The formation of children's healthy lifestyle in the educational process is the main issue

The article is devoted to actual issues of schoolchildrens' health, optimization of the educational process, the formation of the value of health and a healthy lifestyle. In addition, the article discusses the issues of healthy lifestyles and the problems of mainstream health care in modern educational institutions. Currently, during the reform of secondary schools of the Republic of Kazakhstan there are many issues related to the health problems of students associated with the transition to twelve-year education. In this regard, in the modern education system, new, innovative methods of teaching and educating younger students on the formation of a healthy lifestyle were considered, ways of forming a healthy lifestyle were proposed. Particular attention was paid to the formation and organization of healthy lifestyle, and practical recommendations were given. Optimal conditions for healthy lifestyles are formulated. One of the areas of educational work at school is cognitive activity, which contributes to the formation of an active life position of the schoolchildren. It is a means of creating a healthy lifestyle. The methods and techniques of forming a healthy lifestyle were analyzed, the effectiveness of forming a healthy lifestyle of younger students was proved.

The well-being of society and people is a social one for the entire civilized world. The man today can not think of himself as an educated person without mastering a healthy lifestyle and health culture. The health of each of us is not just personal wealth, it is also a necessary condition for joining to the thirty developed countries. That is, people's health is one of the important factors that reflect the civilization of the country.

Health is an important part of the happy life of every person. And the main condition for health is cultural environment, healthy lifestyle. A healthy nation, a happy citizen, is a guarantee of the prosperity of the state, especially if the future of our country is related to children's health. The problem of health of the pupils and the formation of a healthy lifestyle is very relevant in the modern world. Therefore, Nursultan Nazarbayev emphasized that in the strategic program «Kazakhstan-2030» a healthy lifestyle is aimed at physical training of each of us, proper nutrition, purity and well-being [1].

Thus, the message of the President of Kazakhstan is the strengthening of health of the citizens of Kazakhstan and the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, which is a golden path to the future of young people.

One of the most important issues that requires the direct involvement of all state structures is a healthy lifestyle. Nowadays, the main problem of society is the formation of a healthy lifestyle, which in turn promotes not only the good feeling of the person, but also the nation's healing.

It is a work that people can handle on their own. Thus, every human being is responsible for his own health, and strengthens it and gives the right gestures. It is necessary to develop consciousness and differentiation to feel the joy of life and to achieve the goals. How do we want to see the future of ourselves and our children in the new XXI century? It's time to figure this out.

The leader of the nation, N.Nazarbayev, emphasized that the only power with what Kazakhstan can take on the status of civilized countries is the educated generation, and noted that XXI century belongs to well- educated, competitive youth [2]. Our competitors will come to this competition. The idea of raising such a competitive, versatile educated, conscious personality, the protection and love the place of birth, the nature in our mind are built from the school walls.

A healthy lifestyle should be the norm of human behavior to serve the future of the generation. It is important for a healthy lifestyle to have a specific focus on learning, acting, and skills. These trends are reflected in the state policy on modern education and upbringing, as well as on youth policy [3].

Adolescents' healthy lifestyle is the only way to get involved to the life. The wise way of life of a society is directly related to the behavior of a person, his actions. It is particularly important to act in accordance with human standards. On the basis of this, the man will happy, healthier, handsome and awake. Hence, health and healthy lifestyles are closely linked. So, at present the health and strengthening of the health of the population is the main and socially significant time requirement of the government.

In this regard, in 1997 the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the protection of health of citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan was adopted.

The health care team around the world organizes large-scale events for healthy lifestyles, which is explained by three factors:

  •  physical health — genetics;
  •  mental (mood, spiritual issues);
  •  social.

These three issues, society — human — health are not separated from each other [4].

Article 35 of the Law on Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan provides the Department of Healthcare of the schoolchildrens: «The educational process in educational institutions is carried out taking into account the health of the pupils. They will be provided with the necessary measures to prevent their illness, improve their health, improve physical condition and promote healthy lifestyles».

Therefore, the principles of national and public education deriving from the theoretical and practical concepts of education and upbringing to present-day generations should clearly define the government's educational policy and public policy. In this regard, the 1999 Concept of the State Youth Policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan states: «The physical and mental health of adolescents is a strategic asset of the country and a key factor in its modern development. Youth should be encouraged to develop good spiritual values — promoting world, national, cultural values and age» [5].

