhstan» for the degree of Doctor of Medical Sciences (1992), studied materials of a historical, literary, historical and bibliographic nature, official documents, works on the general history of the country and republics, according to the history of science and culture of society, data from archaeological and paleontological studies, comparative linguistics, Kazakh folklore, reviews, letters, notes, memoirs and testimonies of medical and other workers, Periodically printing.
- Иванов Г.М. Исторический источник и историческое познание / Г.М. Иванов. — Томск: Изд-во ТГУ, 1973. — 250 с.
- Дройзен И. Г. История эллинизма: [В 3-х т .] / И. Г. Дройзен. — М .: Академический проект, 2011. — 352 c.
- Пушкарев Л.Н. Классификация письменных источников по отечественной истории / Л.Н. Пушкарёв. — М.: Наука, 1975. — 152 с.
- Анамбаев И. А. О деятельности Республиканской научно- медицинской библиотеки [Электронный ресурс] / И. А. Анамбаев. — Режим доступа: https://kaznmu.kz/rus
- Теория и методология исторической науки. Терминологический словарь / отв. ред. А.О. Чубарьян. — М ., 2014. — С. 98, 99.