The formation of the person's civic identity becomes the key goal of education in the socio-cultural modernization of Kazakhstan. The article considers the problem of civic identity and patriotism as the main condition for its formation. The purpose of this article is to identify the relations between the concept of «patriotism» and «civic identity», determine the main condition of formation of person's civic identity. Based on the analysis and synthesis of scientific sources, the authors of the article reveal the essence of the concepts of «patri- otism», «Kazakhstan patriotism», «citizenship», «identity», «civic identity», «ethnic identity». Scientific understanding of the problem of formation of person's civic identity in the pedagogical aspect made it possible to formulate the author's definition of the investigated phenomenon and to distinguish the elements inherent in it: cognitive, affective and regulatory and indicators. The use of methodological approaches (systemic- activity, synergistic, personality-oriented, socio-role, multicultural, humanistic) made it possible to identify the diversity and complexity of the problem under study, as well as to consider the mechanism of the formation of civic identity. The theoretical significance and novelty of this publication lies in the use of a multicultural approach as an innovative to the analysis of the problem of patriotism in the context of the formation of a civic identity of a person in the conditions of a multi-ethnic Kazakhstan society. The practical significance of the work is that the materials of the article can contribute to the development of the studied concepts when developing measures and programs aimed at introducing the individual to the activities of the state and Kazakhstan society in the process of formation the civic identity of the younger generation. The main result of the theoretical study was the substantiation of the conceptual provision that the main factor in the formation of the civic identity of the individual is patriotic education.
Multi-ethnic and multi-confessional composition of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan defines the strategic objectives of the state policy aimed at the formation of civic community. The needs of social and cultural sphere of the state and a multicultural society expressed in legislative legal and regulatory documents, including documents about education. In the «Concept of strengthening and developing Kazakhstan identity and unity» says: «The Kazakhstan identity and unity is an ongoing generational process. It is based on the fact that every citizen, regardless of ethnic origin, binds his destiny and the future of Kazakh- stan» . The problem of fostering of the Kazakhstan patriotism and formation of Kazakhstan (civic) identity are of particular importance in the context of globalization, as the dominant in the current period, the system of ideas and values characterizes Kazakhstan as an independent sovereign state.
The urgency of the problem of patriotism and civic identity of the young generation is dictated by the fact that the prosperity of civic society is directly connected with the system of education. In this regard, the task of socialization of children and youth is to ensure that every citizen felt himself primarily as a citizen and patriot, i.e. we are talking about the individual's identity with the state and in the context of our study we are talking about the formation of civic (Kazakhstan) identity.
It is therefore important to determine the relationship between the concepts of «patriotism» and «civic identity» of Kazakhstan in conditions of globalization of the world community. Patriotism is the primary moral principle of the «Mangilik El» national idea.
The purpose of this article based on the analysis of scientific sources to define patriotism as a necessary condition of formation of civic (Kazakhstan) identity at the present stage of development of the Kazakhstan society.
Research methodology made up of traditional and innovative methodological approaches to the study of the problem: system activity, synergetic, personality-oriented, social-role and multicultural, humanistic. More detail on the consideration of methodological approaches that have been used as a backbone in considering the mechanism of formation of civiс identity in the conditions of Kazakhstan society.
Systematic and action-oriented approach in this study served as a methodological orientation in which the object of study of knowledge is considered as a system and work for patriotic education and development of civic identity and occupies one of leading places in the study. At the same time, the synergetic approach allows to consider the process of formation of civic identity through patriotiс education of as a complex dynamic system characterized main symptoms of synergetics: openness, nonlinearity, disequilibrium. Personality — oriented approach is the methodological basis in consideration of the notion of «patriotism» as a personal quality of the individual and, in general, the process of forming civic identity of person, which provides and supports the processes of individualization of personality: self-manifestation, self-development and self-realization. Holistic approach to treat the process of civic education of the individual as a subject of civic relations, as the category of integrity and holistic characteristics and properties of the studied properties of the phenomenon. The multicultural approach creates conditions for the development of the multiethnic society, productive for the existence of the individual. It is hard to imagine civic education without a humanistic approach. Humanization of education allows to expand the thinking of the individual and shape the civic worldview.