The purpose of the State Program of Education and Science Development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2016–2019 is to strengthen the spiritual and moral values of the national patriotic idea «Mangilik Yel» and to promote a healthy lifestyle culture [6].

That's why today a healthy lifestyle should be a national idea. There are many works in the Kazakh people that will be the basis for this idea. The educational heritage of Kurtka Sultankhodzhauly, the laws like «Kasym Khannyn Kaska Zholy» which for the genetic purity of the nation prohibited the marriage of up to seven grandchildren, «Esim Khannyn Eski Zholy» and the «Zheti Zhargy» of Tauke Khan, «Shipagerlik bayany» by the well-known thinker Oteiboydak Tleukabyluly, who lived in the Kazak Khanate — all of these are works that can be obtained from national psychology about the well-being and the moral values of the future.

Recall the development of the national heritage of the Kazakh nation on healthy, rational, spiritual, moral and educational side, works of Ibn Sina, scholar Al-Farabi, Omar Khayyam's Rubai have left an eternal spiritual heritage to all Turkic peoples; the works of Zhusip Balasaguni, Mahmoud Kashqari, Ahmet Yassaui, Haidar Dulati are treasure of our nation [7].

The works of Shokan, Ybyray, Abai have a great place in the upbringing of generations. The great Abai, a teacher of the whole nation, concludes that purity of soul and body, the moral qualities, and the results of healthy person's actions will turn for the good of society. [8] The works of Sh.Kudayberdiyev, A.Baytursynov, H.Dosmukhameduly, M.Zhumabayev, Zh.Aymauytuly, M.Dulatov, and others left a mark on the use of teaching ideas for using today's pupils to build up their well-being, collecting of heritage from generation to generation, works devoted to health issues have a special place. [9].

A. Baitursynuly said that healthy body — healthy mind, first of all, «we should know the value of purity. The roots of the health of the person — the purity, the roots of the health of the soul is in good health,»- says an important way to save health. Because health is the purity of body and conscience. This is the foundation of health.

For example, M. Zhumabayev in his «Pedagogy» textbook distinguishes upbringing into four categories: physical, mental, esthetic and behavioral education. If these four are given to the human being, they will have a close relationship within — the body and the soul will support each other, that is our mind will be clear, our character will be in a right way, we will be stronger. The person's soul can be seen by his views and actions. It reveals the importance of physical and mental health in a person's life. Indeed, a person who is physically and spiritually healthy can live in a healthy way [10].

The fate of the nation is in the hands of the descendants, that is why our ancestors put the question of educating the younger generation in the first place, trying to instill in them a love of work, spiritual and moral qualities. Therefore, teachers should know how to educate their pupils how to be healthy. All school subjects should participate in this, not just physical education.

The health of the nation is the main indicator of the social and economic development of society. Building health, maintaining a healthy lifestyle is the basis for building a future generation. Building a healthy lifestyle among pupils and strengthening health is an important area in modern schools. Therefore, one of the most important tasks of the education system is to provide all the conditions for maintaining and strengthening health, as well as to cultivate a view of health as a human value. In order for the future generation to be healthy, it is necessary to give the correct concept of health, a healthy lifestyle, and the principles of maintaining a healthy lifestyle from primary school.

Well-being is not an innate quality; it is formed in the presence of the surrounding society, the right traditions, knowledge and skills. A healthy lifestyle is passed down from generation to generation and must be continuously passed on to the next generation.

The moral and social experience gained by the older generation must be effectively used to raise children in welfare. If the connection between time and generation is broken, the national identity of the nation and its culture will be destroyed. The meaning of the word «salauat» in the explanatory word of the Kazakh language means rationality, calmness. Rationality means that people have worldly knowledge, intellect, consciousness, and the word «calmness» is stability. Thus, the word «salauat» in the broad sense refers to our national concept, not only because of human health, but also because of his upbringing, human nature and human qualities, that is, to be healthy, you need to be smart, reasonable, calm and stable.

Based on the above, that is, on the meaning of the words «lifestyle» and «well-being», «healthy lifestyle is personal behavioral norms and lifestyle that reflect the mind, intellect, rationality, sincerity, calmness and self-awareness of the actions that are necessary for the life» [11].

To build a healthy lifestyle, a person must understand its necessity and purpose at a subconscious level. According to Professor K. Zharykbaev, necessity is a need that a person feels in certain life situations and in development. Necessities describe the constant conditions of the internal world of an organism or situations of external life. Once they are recognized and identified, they can be seen in the form of characteristic motifs. For example, after the introduction of a healthy lifestyle, this should become a constant norm of a person's character. For this, when building a healthy lifestyle, it is important that there is a certain direction in the development of knowledge, actions and skills about welfare.

