Theoretical bases of domestic and foreign practice history of SOS Children's village formation

The authors argue within the framework of the SOS Children's village to provide a worthy child psycho- pedagogical assistance aimed at comprehensive development of the child, develop an individual development plan for each child, according to the plan, provide social support to the child. This article reveals the purpose of the individual development plan-to provide possible assistance in the daily life of the child, the development of his abilities through structured and purposeful pedagogical work. According to the authors, the child also participates in the preparation of an individual development plan and depends on the age of his involvement in this process and the level of his readiness. In this article, it is determined that SOS Children's village works not only with children and adolescents, but also with different types of family. Despite the very sad events in childhood, orphans and social orphans live in SOS Children's villages and SOS youth homes, recover from emotional stress, adapt to society and start a normal independent life. Thus, according to the authors, compared to graduates of orphanages, they are able to live in society, receive education, work and Express themselves, protect their rights, make reasonable decisions, create their own families and take care of them.

Introduction

The article is devoted to solving a large and important problem of regulating social orphanhood in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Connections of the internal state complex, such as national, educational, religious, information, and educational policies, have become the object of historical research as a result of the complication of the critical situation after Kazakhstan achieved sovereignty. Consideration of each of these compounds helps to analyze more deeply the problems of regulating social orphanhood in various institutions for the support of orphans in the Republic of Kazakhstan, in our case, SOS family-type villages. The social policy of the institution as an independent definition of the object will not only reveal the specifics of regulating the problem of social orphanhood, but will also contribute to the effective connection of the state and non-state system of support for orphans. This circumstance largely leads to the subject of our study.

Research methodology and methods Рroject, information project management, iterative approach, teamwork.

Discussion

In the twentieth century, the problems of poverty, guilt, unemployment increased. Such radical changes were to have a great impact on the problems of orphanhood and take custody of minor children in order to protect them from dangerous situations. During the meeting, the issues of social degradation of children, alcohol and drug abuse, strays and abductees, «social orphanhood» were discussed. As a result of the Second world war in Europe increased the number of children left without parental care, all boarding schools, orphanages were fully provided. To solve such problems in the post-war period, the founder of the SOS movement in the world, Dr. Hermann Gmeiner, created The Association for the creation of children's villages.

In Gmayner Vorarlberg (Austria) June 23, 1919 was born the sixth child (only 9 children) in a large family of officials. In March 1925, his mother died and his older sister Elsa examined 5-year-old Gmayner, brothers and sisters. In 1936, a scholarship for the best education was established in the gymnasium, which gives a good opportunity for his further education. In 1940 he was drafted into the army in the Wehrmacht, participated in the war in Finland, the USSR and Hungary. In 1945, with multiple injuries, he entered the infirmary in Bregenz, where he studied philosophy, pedagogy and medicine in Innsbruck in 1946, engaged in medicine [1].

And at this time G. gmayner worked as an educator with orphans and lost the right ways of adolescents, realizing that children need help at the beginning of their lives, ie, in the treatment of emotional situations that they are experiencing, highlighted in pedagogical practice the most important thing: independence, independence. To achieve this goal, G. gmayner with the support of teachers, he opened in 1949 in Imst (Austria) the first Association for orphans «SOS Children's village» (SOSKinderdorf) at the expense of 600 billing (about 40dollar). The SOS Children's village model is very different from other «barrack» orphanages and has reformed the child-rearing system around the world. This model was distinguished by the fact that the village has a family shelter, a mother who takes care of the children, and a village that unites the family by Association.

G. Gmeiner proved that his idea is true SOS-friends who helped to create SOS Children's villages in other countries with a small investment. «Chain reaction of good» conquered all contingents. In 1955, the villages of France, Germany and Italy were opened. In 1963, the villages of South Korea and Ecuador began to function, in South Africa (Ghana, Kenya, Sierra Leone). In 1991, villages began to open in the Soviet government, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the United States. Currently, 532 SOS Children's villages in 133 countries of the world operate only with voluntary investments. 1,300,000 children and adolescents are served by the Gmeiner youth home, SOS, kindergarten, Gmeiner schools, social, medical and educational centers. In the world there are 2406 institutions SOS Children's village (from the experience of the head of the program «SOS children's village Temirtau» V. Dubrovsky), which can be divided into 8 groups.

