Features of personality socialization by means of self-knowledge

Features of social formation of the personality are defined by circumstances that a person has, but results of this process will still be predictable. In modern conditions, approaches to the sociological analysis of personality, taking into account changes in the socio-cultural context, are necessary. The main contradictions in the consideration of social characteristics of the person on the one hand — are characteristic of the person produced in the process of social interaction. On the other hand, in the modern world the person is engaged in constantly changing process of interaction, influence of various factors on the personality. The set of social conditions for each person will be unique. The social characteristics of the individual will also be unique. One of the most authoritative ways of analyzing society, the center of interest of functionalism are social systems in which only people live. In the social aspect, the person acts as a role, as an actor. Sociology of personality is a condition of social service, but is not considered as a qualitatively important social system. It depends on how much the individual is carried out as a carrier of social functions. In the General form of education is a purposeful process that contributes to the development and formation of moral qualities of the person, contributing to the socialization of the person. Education has its own characteristics. This process is always purposeful than others, and consciously it is carried out through people trained specifically for this: parents, teachers, educators, social educators, etc. the Impact of education on the development of the child over time changes dynamically. The smaller the child, the stronger the educational effect on the formation and development of personality. As the child grows, his share decreases, but the child's choice of certain social values and guidelines and preferences, the degree of his independent influence on his development increases. As a result of the positive influence of educational, educational and other social factors (cultural, historical and religious traditions, mass media, children's public associations, school staff, friends, etc.) there is a natural process of integration of a person into society, that is, his socialization.

The formation of a person's personality in society is one of the urgent problems of our time. A person from childhood goes through a process of continuous socialization. The process of socialization has a special impact on the formation of a person as a person. Since ancient times, scientists have told various philosophical thoughts about the formation of man. In this context, the ancient Greek scholars say, «man must first be self-aware, then man will be more equal than he knew the whole world». And Socrates often said that « you are yourself-you are yourself». One of the ways of social correct formation of personality is self-knowledge. Man, as a person, can find his place in society. The formation of the personality in society, is, to some extent, that man manifests itself in this society. Currently, the formation of youth as a person is one of the most important problems in our country. Many young people cannot learn about their place in society, do not know in what sphere of activity they are developing, do not know about spiritual experiences. In this regard, one of the important problems, many young people do not know what is needed from this society, that is, do not find a place in this society, do not see themselves in society as a person. Due to the fact that there are no such problems in our country, young people do not know themselves, do not know what they want from society, how personality is formed. In the Law on the Rights of the Child and the Law on Education in the Republic of Kazakhstan, one of the main tasks is «the development of creative, spiritual and physical capabilities of the individual, the formation of strong foundations of morality and a healthy lifestyle, enrichment of the intellect by creating conditions for the development of individuality» [1]. Social formation of personality is considered in psychological and pedagogical literature as a process and result. In the first case, the category under study is characterized as «the dynamics of social development of a person, determining his formation as a socially Mature person». In the reference pedagogical literature, a socially Mature person is understood as the level of formation of principles, knowledge, skills and ethical qualities sufficient for voluntary, skillful and responsible performance of the entire set of social roles inherent in adults. In a narrow sense, this term is a complex of individual qualities of the subject, which constitute the ability to interact with other people in the process of achieving common goals. Therefore, with the help of social maturity through its indicators will fill the content of social formation, the description of its process. In General, the role of the teacher in the development of personality is huge. This is stated in the law «on approval of standard qualification characteristics of positions of teachers and persons equated to them in the Republic of Kazakhstan» [2].

In the Address of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2015, the priority tasks include the issue of the qualitative growth of human capital in the country: «patriotism, moral and ethical standards, interethnic harmony and tolerance, physical and spiritual development, law obedience. These values should be taught to students in all educational institutions» [3].

The problem of social formation of personality is reflected in foreign and domestic scientific literature. It should be noted that the views on the essence and content of this concept of different authors differ significantly. In the explanatory dictionary of the Russian language, the term S.I. Ozhegova is understood as the term «formation», «emergence of differences in the process of development». Formation is also defined as the process of development (V. Shapar), in which the individual takes responsibility for the fullest realization of its potential and as obtaining new features and development of new objects in the process of development, approaching a certain situation (L.V. Mardakhaev). In this context, we can talk about the formation of a person, personality, character, thinking, etc. or spiritual-moral, intellectual, social and other formation. In particular, N.I. Igoshev in his dissertation research under the spiritual and moral formation of personality understands socially organized human activities carried out in the framework of professional and social systems associated with the development of personal spiritual and moral values, motives. Considering the spiritual and moral formation of personality as a process, the author expresses its stages: the upward movement in the biological, social, cultural and professional, abstract spiritual space [4].

