Historical and cultural monuments of Karaganda region (experience of quantitative and typological characteristics comparison by national indicators)

The article considers the quantitative and typological characteristics of the monuments of historical and cultural heritage included in the state lists of historical and cultural monuments of local significance of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Statistical processing of data at the regional level was carried out and their indicators were compared using cartographic and infographic methods. By the number of monuments in the regions in absolute terms, it can be noted that the monuments of history and culture are distributed in the territory of the republic extremely unevenly. Visibility allows the regions to be identified as leaders and outsiders by this indicator. The largest number of historical and cultural monuments is registered in the territory of West Kazakhstan region, the smallest in Kyzylorda region. Absolute quantitative data are not sufficiently representative, since the number of monuments can be determined by the area. For this reason, work was done to determine the density of monuments on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan based on the number of monuments per square kilometer. According to this indicator, the region is also the youngest from each other. The highest density of monuments in the republic is in West Kazakhstan region, the lowest — in Kostanay. As can be seen from the maps and diagrams, the gap in the number of monuments is simply colossal. This kind of imbalance demonstrates the difference in the approach to identifying monuments of history and culture and their inclusion in state lists. All this allows us to single out 2 factors that can affect the number of monuments of historical and cultural heritage. Objectively, no so many monuments have saved due to various factors. Such as natural and climatic conditions for this reason, some monuments could be lost (mudflows, floods, earthquakes, etc.). Subjectively, the number of historical and cultural monuments may depend on the activity of state bodies in the field of protection of monuments. The recognition of objects of historical and cultural heritage as monuments of history and culture is confirmed by their approval in the State List of Historical and Cultural Monuments of international, republican and local significance, subject to mandatory official publication.

Introduction

The preservation of historical and cultural heritage is one of the priority tasks facing the state and the public today. Monuments provide a stable link between modern society and its historical past. This leads to a social demand for their preservation. Monuments of material culture are very vulnerable. Silent witnesses of antiquity, they are often the only sources of our country history for a number of chronological periods. However, time sometimes destroys them — temperature changes, river flooding, weathering, and many other factors affect their condition. But the fact that some of them withstood the impact of natural factors for centuries, it turned out to be defenseless against the anthropogenic factor. Industrialization, the expansion of farmland, and the dynamic growth of the population demonstrate a threat to historical and cultural monuments.

The good example of this situation can be Karaganda region. On the one hand, this region is extremely rich in ancient monuments. There are archaeological sites left by the most ancient people of the stone and bronze ages, barrows of nomads of antiquity and the Middle Ages, medieval urban culture, monuments of folk Kazakh architecture, as well as objects of urban planning and architecture of the imperial and Soviet times. Rich lands of Sary-arka and favorable strategic location determined the richness of Karaganda region with historical and cultural monuments.

In the conditions of modern Kazakhstan, this region has become a platform for the implementation of numerous projects related to the development of agriculture, communications and the extractive industry. Irrigated agriculture, construction of infrastructure facilities, development of coal, ore and other mineral deposits are undoubtedly the most important basis for its socio-economic development. However, this type of activity, which is inextricably linked to significant amounts of earthworks, carries a potential danger to historical and cultural monuments. In addition to large land users, average residents of the region and small businesses in the course of their economic and other activities, also cause damage to cultural monuments.

Results and discussion

The source base is the Laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Various normative documents of regional significance and municipal level (state lists of historical and cultural monuments of local significance) are of great importance. It is worth mentioning the Internet resources involved in the work, which include official websites of ministries and departments containing information and scientific publications on the subject under study.

When writing the article were used General scientific (analysis; synthesis; mathematical-statistical method (collecting, processing, analyzing quantitative data, calculating averages, interest, group statistics on a specific basis, drawing tables)) and the special historical methods (historical-typological, historical, systematic, etc.).

Discussion

The legal status of historical and cultural monuments, as well as mechanisms for their protection, are regulated by the Law of the Kazakhstan Republic «The protection and usage of historical and cultural heritage objects» dated December 26, 2019 No. 288-VI [1].

According to article 5 of this law, «historical and cultural monuments in the Kazakhstan Republic are subject to mandatory protection and preservation in accordance with the procedure provided by this Law, have a special legal authority for their usage, change of ownership rights to them and deprivation of their status» [2].