Methods: theoretical analysis and synthesis of philosophical, psychological, sociological, cultural, pedagogical literatures, generalization, classification, abstraction, analogy.
The word «patriotism» is of Greek origin («partis» means «Homeland»). In the Philosophical dictionary concept of «patriotism» understood as «a moral and political principle, social sense, the content of which is love of country and devotion to him, pride in its past and present, the desire to protect the interests of the Motherland» [1; 358].
The issue of patriotism and its education devoted to the work of P.M. Rogachev, M.A. Sverdlin, J.G. Golotvin, M.N. Rosenko, A.A. Antsiferov. Education of the Kazakhstan patriotism devoted to the work of K.T. Abylgaziyeva, A.A. Bayserkeyev, A.A. Beysenbayeva, G.J. Jumanova, E.O. Zhumatayeva,S.T. I anbayeva etc.
The analysis of this concept shows that in general, the concept of «patriotism» in scientific literature is characterized by deep feelings of love to the native land, language, traditions and people.
As the researchers note that patriotism is gradually losing its defensive character, and the trend of creative development of one's own next to a stranger is becoming more and more apparent. We believe that an important sign of patriotism is not only its ethnic color, but also its social one. In a multi-ethnic state, the philosophical category of «patriotism» goes beyond ethnic concepts.
In national literature, concept of «Kazakhstan patriotism» is regarded as a consolidating religious and political factor, as a new paradigm for public policy and ideology [2; 9]. The base of the Kazakhstan patriotism according to scientists is the common historical destiny of ethnic groups constituting the people of Kazakhstan, the similarities in the mentality of Kazakhstani people, their involvement in the high economical potential of the Republic, the community of the natural environment [3; 62].
Concept of «patriotism» involves a different concept of «citizenship». According to M.I. Bogomolova, citizenship is a quality, property, behavior of citizens, manifested in his willingness and ability to participate actively in the affairs of the society and the state, consciously exercise their rights and perform their duties. The concept of «citizenship» is closely related to the concept of «patriotism» [4; 47].
Social-role approach to the concept of «citizenship» is expressed in the definition of G.N. Filonov as «a complex of subjective qualities of the personality, manifested in the relationships and activities of man in the fulfilment of the main socio-role functions of conscious law — abiding, patriotic dedication in serving your country and protecting the interests of the Homeland, in a truly free and fair commitment to focus on social and moral values, including in the areas of labor, family-household, inter-ethnic and interpersonal rela- tions» .
In the context of our study will address the concept of «civic identity» in this regard, it is close to the understanding of citizenship in which the patriotism is the key constant.
Clarification of the basic concepts we will refer to V.A. Yadov, who under the identity understands the state and identification — the process leading to this condition [6; 589]. According to A. Touraine, «identity is conscious social determination of the individual» . O.N. Pavlov notes that identity is a broad concept that includes all the qualities of personality combinations, due to the large array of biological, psychological, social, cultural factors .
A significant contribution to the study of identity as a mechanism of psychological adaptation of the individual and the role of the unconscious in identification processes was made by the representative of classical psychoanalysis Z. Freud, whose name is associated with the first use of the term «identity» in Western literature, as well as-A. Adler, J. Bowlby, M. Klein, M. Mahler, W. Meissner, J. piaget, J. Marcia, A. Freud, K. Horney, R. Schafer, M. Ainsworth, K.-G. Jung, etc.
A special role in the formation of the concept of identity and the introduction of the concept into an interdisciplinary scientific turnover belongs to E. Erikson. Identity as a psychological need is studied in the framework of humanistic psychology of A. Maslow, humanistic psychoanalysis of E. Fromm. In the context of the philosophical and humanitarian theory of identity in recent decades, various aspects of the identity phenomenon have been developed in the theoretical and empirical research of M.M. Bakhtin, L.P. Bueva, S. Vygotsky, E. Giddens, I.S. Cohn, A.N. Leontiev, Y. Habermas, J. Meade, V.A. Yadov, I.V. Antonova and others.