N.V. Bordovskaya, A.A. Rean emphasizes that, firstly, there is no single definition of human maturity, secondly, this concept is replaced by simple «adults», thirdly, the proposed objective criteria for its description are controversial. Authors «the problem of maturity within the paradigm can be considered at the levels of the individual, personality, subject of activity and personality. In relation to another system of concepts, we understand intellectual, emotional, personal development. Among all aspects of maturity, the most complex and unexplored and having four main, basic components is personal maturity:

  1. responsibility; 2) tolerance; 3) self-development; 4) positive thinking, a positive view of the world». Responsibility is a necessary component, an attribute of perfect activity. Social maturity and its component part — responsibility-is formed only in adequate activity, in the decision-making process, in free choice. Another important component of social improvement is tolerance. A.A. Rean proposes to distinguish two of its types:
  2. sensuous (associated with resistance to the effects of the social environment, due to the weakening of the impact on any adverse factor by reducing sensitivity to its effects. Such tolerance is associated with endurance);
  3. disposition (behind it there are certain principles of the person, the system of his relationship to reality: to others, to life, to himself).

Another component of social improvement is called the need for self-realization, self-activation, which is an indicator of its achievement and at the same time a condition. Its fourth main element is a positive view of the world, which determines a positive attitude to reality. Thus, despite the fact that today giving a complete model of social maturity of the individual is problematic, its development will be carried out in the process of upbringing, education, self-education with independence and freedom of decision-making. Social formation of the personality is seen as the result showing on level (indicator) of social development of man, his social maturity, the ability to feel in society as an individual, self-defining goals for yourself and achieving them, conscious development of their dignity, confidence in their status in society. In this regard, X. Considering social formation as large-scale changes, Remschmidt shows that in the cognitive sphere they are accompanied by the development of combinatorics, propositional operations, the emergence of hypothetical-deductive thinking, the ability to introspection; in the moral sphere-the revision of value representations, their systematization, the transfer of the function of the model from the parents to the reference group, the assimilation of value.

Е. Erickson in the framework of the theory of «crisis development» or «crisis periods», explaining the change in human attitudes to the social environment and with it, proposed to divide human life into three major stages: the formation of personality, its adulthood and old age. In turn, in the period of formation of personality, the author noted that childhood, adolescence and youth coincide with the end of personality, the

acquisition of certain mental and socio-moral stability, determination of its propensities and possibilities, manifestations of the desire for self-assertion, updating the social integrity of the individual, of entering in the social structure of society. Thus, at this stage of social formation of the personality there are new norms of its orientation, there are conscious, active and independent abilities to participate in society life, to improve. T.T. Toshchenko, considering «socialization and social formation, gradual assimilation of the requirements of society by a person, obtaining socially significant characteristics of consciousness and behavior regulating relations with society», equalizes the social formation and socialization of a person [4].

The socialization of the individual begins from the first year of life and ends at the period of civil maturation of the person, but, of course, the powers, rights and duties received by him do not say that the process of socialization is completely completed: in some aspects it lasts all life. It is in this sense that we are talking about the need to improve the pedagogical culture of parents, about the performance of civil duties by a person, about compliance with the rules of interpersonal communication. Otherwise, socialization is a process of constant recognition, approval and creative development of the rules and norms of behavior established by society. The first simple information a person receives in the family, which forms consciousness and behavior. In sociology, attention is drawn to the fact that the value of the family as a social institution for a long time is not taken into account enough. The decline in the role of the family, in the main, brought great losses in moral behavior, which later became the largest costs in labor and socio-political life.

A.V. Mudrik combined the main factors of socialization into three groups:

  1. macro factors-macro factors (space, planet, world, country, society, state) that affect the socialization of all inhabitants of the planet or very large groups of people living in certain countries;);
  2. mesofactors-the conditions of socialization of large groups of persons allocated on a national ba- sis(ethnicity as a factor of socialization); the place and type of settlement in which they live (region, village, city, village); belonging to the audience of any networks of mass communications (radio, television, cinema, etc.).);
  3. microfactors-these include organizations that directly affect specific people: families, peer groups, microsociums, organizations in which social education is carried out-educational, professional, social, etc. [4].

Given that the human personality in its unity forms genetic and social programs, it should be noted the presence of subjective and objective conditions of personality formation, its maturity during life, as well as as a result of development and education.