Historical and cultural monuments are registered on the basis of State lists of national and local significance historical and cultural monuments, registration cards and passports of historical and cultural heritage objects.

An important component of the activities of local Executive bodies authorized to monitor the protection of historical and cultural heritage is the identification and registration of cultural monuments.

The Center for the preservation of historical and cultural heritage of the Department of culture, archives and documentation of the Karaganda region is actively working in this direction. The result of its activity is the inclusion of 1536 objects in the State list of historical and cultural monuments by local significance in the Karaganda region. According to this indicator, Karaganda region occupies the 2nd place in the Republic.

Historical and cultural monuments are objects of historical and cultural heritage included in the State list of historical and cultural monuments [3].

According to the Law of December 26, 2019, historical and cultural monuments are divided into 5 groups: monuments of archeology, monuments of urban planning and architecture, ensembles and complexes, sacred objects, structures of monumental art [2].

  1. archaeological sites — Sites, settlements, remnants of ancient buildings, settlements, fortifications, industries, canals, roads, burial grounds, mounds, necropolises, megalithic structures, stone sculptures, petro glyphs, sections of the historical cultural layer of ancient settlements and other places that have traces of human life and activity [3];
  2. monuments of urban planning and architecture — architectural ensembles and complexes, historical centers, blocks, squares, streets, structures of civil, residential, industrial, military, religious architecture, folk architecture, as well as related works of monumental, decorative, applied and landscape art, natural landscapes [3];
  3. ensembles and complexes are groups of isolated or combined monuments, buildings and structures of fortification of the Palace, residential, public, administrative, commercial, industrial, scientific, educational, and religious purposes, including fragments of historical planning and settlement buildings that are localized on historically formed territories; [3];
  4. religious objects — historical and memorable places, man-made and natural places of worship, landscapes, structures associated with outstanding historical events and personalities, as well as spiritual values of the people [3];
  5. Buildings of monumental art — works of monumental art (monuments, steles, busts), established to perpetuate the memory of outstanding personalities, significant historical events [3].

The total number of monuments according to the state list of historical and cultural monuments of national significance on the territory of Kazakhstan is 218. The number of local significance monuments is 11,404, which are located in 14 regions and 2 cities of national significance. Seven of these monuments are designated as natural monuments and are located in the Almaty region. Also, 24 monuments were excluded by the decree of the local administrations.

Table 1 Distribution of historical and cultural monuments by region

Region\city

Total amount

Archeologies

Urban planning and architecture

Ensembles

Excluded

Natures

NKR [4]

593

436

156

0

0

0

Kostanay [5]

722

635

85

0

2

0

Pavlodar [6]

280

199

81

0

0

0

Akmola [7]

1032

976

56

0

0

0

Astana [8]

45

11

34

0

0

0

Atyrau [9]

313

172

84

57

0

0

WKR [10]

2009

1965

43

1

0

0

Aktobe [11]

650

545

98

7

0

0

Mangystau [12]

570

352

60

158

0

0

Karaganda [13]

1538

1079

429

29

1

0

EKR [14]

612

319

259

17

17

0

Almaty region [15]

1519

1251

261

0

0

7

Zhambyl [16]

713

603

108

2

0

0

Kyzylorda [17]

256

82

174

0

0

0

SKR [18]

434

378

55

1

0

0

Almaty [19]

118

11

101

1

4

0

Total

11404

9014

2084

273

24

7

The data shows the following situation in the country:

There are 9014 archaeological monuments, which is 79 % of the total number of monuments. Archaeological monuments take precedence under other types of monuments. This is due to the long period of archaeological material accumulation from the stone age to the middle ages. Archaeological sites are diverse and numerous. There are 2084 monuments of urban planning and architecture, which is 18 % of the total number of monuments. The smaller number of urban planning and architecture monuments is due to a shorter period of accumulation and narrow specifics. Monuments of this type are divided into monuments of local folk architecture, as well as Russian, Soviet and modern. Folk architecture is more widely represented in Southern, Central and Western Kazakhstan. Monuments of the colonial period are widely represented in the regions that were actively developed by the imperial administration — these are the territories along the Ural and Irtysh rivers, etc.