G. Gmeiner died on April 26, 1986. His work was continued by Helmut Kutin, who served 26 years as President of SOS-Kinderdorf International, until 2012 [2]. Since July of this year the organization is headed by SOS Kinderdorf International Siddhartha Kaul. His father George. N. Kaul headed the activities of the Children's village of the Indian country. Siddhartha studied architecture and Humanities at the University. He headed summer camps, gave teenagers lessons in language and mathematics.

Since March 1981 S. Kaul worked in SOS Children's Villages International, since 1986 he was the regional Director. Since that time, it has begun to realize the most important goals: to restore the organization in Vietnam, created the SOS Association in Cambodia. SOS joined the top Board of the organization and became a participant in the strategy-building process and in 2001 was Deputy Secretary-General of Asia. In 2004, when the tsunami arrived in Asia, S. Kaul headed the large-scale assistance and recovery [3].

Siddhartha Kaul has a variety of gifts from representatives of Asian civil society and government, organizations and currently continues the activities of SOS Children's Villages International.

SOS organization arrived in Kazakhstan in the 90 — ies of the XX century, when the USSR spread, the country experienced economic instability, unemployment, social problems. The policy society did not immediately notice the problems of orphans. But at this time in Munich Nazarbayeva Sara Alpysovna learned about the children's village of family type and began to talk about this model. The first lady, seeing the advantages of this model, thought to create a children's village in Kazakhstan. Sara Alpysovna, realizing the lack of funds for the creation of a children's village in the state, reached agreement with the International Fund, recently entered Kazakhstan in the register of the organization in 1994. «SOS-Children's village of Kazakhstan», the national Fund was created and the first President was Nazarbayeva Sara Alpysovna. «SOS-Children's village of Kazakhstan» includes representatives of state bodies, non-governmental organizations and business.

Pedagogical, social and economic advantages of family education have been effectively applied in the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. On 13 December 2000, the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan» on family-type Children's villages and youth homes» was adopted, according to which the model of family education is successfully implemented in state children's villages. On 3 December 2004, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan signed the law on ratification of the «agreement between the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the international Fund «SOS Kinderdorf-International» (8 April 2004)on the beginning of the construction of SOS Children's village in the Republic of Kazakhstan and the creation of related projects», aimed at close cooperation in providing assistance to orphans and children left without parental care.

The Foundation was registered as a public Association in 1994, which operates on the basis of the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Charter and the agreement between SOS Kinderdorf International and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, as well as management documents of SOS Kinderdorf International:

  1. UN Convention on the rights of the child (20 November 1989));
  2. guide to the organization of work in SOS Children's village office (1 March 2003);
  3. ideas, ideas, tasks and values of SOS Children's villages-who are we;
  4. SOS program policy of Children's villages.
  5. child protection policy (may 2008).
  6. family strengthening programme (January 2007).
  7. HIV/AIDS policy.
  8. target educational policy.
  9. policy on inclusion of children with disabilities-SOS Children's villages guide.

In 1997, the first children were accepted in Almaty SOS Children's village. In 1999, the first stone of the Children's village was built in Astana, and in 2000 the village was filled with children's voices. On may 19, 2004, the opening of the door of the children's village-children's village Temirtau SOS.To date, more than 300 children live in SOS villages in Kazakhstan (in 2016 it is planned to cover 1000 children), and 688 children live in their families (in 2016 it is planned to cover 4000 children) [4].

SOS Children's village is an international non-governmental social organization that has been protecting the interests, rights and needs of children for more than 60 years. In the center of care are children left without parental care, as well as families in disadvantaged conditions.

SOS Children's village is guided by the basic 4 principle:

  1. my mother is an educator, she devoted her whole life to the children entrusted to him.;
  2. brothers and sisters-they, along with mother and form a family;
  3. home-family provides reliability and a sense of protection;
  4. the village is a bridge connecting and uniting the family with the community.

These principles have not been forgotten for more than 60 years: their practical implementation has received the highest praise in the world. SOS Kinderdorf in 1995 was included in the list of the United Nations, UNICEF, which has received great respect and success in all known international unions and organizations. During the years of SOS service, the Children's village was awarded the Nobel prize 14 times. In 2002, Helmut Kutin on behalf of SOS Kinderdorf received the humanitarian award of the largest in this area, the Conrad Hilton Foundation.