Biological factors: heredity (transmission from parents of psychophysiological qualities and sisters: hair color, eyes, skin, temperament, speed of mental processes, as well as speech, thinking, direct universal signs and national characteristics) largely determine the subjective conditions that affect the formation of personality. The structure and mechanisms of functioning of the mental life of the individual, the processes of formation of personal and holistic qualities constitute the subjective world of personality. Man is a living organism that obeys both the General laws of biology and the special laws of anatomy and physiology. But the inheritance is given a certain font, not the quality of personality. A Deposit is a natural placement on a particular service. There are two types: universal (the structure of the brain, the Central nervous system, receptors); individual differences in natural data (especially the types of the nervous system, analyzers, etc.).

Natural features justify different ways and means of forming mental qualities. They can affect the level, the height of human achievement. At the same time, their influence on an individual is not direct, but indirect. No innate feature is neutral, as it passes through socialization and individual communication (for example, dwarfism, lameness, etc.). The role of natural factors in different age stages is not the same: the younger the age, the more natural features affect the formation of personality. Natural features are important prerequisites, factors, but do not have the driving force of personality formation. The brain as a biological entity is a prerequisite for the emergence of consciousness, but consciousness is a product of human social existence. The more complex education in its mental structure, the less it depends on natural features. But the influence of biological factors is always associated with learning, upbringing and social conditions. The formation of personality occurs in unity with the objective circumstances affecting it. Mental activity of the person develops according to the special internal legislation, determining external conditions. «Idea, feeling and Faith», says G.V. Plekhanov, « are harmonious according to their special laws. But these laws come into force with external circumstances having none of these laws». Social factors (they are «external conditions»): socio — economic situation of life, family and purposeful education constitute a system of objective conditions that affect the formation of personality. This environment — all surrounding social reality of the person, its development and formation of the personality takes place, — is an objective condition of formation of his personality. Objective conditions allow the development of human surety through communication with people. If a child is isolated from society after birth, he has character, temperament, ability and other qualities of personality, but he can not develop outside of human relations, human society. Socialization is a process of personality formation, gradual development of the requirements of society, obtaining socially significant characteristics of consciousness and behavior that regulate its relationship with society. The socialization of the individual begins from the first year of life and ends at the period of civil maturation of the person, but, of course, the powers, rights and duties received by him do not indicate that the process of socialization is completely completed: in some aspects it lasts all life [5].

Socialization is carried out as a system of two interacting factors:

  1. 1) the influence of society on the individual in the process of education, interaction with parents, peers, in the process of using media sources;;
  2. 2) individual activity, manifested both in the distinction of phenomena and substances, and in their designation.

Indeed, the social individual has not inherited his social content and is forced to receive it in ontogenesis and throughout life.

The process of conditional socialization consists of three stages:

  •  primary socialization or socialization of the child;
  •  intermediate socialization or socialization of the teenager;
  •  stable, holistic socialization, i.e. socialization, basically, of a person formed by an adult [4].

As an important factor influencing the mechanisms of personality formation, socialization involves the development of a person's socially-based qualities (beliefs, worldview, ideals, interests, desires).

Education is an important factor in the development of personality. It provides socialization of the personality, programs parameters of its development taking into account versatility of influence of various factors. Education is a planned long-term process of specially organized life of children in the conditions of training and education.

It is characterized by such functions:

  •  diagnostics of natural disasters, theoretical development and practical development of conditions of their occurrence and development;
  •  organization of educational activities of children;
  •  the use of positive factors in the development of personality quality;
  •  the content of education, the state and means of the social environment;
  •  impact on social conditions, elimination and modification of negative impact environments (if possible)
  •  formation of special abilities providing application of efforts in various spheres of activity: scientific, professional, creative-aesthetic, constructive-technical, etc. [6].

Thus, the person always lives and acts as a part of a certain nation, class, social group, collective and shares other material and cultural conditions of life, which quite naturally reflects the psychology of its constituent social groups. This situation differs in the mental appearance of the individual (national traits of behavior, needs, interests, attitudes to different aspects of social life).

The psychological moment of personality formation is the micro-environment-part of the environment and the conditions in which a person lives directly (for example, family). Micro-environment objectively affects the mental state of a person. As a result of this effect, certain unique qualities are determined, reflecting the real life path of the individual [7].

Consideration of the influence of objective situations on the formation of personality will be incomplete if it is not crucial in the development of human social heredity. Each man represents to some extent all kinds of man; his human, physical organization reflects the results of the development not only of the human species, but also of his close parents. The universal natural organization of the person has developed according to biological laws, therefore acts as the socially determined nature of the person. Man inherits from the previous generation the means of labor and the experience of organizing production, material and spiritual values, traditions, etc.