The problem of identity in modern science is related to the Self-concept, which filters and determines the significance of a particular information for a person. This phenomenon is close to the concept of selfconsciousness, which consists of a person's ideas about himself and for himself, as well as ideas about himself for others. E. Erickson gives the following definition of identity: «It is a configuration that occurs through successful ego synthesis and resynthesis during childhood. This configuration gradually combines constitutional attributes, basic needs, abilities, meaningful identifications, effective defenses, successful sublimations, and permanent roles». The scientist identified eight stages of identity development throughout a person's life .
Many Russian researchers have addressed the specifics of socialization and the problems of formation of civic education and youth identity: E.A. Grishina, Yu.A. Zubok, I.V. Canada, O.N. Kozlov, V.A. Yadov, Yu.A. Levada, T.I. Zaslavskaya, G.G. Diligenskii, R.G. Abdulatipov, D.N. Dement'ev, B.T. Likhachev, G.N. Filonov, etc. Questions of formation of citizenship under the influence of globalization processes and changes in socio-political and economic conditions of the country are considered in the research of domestic scientists — A.A. Bayserkeyev, K.K. Zhampeisova, Zh.A. Makatova, G.K. Medetbekova, A.K. Nurgalieva and others.
The use of the concept of «citizenship» requires clarification of its relationship with the categories «civ- ic education» and «civic identity». According to B.T. Likhachev, civic political education is a system of universal value attitude to global problems, social groups, individuals, their activities, to the phenomena of public life and consciousness. It is civic because it is determined by principled national, constitutional worldview positions that are embodied in the actual practice of public relations. It is political because it provides students with an understanding of the ideals and goals, strategic and tactical lines of building a legal state to ensure the fundamental interests of the majority of the people [9; 293–294].
The need to address the concept of «citizenship» is associated with the clarification of its essence as a personal and professionally significant quality of the teacher. The research of A.K. Nurgalieva is devoted to the theoretical and methodological foundations of the formation of citizenship of future teachers. Considering the studied category from the point of view of the development of high subjectivity of the specialist, the scientist comes to the conclusion that citizenship is an integrative quality of a future teacher's personality, formed through the active interaction of all the subjects of the holistic pedagogical process in a variety of activities, characterizing its social and moral subjective stance in relation to themselves, society, people, with the right to personal freedom, self-realization, self-development, self-improvement and responsible for their acts and actions before state and society, to living a young generation of citizens [10; 46].
G.O. Medetbekova's research highlights the psychological and pedagogical aspects of civic education of future teachers in the integral pedagogical process of university. The concept of «citizenship « is defined by the researcher as an integrative professionally significant quality and represents the social orientation and civic position of the future teacher, expressed in the system of his relations to society, to himself, to others, to his own professional activity at the level of awareness of his values, responsible attitude to his professional duties as a moral duty to society and the state, conscious, voluntary, unselfish service to the interests of his people and the goals of social progress, in the name of the future younger generation [11; 15]. The significance of this research for us lies in the development of a criterion-indicative apparatus of levels of citizenship formation, which served as a starting parameter for the development of measures of civic identity of an individual.
Based on the analysis of scientific sources, we concluded that the most common for all social sciences is the definition of identity as an active process, «reflecting the subject's ideas about himself and accompanied by a sense of his own continuity, which allows him to perceive his life as an experience of duration and unity, which makes it possible to act consistently» [12; 14]. Identity in this case is a sign of «entering» into a social position. According to the philosopher R.G. Abdulatipov, «the problem of people's identity is the problem of their personal social and civic formation… Identity is my first name, my last name, my family, my people, my Homeland, state, and related history and culture» [13; 400–401]. He believes that the loss of ancestral and ethno-national identity can lead to the loss of civic identity.
The evolution of human identity is considered by psychologists as a dialectical interaction of personal and social identity throughout a person's life. Based on the secondary nature of personal identity in relation to social identity, we can conclude that personal identity is a product of social identity that occurs in interaction with the surrounding world.