The process of socialization in the village abalar divided into stages that occur in the following queue:

  •  I stage: «SOS-family» — accommodation of the child in the Children's village (from childhood to 15 years) — the type of education and care closest to family;
  •  II stage — «SOS-Youth house» — the program of support of accommodation of children-teenagers and girls (from 15 to 20 years) in the apartments rented or being in property of the founder of the city, with support of separate cottages (teachers);
  •  III stage — «half-life» program (from 19–20 to 21–22 years) — support program for graduates of children's villages: providing them with appropriate social, psychological and pedagogical, as well as financial assistance;
  •  Stage IV — «SOS to continue supporting graduates» [5].

As for SOS Children's village, it is 11–15 houses, united in a mini-community, in each of which 6–7 children of different ages live with SOS-mom.Initially SOS-anakoment, works the sister, after what passes training, consisting of 7 months and receives SOS-anakoment. Mother receives funds for work, care of children and days off. Is responsible for the physical, mental and social development of SOS anomalies. SOS moms have helpers who call them sister. In case of need (mother's illness or going on vacation, etc.), the sister replaces the mother. It also helps in the household.

One of the most important and pleasant aspects of the village is that when children are admitted to the village they have brothers, sisters and sisters, they live in the same house, not separated from each other.

There are several requirements for admission to SOS Children's village:

  •  the age of children should not exceed 10 years. Children older than 10 years are accepted only if they have siblings;
  •  orphans left without parental care, in need of a new home and constant family warmth;
  •  children left without valid reasons, declared dead, incapacitated or in cases of refusal to raise a child;
  •  children whose parents are deprived of parental rights by a court decision;
  •  physically and mentally healthy children. Admission of children with disabilities is considered only if the family of the Children's village meets their needs. Children with complex physical and mental disorders are referred to special alternative institutions capable of solving their specific problems;
  •  admission focuses on children in need of long-term care and have no relatives who have been raised in their family for a long time;
  •  the number of children in the family should not exceed seven. In order to preserve the harmonic structure in the reception of the family refers to the sex and age of children [5].

The purpose of the children's yard is the implementation of the psychological and pedagogical model of long-term family education. That is, the work of the children's village is aimed at correcting the negative state of abandoned children, involving children in work, providing the necessary knowledge, additional knowledge, social adaptation, improving the emotional sphere, gradually removing responsibility for children and preparing them for the youth home. Through the tools of the family education model, the Children's village strives for the permanent home and family care of children, as well as the exercise of their self-control and interests, and thus helps to become a successful, worthy member of society.To achieve this goal, the village has a medical office, a psychologist's office, a teacher's room and a conference room.

To develop the personal and responsible qualities of children and adolescents the following activities are carried out within the framework of the Children's village:

  •  Work on personal and professional development of children and adolescents of the Children's village;
  •  In the children's village and beyond, socially useful work of children and adolescents (cleaning the territory of the Children's village, environmental actions, social actions to help vulnerable segments of society, etc.)
  •  together with the staff of the children's village and children to repair furniture and equipment in homes;
  •  participation of children and adolescents in the planning and organization of events for children (holidays, competitions, Olympiads, etc.);
  •  summer labor semester [5].

For the successful implementation of the above activities, a children's Committee is established. The children's Committee is an independent organization that makes important decisions. The head of the children's Committee takes part in the meeting of the Children's village Committee and protects the interests of children and adolescents.

In order to provide the child with decent psychological and pedagogical assistance aimed at the comprehensive development of the child, an individual development plan for each child has been developed within the framework of the Children's village, according to the plan social support is provided. The purpose of the individual development plan is to provide possible assistance in the daily life of the child, the development of his abilities through structured and purposeful pedagogical work. The child also participates in the development of an individual development plan and depends on the age of his involvement in this process and the level of his readiness. Development planning is a continuous process and is carried out on the basis of a close relationship between the SOS mother, the Director of the Children's village, the child development worker (psychologist and teacher) and the child himself.