What is the main condition for the involvement of a person in social practice, which forces to be a person? K. Marx, defining the essence of man, writes «this is the totality of all social relations». The personality of a person as a member of society is influenced by various relations, primarily in the sphere of relations that develop in the process of production and consumption of material and spiritual goods. These relations are the main and decisive in the issues of human involvement in social experience. Thus, it is about the necessity of man. It is well known that need is the basis of human activity. M.P. Kagan calls service as a way of life. This service is designed to ensure the biological and socio-cultural life of a person. It is in this activity that man reveals his special place in the world and establishes himself as a social value [8].

Activities include material and practical, intellectual, spiritual operations, external and internal processes of society and the individual as a whole. Thus, the activity is included in the objective and subjective factors of personality formation, at the same time being a condition of the above factors.

Since the main function of activity is to ensure the preservation and continuous development of human society, a complex set of different specific forms, most suitable to each other, is classified into four main types:

  1. 1) repeated activity (work) — all forms of human activity that lead to a change, a specific or flawless performance of something that did not exist before. It is this work activity that has become the determining condition for the formation of a person. The development of labor activity has significantly changed the natural, biological organization of man, led to the development of new human qualities.
  2. ) cognitive activity (understanding the essence of the object).
  3. value-oriented (objective-subjective information about values, not about the essence of the subject) [9].

If you want to live as you want, or if you want to grow and experience life to the fullest, the future must be not just one person, but society as a whole to get your knowledge and learning in your hands. That is, teach themselves to become proficient in certain skills. Many people have to be educated to learn something, even if you can educate yourself, contaminated in myth. These are many people who have proved that it is possible not only to study independently, but also to earn them a profit. The social component of the teaching methodology is to understand the new role of the future teacher-specialist in the changing reality, understanding their place in society, which is an intermediary between society, school and family. The professional-pedagogical component of training assumes formation of communicative, methodical and pedagogical competence on the basis of variability of modern concepts, methods and technologies of training in foreign languages taking into account individual needs of students and the region as a whole. We need to take a comprehensive look at our society and work with the challenges of this century. This requires more study and study of Economics, pedagogy and psychology [10].

The problem of professional self-determination also occupies a special place in personality development, since this aspect reveals a person's readiness for independent choice of the method of self-realization not only as an owner of a profession, but also as a citizen of his country. Currently, the understanding of professional self-determination takes into account the problems of interconnection with the life selfdetermination of a person, and also includes the impact of the impact on the individual of the social environment and its active position [11].

The transition to updating the content of education imposes new requirements to work within the competence approach to education, is to provide teachers with health technologies, formation of readiness to work in the conditions of individualization of the educational process. The renewal of the structure of education is the overcoming of the traditional reproductive style of education and the transition to a new developing, constructive model of education that provides cognitive activity and independence of thinking of students. We offer the upgrade program of education implies that learning must be active, must be created by the collaborative environment, should be the differentiation of learning, in the process of implementation must be implemented by interdisciplinary connections. In addition to the above, it is mandatory to use ICT, dialogue training, timely response to research methods and needs of students.

In the life of every person, professional self-determination plays an important role and everyone tries to find their own way. For some, this problem has been successfully solved, as for individual people it has remained a problem that accompanies it during their professional activity. In what way consciously young people will approach the choice of a profession and will depend on the implementation of plans for future life. The further choice of a profession will determine the way in life is the main and most important indicator of the socio-psychological maturation of young men and women, their attitude to their own future, the degree of awareness and responsibility for it [12].

The situation of meaningful choice of profession is important because it extends to the whole life path of the person and influences its further development. In the process of the choice, a person is forced to activate his current and potential resources and to find a meaningful way out in their professional activities.

The formation of personality in society, ultimately, is inextricably linked with self-education. A person undoubtedly occupies a great place in society, only when he has learned, develops himself, receives knowledge, forms the necessary skills. Therefore, we see the importance of man's work with himself, the need to search for the question not from the outside.

A 21st-century teacher should be open to the interests of students and capable of innovative changes in school, society, and his own pedagogical activity. The main condition for its qualitative change is the creative and system-forming activity of the teacher. Thus, new requirements are imposed on the quality of training of teaching staff in general and graduates in particular.

Today, when the Kazakhstani education system has moved to a new stage of its development — the stage of modernization and transition to 12-year education, the modern school needs teachers both deeply in psychological and pedagogical knowledge and understanding the features of the development of students, as well as professionals in other fields of activity, capable of help students find themselves in the future, become independent, creative and confident people.