Let's consider the essence of the concept of «civic identity», which has entered the pedagogical lexicon recently, but the problem of civic education is not new. As a phenomenon, political civic education has existed at all historical stages since the emergence of states.
The history of civic philosophy began in the works of Aristotle, Plato, al-Farabi and other thinkers of different centuries. In ancient China, the ideas of civic education were used by Confucius. In the basis of the content of the education of his students, he included moral education, which gives the people peace and tranquility. It included civic education, norms and rules of behavior, loyalty and sincerity. At a certain stage of human development, a civic philosophy was formed, reflecting certain priorities caused by the needs of the state and society.
In the history of Soviet society the experience of civic education was accompanied by a statement of stability and permanence that is not slowed to have an impact on shaping the thinking of Soviet citizens, manifested to the present time.
In the course of our research, scientific interest is aroused by the correlation of the concepts of «citizen- ship» and «patriotism». Defining citizenship as a moral and political quality, N.A. Savotina considers patriotism an important component of it . Many researchers note the reverse process. Patriotic education of the future specialist's personality in modern conditions, according to A.K. Kalimodaeva, due to professional training, where a sense of civic duty, civic vision, civic anxiety for the fate of the Homeland should be in the context of their professional development and bear a pronounced professional orientation . According to this definition, patriotism should act not only as a personal, but also as a professional quality.
The analysis of these definitions in scientific sources has led us to the following conclusions:
- - in many definitions of scientists, the concept of «citizenship» is considered as an integrative quality of personality, which is characterized by social significance and active civic, moral position (Yu.A. Tanyukhina, G.N. Filonov, Zh. Makatova, Z.U. Imzharova, A.K. Nurgalieva);
- - the research is dominated by the approach to the definition of «citizenship», which characterizes its most important quality — patriotism (N.A. Savotina, A.K. Kalimoldayeva, G.O. Medetbekova, M.I. Bogomolova, etc.).
- - the relationship between the concepts of «civic education» and «citizenship» can be concluded that they relate as a process and result.
In the recent literature increasingly raises the question of civic identity, which can be considered as a synonym of the notion «citizenship».
I.V. Canada believes that civic identity reflects the level of civic consciousness of the people, its unity with the country, society, fellow citizens, is a factor of consolidation of society around the interests of the state and the country as a whole .
In the «Encyclopedia of sociology» the concept of «civic identity» is interpreted in two ways: 1) awareness of belonging to the community of citizens of a state, having individual meaning; 2) the phenomenon immanent is consciousness, the characteristic (quality) of the civic community, characterizing it as collective subject. These two definitions are not mutually exclusive, but focus on different aspects of civic identity: from the individual and from the community .
Analysis and synthesis of the studied definition allowed us to clarify that civic identity, by which we understand a person's awareness of their involvement in the community of citizens of a particular state, is an important part of the mechanism of functioning of the political structure, the foundation of political and cultural-educational life and consciousness of society
Civic identity is a kind of socio-cultural identity, which is based on identification with society, the state and the country. It acts as a complex status and identification base for the formation of mass social practices that constitute and reproduce this society as an independent and specific socio-cultural system. Civic identity serves the purposes of social integration on the basis of common terminal and instrumental values (including through such value complexes as the Homeland, state, country), is objectified through the identification of individuals with certain positions in the socio-cultural space and is fixed through social practices in specific fields of identification. The basic fields are cultural, economic and political spaces.
In the context of human educational activities in the multi-ethnic space of Kazakhstan, civic and ethnic identities (of persons of non-Kazakh nationality, since the specified identities of Kazakhs must coincide) are largely compatible. Compatibility occurs at the cognitive level, due to the ability of educational subjects to obtain mutual knowledge about cultures, national traditions, an increase in the number of real inter-ethnic contacts, and the organization of joint activities. All this helps to build a system of relations based on mutual understanding [18; 236].
The structure of civic identity has cognitive, affective and regulatory elements. The mechanism of civic identity formation in the context of our research can be considered on the basis of V.A. Yadov's dispositional theory of personality, which considers the levels of dispositional structure — socially fixed attitudes with three main elements: cognitive, affective and behavioral [19; 93].