SOS Children's village works not only with children and teenagers, but also with different kinds of family, including:

  •  native family: a child who has lost parental care can live in his family if it provides full assistance to the family and is able to protect and support his child;
  •  SOS family: a child deprived of parental care grows up in SOS Children's village in a family that has warmth and respect. SOS-mom manages the SOS family, is fully responsible for the development of each child as a full member of society;
  •  other forms of care based on family education: a child deprived of parental care grows and develops in a family other than the SOS family. Such alternative forms are organized by both the SOS Children's village and other interested organizations [6].

Support for the graduates of the Children's village will continue after they have left the SOS Children's village. That is, SOS is one of the structural units of the Children's village «SOS house of youth», which help to develop the child, to find their place in society, to live independently, to provide for themselves. SOS is a unique form of care for orphans in Kazakhstan. At the age of 15, compared to graduates of orphanages, going into life without absolute training and any support, adult children from SOS Children's villages go to PU, where teachers-mentors help in training, employment, registration of various documents, including documents relating to the house. SOS gives teenagers the opportunity to successfully adapt in society, to be responsible and independent for themselves and loved ones.This is an opportunity for them to start their personal life in a pleasant environment.

The main goal of the work is to help children and graduates of the Children's village in access to society, including access of adolescents to the labor market, which will help in the future in social development and accumulation of life experience, in vocational guidance and in the future to become a professional, providing their daily income, housing.

Pupils of PS learn skills of independent life by carrying out household works, the organization of own food, daily life and is carried out according to internal regulations and to cover the following sections::

  •  General rules and requirements of internal IP regime;
  •  Rules of relations between employees and pupils of boarding organizations;
  •  В VP, rights and duties of pupils;
  •  Rights and obligations of IP employees;
  •  Rules of catering;
  •  Object maintenance (house cleaning, equipment repair);
  •  leisure activities;
  •  Monthly allowance expenditure and financial statements;
  •  Rules for visitors and guests of the site;
  •  The organization of educational activity of students of the internship;
  •  Rules of use of technical means (TV, telephone, computer));
  •  Organization of individual and group work with pupils of the ORP;
  •  Organization of IP work in crisis and special conditions.

Due to the strict implementation of the above internal order, the teenager is instilled in the cleaning of his room or other premises, careful attitude to equipment, effective consumption of monthly benefits, furniture repair. Together with employees and educators work and supply work, acquire the necessary equipment and household items.

As part of the provision of Psychological and pedagogical assistance in is, an individual mentor is appointed from among the educators who provide individual support to each teenager. Individual support and assistance to pupils is provided through individual conversations on spending, housekeeping, education and training. Individual conversations according to a pre-planned schedule 2 times a week for 1 hour. In addition to individual conversations 1 time per week sex education, HIV/AIDS virus prevention, harmfulness of alcohol and drug addiction, conflict resolution, etc. group conversations on topics are held.

After the transfer from SOS Children's village in IVS will continue to maintain an individual child development plan. The responsibility for this process falls to the head of the OS. He is fully responsible for the development and implementation of this plan. A personal mentor and adolescents are responsible for drawing up and executing an individual development plan.

In General, an SOS youth Home can be an apartment or a house purchased or built with the funds of the SOS Fund-Kazakhstan Children's village. At the same time, until teenagers receive a specialty, the mentor is under the control of teachers until the age of 20 and psychological and pedagogical support will continue for

4 years. They learn, work and learn to come to adulthood, while SOS keeps in touch with the family in the Children's village and the closest person-SOS-mom [5].

For the purpose of career guidance and employment of pupils the following activities are organized::

  •  professional advice appropriate to the mood of a young child;
  •  creation of a vacancy Fund;
  •  search for employment opportunities in public, private and public organizations, firms;
  •  partnership with the Department of social protection, employment, welfare;
  •  liaise with neighbouring businesses;
  •  first aid program to start your own small business [5].

During this period, young children rent an apartment, live in a hostel or in their own apartment, and at this time they receive psychological, pedagogical and financial assistance. As in the adolescent home, this stage involves the planning of the development process, which determines how much and what help the young child needs. In the development plan, a contract is concluded between a young child and a private tutor in order to provide psychological and pedagogical support. When a young child makes an important decision, the caregiver mother still becomes an active member.