Personality arises in society. Man enters history as a person endowed with certain natural properties and abilities (and the child enters life), which becomes only the subject of social relations. In other words, unlike the individual, the individual in some sense refers to the activity of man, as his consciousness arises with the activity of personality. The study of the process of formation and transformation of the person crossing the person in specific social conditions is the key to a real scientific understanding of the person. The task of solving the problems of relations between the individual and society is to improve, aimed at the development of personal potential forms of training and organization of professional activity, compensating for the destructive conditions of social formation of the individual in modern society. There is a need for the formation of specially organized, designed conditions and technologies that ensure the process of social formation, development of personal potential.

 

References

  1. Qazaqstan Respublikasynyn «Bіlіm turaly» zany. 2007 zhylgy 27 shіldedegі No. 319 qaulysy [Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On Education». Resolution № 319 dated July 27, 2007]. adilet.zan.kz. Retrieved from http://adilet.zan.kz/ [in Kazakh].
  2. «Pedagog qyzmetkerler men olarha tenestіr іlgen tulgalardyn lauazymdarynyn ulgіl іk bіlіktіlіk sipattamalaryn bekіtu turaly» Qazaqstan Respublikasy Bіlіm zhane hylym ministrіnіn 2009 zhylgy 13 shіldedegі N 338 Buiryhy[Order of the Minister of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated July 13, 2009 N 338 «On approval of normative qualification characteristics of teachers and equated to them»]. adilet.zan.kz. Retrieved from http://adilet.zan.kz/ [in Kazakh].
  3. Poslanie Prezidenta Respubliki Kazakhstan N.Nazarbaeva narodu Kazakhstana ot 30 noiabria 2015 h. [Message from the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan dated November, 30, 2015]. akorda.kz/kz. Retrieved from https://www.akorda.kz/kz [in Russian].
  4. Chechulina, S.N. (2010). Razvitie lichnostnoho potentsiala v protsesse sotsialnoho stanovleniia lichnosti. Lichnost kak subekt innovatsii [The development of personal potential in the process of social formation of personality. Personality as a subject of innovation]. Cheboksary: NII pedahohiki i psikholohii [in Russian].
  5. Berger, P.L., & Berger, B. (2004). Lichnostno-orientirovannaia sotsiolohiia [Personality oriented sociology]. Moscow: Akademicheskii proekt [in Russian].
  6. Luman, N., & Skuratov, B. (2011). Obshchestvo obshchestva [Society society]. Moscow: Lohos [in Russian].
  7. Levanova, E.A., Shevchenko, S.I., & Kovalevskaja, M.V. (2010). Roditeli i podrostki: navstrechu druh druhu [Parents and teens: towards each other]. Moscow: Pedahohicheskaia literatura [in Russian].
  8. Regush, L.A. (2005). Psikholohiia sovremennoho podrostka [Psychology of a modern teenager]. Saint Petersburg: Rech [in Russian].
  9. Muhina, V.S., & Hvostov, A.A. (2001). Vozrastnaia psihholohiia. Detstvo. Yunost. Otrochestvo [Age-related psychology. Childhood. Youth. Adolescence]. Moscow: Akadema [in Russian].
  10. Kenesbekova, C., Djusembinova, R., Ishanov, P., & Mikerova, G. (2019). Kazakhi i hrazhdane mira, pokorivshie svoe samoobrazovanie [Kazakh and world citizens who have conquered the heights with their own knowledge]. Karahandy universitetibin khabarshysy. Pedahohila seriiasy, 95, 62, 63 [in Kazakh].
  11. Alimbayeva, R.T., Sabirov, R.V., Karabaev, B.I., Baymukanov, M.T., & Tamabaeva, M.K. (2018). Psikholohicheskie osobennosti professionalnoho samoopredeleniia sotsialnykh sirot v podrostkovom vozraste [Psychological features of professional self-determination of social orphans in adolescence]. Zhurnal bazy Thomson Reuters. Yunost i molodost — Base Magazine Thomson Reuters. Youth and youth, Vol .23, Issue 4, 457–467 [in Russian].
  12. Abdrasheva, B.Zh., Alimbayeva, R.T., & Baimukanova, M.T. (2018). Psikholoho-pedahohicheskie osobennosti professionalnoho samoopredeleniia sotsialnykh sirot [Psychological and pedagogical features of professional self-determination of social orphans]. Karaganda: Izdatelstvo Karahandinskoho hosudarstvennoho universiteta [in Russian].
Year: 2020
City: Karaganda
Category: Pedagogy