Thus, civic identity has cognitive, affective and regulatory elements with corresponding characteristics of criteria and indicators.
This is the knowledge of their civic duties. This is a system of knowledge of constitutional norms, the civic code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the state language. Knowledge of the history, politics, economy, culture, geography and ecological state of the country. It is the availability of social maturity, patriotism (pride for Kazakhstan), development of civic consciousness (awareness of their involvement to the Republic of Kazakhstan and its multi-ethnic community), respect for the state language and symbols of Kazakhstan, interest in democratic transformations in the state and awareness of the social significance of the teaching profession in the education of the younger generation. This is also the fulfillment of their civic duties in the aspect of mastering professional activity. Compliance with the moral and legal norms of the civic code of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Manifestation of Kazakhstan's patriotism, responsibility to society, active life position, readiness to protect the interests of the state and contribute to its development, skills to practice civic education of schoolchildren.
According to scientists, the most valuable is a multicultural approach that unites citizens on the basis of territorial and political unity and the principles of respect for cultural and value differences.
Multiculturalism of the educational environment implies a dialogue of cultures. In the process of such a dialogue, the ethnic cultures of peoples living together on the same territory are identified and studied, which in turn is a key factor in the formation of civic identity in a complex, changing world, the vision of their own worldview.
Expressing an opinion on the prospects of multicultural education in the formation of civic identity, we further build the concept of civic (Kazakhstan) identity of person on the ideas of multicultural education as the most suitable for the consolidation of the Kazakhstan people. At the same time, we see the main advantage of the theory of multicultural education in its flexibility: on the one hand, it «denies the formation of a personality outside the national culture, on the other — it promotes the formation of a polyidentical personality as the center and intersection of several cultures» [20; 18].
So, based on scientists' definitions of ethnic and civic identity, we concluded that they intersect, and for the representatives of the titular ethnic group of the republic is their full compatibility. Each of these identities has its own core, the root on which it is based. Ethno-cultural values contribute to the formation of ethnic identity. In the diversity of ethnic and cultural values of ethnic groups, it is possible to identify particularly significant spiritual elements that contribute to their ethnic and state identity in terms of territorial integrity. And if civic identity is connected with the modern civilized process, with the challenge of time in relation to a certain person, then ethnic identity performs a cultural and historical function, the role of cultural and historical tradition. In addition, based on the analysis of the essence of ethnic and civic identity, we came to the conclusion that such a core for ethnic identity is the concept of «ethnic mentality», which emphasizes the peculiarity of the ethnic group, for civic identity concept of «patriotism» is the main feature among others. As stated in the «Concept of strengthening and development of Kazakhstan's identity and unity», consolidating the values of the national Patriotic idea «Mangilik El» are the main principles in the process of forming the Kazakhstan (civic) identity as an individual and social groups of Kazakhstan society.
- Frolov, I.T. (Eds.). (2007). Filosofskii slovar [Philosophical dictionary]. Moscow [in Russian].
- Beisembayeva, A.A. (2004). Patrioticheskoe vospitanie starsheklassnikov sredstvami kazakhskoho heroicheskoho eposa [Patriotic education of senior pupils by means of Kazakh heroic epos]. Extended abstract of candidate's thesis. Almaty [in Russian].
- Bizhanov, A., & Kasenov, U. (1996). O kharaktere kazakhstanskoho patriotizma [On the nature of the Kazakhstan patriotism]. Panorama — Panorama, 33, 28–34 [in Russian].
- Bogomolova, M.I. (2006). Sovremennye podkhody k hrazhdanskomu vospitaniiu detei [Current approaches to civic education children]. Proceedings from Cultural approach to the educational process in schools and universities: experience, problems, prospects: Mezhdunarodnaia nauchno-prakticheskaia konferentsiia — International Scientific and Practical Conference. (p. 44–48). Ulyanovsk: UlHPU [in Russian].
- Filonov, G.N. (2002). Fenomen hrazhdanstvennosti v strukture lichnostnoho razvitiia [The phenomenon of citizenship in the structure of personal development]. Pedahohika — Pedagogy, 10, 24–29 [in Russian].