Financial support of pupils can be within the framework of the start-up program. The main purpose of the Start-up program is to Provide financial assistance to young children to start an independent life. Financial assistance can be in the form of benefits, scholarships for admission, credit for starting their own business, issued to solve housing problems:

 if a young child has found a job, but receives less than the salary received, he can be provided with financial assistance in the form of subsidies, as long as the educator receives sufficient wages. The young child receives such additional funds directly or through the employer. Financial assistance may also be provided to ensure that the young child remains in the first place of work, for vocational training and practical experience. Such assistance can be provided for a maximum of a year;

 for a young child, financial support is provided to the University in which he is studying, if he can fully demonstrate his knowledge and abilities. Financial assistance is provided from the SOS Children's village Fund, but in order to reduce SOS costs, the organization also accepts local support (state, local and commercial programs providing various assistance to young people). Financial assistance includes the purchase of money and teaching AIDS for training. A child's good academic performance is a basic requirement for receiving such financial assistance.;

 the housing issue can be solved by renting an apartment or moving to a hostel by a pupil of an SOS educator studying at a higher educational institution within the framework of a partially independent life program. SOS graduates have the opportunity to seek financial assistance. Such assistance can last no more than 3 years and is aimed at helping young people living in a private home. In all cases young children must pay 3/1 of the debt from their own funds;

 pupils opening their own business have the opportunity to receive financial assistance from the SOS Fund of the Children's village of Kazakhstan in the form of a loan. To do this, the teacher must make a plan and submit it to the head of the children's village. If necessary, the pupil has the opportunity to get help from independent experts. A condition for obtaining a loan is the preparation of a plan. The Director of the children's yard claims that the loan is issued in the presence of a business plan and finances [7].

Between the pupils, who receive such financial assistance, and the SOS Fund of the Children's village of Kazakhstan, a contract is concluded, obliging them to fulfill the conditions specified in the contract. In case of failure by the pupil of the specified requirements, rendering of the financial help stops.

The semi-independent life program is the last stage of SOS alumni support and one of the main priorities of the education system. After completing their professional education, children can move fully into private life. Teenagers move permanently to their personal or local housing or rent a house, receiving financial assistance from SOS Children's village. The program is designed to support young people under the age of 22. Thus, SOS graduates are not left alone in this life and they always have the opportunity to seek support.

At the end of this SOS period, the organization stops planning and supporting the child's development, and from that time the child becomes a fully independent, independent person.

After the completion of the semi-independent program, the Commission members checked how much money the child had accumulated, and all the terms of the contract were fulfilled, and the child is looking for an apartment. If the collected funds consist of 2/3 of the cost of the apartment, the administration of the children's yard pays the remaining missing funds free of charge. After that, the child will have his own apartment, even if he receives without a social queue.

The organization continues to support SOS graduates in case SOS have permanent residence of graduates. The purpose of support for graduates is to control their prospects and provide them with psychological and pedagogical assistance in crisis situations. In exceptional cases, financial assistance may be considered. SOS regularly organizes meetings of graduates with pupils. The responsibility for organizing the meetings rests with the national coordinator for youth protection.

This above-mentioned psychological and pedagogical support has achieved its goal if the teenager is completely independent, independent person[8].

Thus, the history of the creation and development of SOS Children's village» SOS Kinderdorf International» is a Testament to the work of our ancestors to care for orphans around the world. In this direction, Kazakhstan perceives positive experience, which will be a great contribution to the social protection of children around the world.

The national SOS Children's village Association operates programs and other social projects to meet the needs of children, focusing not only on children's villages and youth homes, but also on children and families in need of the program's activities. The Association unites only 19 projects and programs, the services of which are used by more than a thousand children and families. For example, with the support of the European Union in «SOS children's village Temirtau», as part of the prevention of social orphanhood, in April 2006 launched a social project «Oyin bus» (game bus).This project is aimed at professional training of children and parents aged 3 to 16 years who need social and pedagogical support, specialists engaged in activities in the field of education and child custody.