Kazakhstan scientists B.A. Abdikarimov, K.M. Kertaeva G.S. Syzdykova and others believe that the issues of educational work in schools in accordance with modern conditions, the preservation and strengthening of pupils' health should be solved by the coordinated work of medical workers and teachers.

From early childhood, the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes in health care becomes an important part of human culture and contributes to the formation of a healthy lifestyle in society.

In general, the formation pupils of primary school with a healthy lifestyle will be considered as social, theoretical and practical features. The social features of teaching pupils to a healthy lifestyle is noticeable from an understanding of social meaning and its necessity, and the theoretical features is noticeable from the transfer of the necessary theoretical knowledge and experience of the older generation about a healthy lifestyle. The content, methodology of the work necessary for a healthy lifestyle, ways to implement it shows its practical features.

Healthy lifestyle training is a purposeful, systematic and organizational process. This type of organization of training promotes understanding of health in children. It teaches pupils how to distinguish healthy life from harmful life and helps them to maintain their health and someone elses health in the future.

There are three main goals for the formation of healthy lifestyle:

  1. global — ensure physical and mental health of the rising generation;
  2. didactic — Promote health, ability to work and survive by educating skills, abilities and habits that enable them to equip them with the knowledge needed to prevent traumatism in the health sector;
  3. methodical — to provide pupils with knowledge about the physiological basis of the existence process, compliance with personal hygiene rules, the prevention of somatic diseases, psychological deviations, sexually transmitted infections, as well as harm to the body of psychotropic substances [12].

The establishment of healthy lifestyle levels is determined using control methods, personal and collective interviews with pupils and their parents, surveys, results of medical examinations, methods for assessing knowledge about improving health, as well as skills of pupils in the learning process.

Educating teachers about good traditions and habits, learning a healthy lifestyle and how to do it is important for children to be healthy.

The reason is that there is a need to educate pupils about a healthy lifestyle, with the help of special methods. The primary objectives of schoolchildren to promote healthy lifestyles include:

  •  formation of a concept of «healthy lifestyle»;
  •  use of elements of folk pedagogy (oral folklore, traditions, customs, national games, etc.);
  •  application of effective psychological and pedagogical conditions in the formation of a healthy lifestyle among schoolchildren;
  •  encourage schoolchildren about healthy lifestyle;
  •  assistance to self-education of pupils;
  •  formation of responsibility in health care, healthy lifestyles;
  •  forming healthy lifestyles through special health care technology [13].

The purpose of health technology in education is to help the pupil to maintain his / her health in school, to develop the skills required to develop a healthy lifestyle. Modern schools have their own goals, and in fulfilling them, one should not forget about health care and strengthening, the teacher should not adhere to exact factors in the school and in the pupil's life that can harm the health of the child, but should change and consider situations with a successful outcome for the child. The most important of pedagogical factors is the method of pedagogical impact shock. Modern child always feels stress due to the following reasons: time limitations on and out of lessons, responses, behaviors, dissatisfaction of teachers and parents, because of the quality of education or the pace of the child's education and so on.

First of all, formation of a healthy lifestyle of pupils is carried out in the learning process. In modern pedagogy, the learning process is considered like teaching the pupil the appropriate skills in conjunction with the teacher. The learning process is based on a variety of pedagogical technologies, based on a combination of methods and techniques for the effort, time, and health of the pupil and teacher who make this process more effective and productive.

The main factors that influence healthy lifestyles are:

  •  a proper attitude toward work;
  •  efficient use of leisure;
  •  to be able to eat correctly;
  •  the problem of increasing knowledge;
  •  physical exercises, sports;
  •  ability to avoid unwanted behavior;
  •  hygiene, regime maintenance and so on [14].

«Healthy body — healthy spirit». When a person is healthy, he is friendly with people, intelligent, pondering, very emotional, restrained, aware of a place in society, responsible, quickly enters into a conversation with people, loves nature, aware of the environment, knows what happiness is [15].

In organizing the learning process, teachers need to be able to work with pupils to make learning activities more effective. All tasks and questions are aimed at the development of thinking (comparison, research, control, analysis, collection, etc.), imagination, creativity, attention, memory.