There are 283 ensembles in the Republic, which is 3 % of all types of monuments on the territory of Kazakhstan. This is the smallest group of monuments. It is very specific. On the one hand, ensembles are not as widespread as other types of monuments. On the other hand, selecting an ensemble is a complex methodological task. It is possible that real ensembles are not always registered under this category, but are listed as monuments of archeology or urban planning and architecture.

After a General calculation of the number of historical and cultural monuments in the country, there was done statistical data processing at the regional level. We compared their indicators using cartographic and info graphic methods.

There are 30 ensembles, 1103 monuments of archeology and 403 monuments of urban planning and architecture in the Karaganda region.

Based on figure 2, by the number of monuments in the regions in absolute values, it can be noted that historical and cultural monuments are distributed very unequally on the territory of the Republic.

Visibility allows you to determine the regions that are leaders and outsiders by this indicator.

The largest number of historical and cultural monuments is registered in the territory of the West Kazakhstan region, the smallest in the Kyzylorda region.

Table 2 Density of historical and cultural monuments by region

Region/City

Area (sq. km)

Number of monuments

Density of monuments per square km

NKR

97993

593

0,006

Kostanay

196 001

722

0,0001

Pavlodar

124 755

280

0,0021

Akmola

146 219

1032

0,007

Astana

810

45

0,055

Atyrau

118 631

313

0,002

WKR

151 339

2009

0,013

Aktobe

300 629

650

0,002

Mangystau

165 642

570

0,003

Karaganda

427 982

1538

0,003

EKR

283 226

612

0,002

Almaty region

223 911

1519

0,007

Zhambyl

144 264

713

0,004

Kyzylorda

226 019

256

0,001

SKR

116 280

434

0,003

Almaty

682

118

0,17

Total

2724383

11404

0,004

Conclusions

Absolute quantitative data is not sufficiently representative, because the number of monuments can be determined by the area. For this reason, there has been done for determining the density of monuments on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan based on the number of monuments per square kilometer.

By this indicator, the regions also differ significantly from each other. The highest density of monuments in the Republic is in West Kazakhstan region, the lowest-in Kostanay region.

As you can see from the maps and diagrams, the gap in the number of monuments is simply huge. This kind of imbalance demonstrates the difference in the approach of identifying historical and cultural monuments and including them in state lists.

Figure 6 shows the difference in the density of monuments between West Kazakhstan and Kostanay regions. A comparison of districts was carried out. If the West Kazakhstan region is significantly outnumbered by the number of monuments, Karaganda region shows high indicators within the normal distribution. It based on the organizational capabilities of the local authorities responsible for identifying and taking measures for protection historical and cultural heritage sites that shows good results on the national background.

There are 2 factors that can affect the number of monuments of historical and cultural heritage. Objectively, not many monuments have been preserved due to various factors. For this reason, some monuments may have been lost (mudslides, floods, earthquakes, etc.).

Subjectively, the number of historical and cultural monuments may depend on the activity of state bodies in the field of monument protection. Thus, in the Law «The protection and use of objects of historical and cultural heritage», Objects of historical and cultural heritage acquire the status of historical and cultural monuments from the moment they are recognized as such in accordance to the procedure established by this Law [20]. For making a decision on the inclusion of historical and cultural heritage objects in the State list of historical and cultural monuments, documents are submitted in accordance with the procedure established by the Government of the Kazakhstan Republic. Recognition of historical and cultural heritage objects as historical and cultural monuments is secured by their approval in the State list of historical and cultural monuments of international, national and local significance, liable to mandatory official publication. Памятники археологии приобретают статус памятников истории и культуры с момента их выявления.

It can also be noted that regions with low density of monuments need to strengthen the work on identifying and including historical and cultural monuments in the state lists of the Kazakhstan Republic.

Recommendations

It should be noted that regions with a low density of monuments need to intensify efforts to identify and include them in state monuments of history and culture of the Republic of Kazakhstan. This work can be used in the future as a statistical database on the preservation of historical and cultural heritage, which operates in accordance with the data of the Ministry of Culture and Sports and local executive bodies, in the administrative bodies of culture, documentation and under the akimats of the region and cities of republican significance.

 

References

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Year: 2020
City: Karaganda
Category: History