It's a bus filled with game and creative material. It is a professional team that organizes and conducts play activities for children in different areas of the city, region and country. This project is aimed at the psychological and pedagogical development of children, adolescents, optimal communication in the family, the ability to communicate with other people. In addition, within the framework of this project «game bus» trainings, games, conversations, round tables are held with the invitation of children, students, teachers to the Children's village. May 3, 2014 students majoring in Social work, social pedagogy and self-knowledge of the state University.E.A. Buketova visited SOS Children's village, where the employees of the organization held a 5-hour training on the theme: «the game is the basis of bus work». The following topics were discussed here:

  •  social center on wheels-the main characteristics of the project «game bus». Various methods of work on the implementation of the project «game bus»;
  •  new games and their philosophy;
  •  games a Superscript on the Board (with a parachute) and their philosophy;
  •  new actions and their philosophy;
  •  stations.

Game training-the main head of «game bus». This is an opportunity for many children, albeit temporarily, to forget about their problems, get rid of family events. It will also be a kind of «mood training» [9].

Unfortunately, now the project «Game bus» has ceased its activities. First, he fulfilled all the goals and objectives set for him, provided his assistance to all children in need of social support in the Karaganda region and the city of Temirtau. Secondly, for various reasons, there is not one employee of the specialists trained by Austrian coaches, the quality of work has changed due to the lack of specialists. But, to replace this project came the project «Strengthening the family and prevention of social orphanhood», aimed at promoting the growth of children in the family and abandonment of parents of children.

Conclusion

The absence of abandoned and orphaned Kazakhs is a national mentality that has been formed for many centuries. Therefore, every child should inculcate principles aimed at developing and popularizing the values of the people, and not increase the number of orphans. To prevent abandoned orphanhood, both a single economic measure and education are untenable. We need comprehensive state programs that have been thought through by the entire society. The most important thing is that a married couple should be responsible, first of all, for strong family communication, for the correct choice of family planning, for a child born of their own will. If these tasks are fulfilled, it helps to strengthen the institution of the family, which indicates that the birth of a child, his upbringing — the support of life, the support of life.

Recommendations

Тhe conclusions drawn from the study of extensive theoretical and empirical materials collected in the course of the study make it possible to formulate a number of proposals and recommendations for both practical social workers who carry out preventive activities aimed at preventing social orphanhood, and other subjects of prevention who interact with the social worker. In addition, the information received about the identity of parents and children in difficult situations.

 

References

  1. ru.wikipedia.org. Retrieved from https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki
  2. Natsionalnaia kontseptsiia opeki molodezhi Fonda SOS Detskie derevni Kazakhstana [National concept of custody of youth of the SOS Foundation Children's villages of Kazakhstan] (2004). Almaty [in Russian].
  3. sos-childrensvillages.org. Retrieved from https://www.sos-childrensvillages.org/getmedia/ b8034cb6-caf1–47c7–8098– 47fb0f890688/SOS_CARE_PROMISE_RU_Web.pdf
  4. Omarova, A.K. (2016). Аleumettі k zhetіmdіk maselelerі n zertteude teoriialyk kozkarastardy damytuha tarikhnamalyk sholu [Historiographic review of developing theoretical approaches to the study of social orphanage]. Vestnik Karahandinskoho universiteta. Seriia Istoriia. Filosofiia — Bulletin of the Karaganda University Series History. Philosophy, 2(82), 24–30 [in Russian].
  5. sos-childrensvillages.org. Retrieved from http://www.sos-childrensvillages.org/About-us/Organisational- structure/Documents/SOS-President-Kaul-RU.pdf
  6. sos-kazakhstan.kz. Retrieved from http://www.sos-kazakhstan.kz/
  7. Prohrammnaia politika orhanizatsii «Detskie derevni SOS» (2008) [Organization policy «Children's Village SOS»]. [in Russian].
  8. Spits, R. (1945, 1946). Hospitalism: A follow — up report on investigation. Psychoanalyt. Studyjf the child, V. 1, 2.
  9. Dosova, B.A., & Baigozhina, D.M. (2016). Metodolohicheskii potentsial istorii povsednevnosti po otsenkam predstavitelei rossiiskoi istoriohrafii [Methodological potential of the history of everyday life by the estimations of Russian historiography representatives]. Vestnik Karahandinskoho universiteta. Seriia Istoriia. Filosofiia — Bulletin of the Karaganda University Series History. Philosophy, 2(82), 24–30 [in Russian].
Year: 2020
City: Karaganda
Category: History