Taking into account the requirements of the state standard of primary education, besides ensuring the health literacy, it is necessary to develop a motivation for a healthy lifestyle and to educate the responsibility for their health and the health of the people. This is not just about the ways of health care and strengthening, but also the creation of new conscious types of behavior useful for health.

If we take, for example, some lessons and activities aimed at introducing students to modern views on a healthy lifestyle and life skills, first you need to explain to children what a healthy lifestyle is, by offering short stories. Then it is recommended to paint children, but not objects that they want, but objects that describe the spiritual, physical, social, intellectual and emotional aspects of human well-being (sun, heart, laugh, etc.). Then they talk about how they painted the picture and why they painted it. You can provide a brainstorming. Ask one question for children and discuss it with them. For example, you can discuss this question: «What is needed for a good plant growth?» Children can write answers to the board. Underlining: care for plants, removal of weeds; watering for good growth; treat from pests and diseases. You can also make the following conclusions with our children: Do we have to keep our health (what do we do for it?); development, strengthening (what do we do for it?); restore if necessary (what does this mean?). At the end of the lesson you can write a healthy lifestyle formula on the board after talking with children: «Save, develop, restore».

Improving the importance of improving the quality of education, it is beneficial to keep up-to-date on the health of pupils during the classroom and to share their psychological trainings on a daily basis, as students are not too tired on the lesson and start learning relaxing after the refreshing moments [16]. Trainings, refreshing moments help the student to forget the tiredness of the respiratory tract and the nervous system, by keeping himself free and trusting the other. Nowadays, children's health deteriorates. One of the issues we all think about is the environmental ecological disorder, the effects of some technologies on the health of the child, and the consequences of such effects can lead to human physiological, psychological and moral damage. In most cases, it is possible for a person to behave uncorrectly. The most important issue for the pupil's health is to have a healthy lifestyle and to learn how to keep and strengthen it [17].

The pupil is aware of the growth and development of the body, biological and social development, his attitude to life, his readiness for creative and productive activities.

Formation of a healthy lifestyle is a long process, but it is one of the ways to preserve and strengthen real health. That is why today we call all means that we have accumulated in this concept folk pedagogy [18].

In connection with the improvement of spiritual and social situations with the help of the values of folk pedagogy, according to the conditions of modern society, events are held that tell about the spiritual values of our people, on such topics as «Effective use of time is a sign of prosperity», «Purity is the basis of health, health is the basis of well-being», «Nutrition is also well-being», «Avoid bad habits!», «Smoking — harm yourself «, etc.

Taking into account a number of anomalies and barriers to the formation of a healthy lifestyle with family, social, material and environmental factors, we would like to offer primary school pupils the opportunities to build a healthy lifestyle:

  •  increase the attitude of the pupil to the lifestyle and health from the primary school;
  •  enhancing and strengthening physical and psychological health of children;
  •  to keep track of bad habits out of school.

Schools in our country today are called upon to educate the young generation smart, healthy, intelligent with the help of quality education, monitoring the health of children, preserving the national heritage in education, honoring traditions and customs. The teacher's duty is to teach the student in the educational process to care their health, without causing harm, to be responsible for their health. We must not forget that the future of an independent country is in the hands of growing youth, and only a healthy generation with a pure soul will have ideas that will be implemented for the prosperity of our country [19].

It is known that the core of any national culture, the basis of the national spirit is the tradition. And traditions are transmitted through generations. Indeed, the education of young people on the basis of national traditions creates the necessary conditions for the cultural and social development of our independent country. Thus, the role of national education in shaping the future generation as a multifaceted personality and building wealth will be significant.

That is why the President pays special attention to stimulating a healthy lifestyle. In other words, the President's Message emphasizes the basic principles of our country's prosperity and development, determines its direction and implements its goals.

As it is stated in the message, «If we can not guarantee the national security of citizens, society and the state, which promotes the Declaration of State's Independence, then our economic and political planning will remain for the history and for our descendants a small wave above water».

The main wealth of man is health. The health of our offspring is more than wealth. Building a healthy lifestyle is important for children's health. Without a doubt, the young generation, which will support our independent state, will be able to reach the highest peaks and serve people only if they are healthy.

Thus, the main activity of teachers in the formation of a healthy lifestyle of students should be focused on the creation of psychological and pedagogical conditions, conscious attitude to their health and the health of others, strengthening the culture of behavior and health-saving activities.

 

References

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Year: 2020
City: Karaganda
Category: Pedagogy