- Yadov, V.A. (2003). Sotsialnye i sotsialno-psikholohicheskie mekhanizmy formirovaniia sotsialnoi identichnosti [Social and socio-psychological mechanisms of formation of social identity] Psikholohiia samosoznaniia — Psychology of consciousness. D.Ya. Raygorodsky (Ed.). Samara: Bahrar-M [in Russian].
- Pavlova, O.N. (2001). Identichnost: Istoriia formirovaniia vzhliadov i ee strukturnye osobennosti [Identity: the history of the formation of attitudes and its structural features]. Moscow [in Russian].
- Erikson, E. (2001). Krizis identichnosti [Identity crisis]. Moscow [in Russian].
- Likhachev, B. (2000). Pedahohika. Kurs lektsii [Pedagogy. A course of lectures]. Moscow [in Russian].
- Nurgaliyeva, A.K. (2006). Teoretiko-metodolohicheskie osnovy formirovaniia hrazhdanstvennosti budushchikh uchitelei [Theoretical and methodological foundations of forming of civic consciousness of future teachers]. Extended abstract of Doctor's thesis. Almaty [in Russian].
- Medetbekova, G.O. (1996). Psikholoho-pedahohicheskie aspekty vospitaniia hrazhdanstvennosti u budushchikh uchitelei v tselostnom pedahohicheskom protsesse vuza [Psycho-pedagogical aspects of education of civics teachers in a holistic educational process of the University]. Extended abstract of candidate's thesis. Almaty [in Russian].
- Levkovich, V.P., & Andrushchak, I.B. (2016). Etnotsentrizm kak sotsialno-psikholohicheskii fenomen [Ethnocentrism as a socio-psychological phenomenon]. Dinamika sotsialno-psikholohicheskikh yavlenii v izmeniaiushchemsia obshchestve — The Dynamics of socio-psychological phenomena in a changing society. Moscow [in Russian].
- Abdulatipov, R.G. (2005). Rossiiskaia natsiia. Etnonatsionalnaia i hrazhdanskaia identichnost rossiian v sovremennykh usloviiakh [Russian nation. Ethnic and civic identity of Russians in modern conditions]. Moscow: Nauchnaia kniha [in Russian].
- Savotina, N.A. (2002). Hrazhdanskoe vospitanie: traditsii i sovremennye trebovaniia [Civic education: tradition and modern requirements]. Pedahohika — Pedagogy, 4, 39–44 [in Russian].
- Kalimoldaeva, A.K. (2003). Formirovanie patriotizma budushchikh spetsialistov v tselostnom pedahohicheskom protsesse vuza v sovremennykh usloviiakh [Formation of patriotism of future professionals in the holistic educational process of the University in modern conditions]. Extended abstract of candidate's thesis. Almaty [in Russian].
- Konoda, I.V. (2007). Stanovlenie hrazhdanskoi identichnosti rossiian v protsesse politicheskoi sotsializatsii [Formation of civic identity of Russians in the process of political socialization]. Extended abstract of candidate's thesis. Moscow [in Russian].
- Entsiklopediia sotsiolohii [Encyclopedia of sociology] (n.d.) base.garant.ru. Retrieved from http://slovari.yandex.ru /cooperation [in Russian].
- Mukhtarova, Sh.M. (2008). Etnokulturnoe obrazovanie budushchikh pedahohov: poisk i reshenie problemy [Ethno-cultural education of future teachers: search and decision problems]. Karaganda: Sanat [in Russian].
- Yadov, V.A. (2013). Samorehuliatsiia i prohnozirovanie sotsialnoho povedeniia lichnosti: dispozitsionnaia kontseptsiia [Self-regulation and prediction of social behavior of the person: dispositional concept] (2nd expanded ed.). Moscow TsSPiM [in Russian].
- Dzhurinsky, A.N. (2002). Polikulturnoe vospitanie v sovremennom mire [Multicultural education in the modern world]. Moscow: Prometei [in Russian].