Mediation services in the educational system: skills' formation of interpersonal relations' culture

In the modern world, the mediation process is becoming increasingly relevant every day. After all, modern society is full of stresses, which subsequently leads to conflicts and disputes. In most cases, intermediaries can help solve problems. School mediation is the cure for bullying. All adults want their children to be successful, independent and happy. They want the children to live between friendly and interesting people and help each other. So that children can avoid war and violence. So, they feel safe. Live not in the battle for a «place in the sun», but in creativity and creativity. The purpose of the reconciliation service is to create favorable conditions for resolving conflicts without prejudice to participants in the educational process, improving the safety of the school environment and the use of technologies that are safe for health. Mediation is one of the alternative dispute resolution technologies in which a third neutral mediator is involved who is not interested in the conflict and which helps the parties reach a concrete agreement on the dispute, while the parties have full control over the dispute. Decision making process. Settlement of a dispute and conditions for its resolution.


Competition in the world is growing, different cultures and religions are mixed, psychological stress is developing, especially in children. Then conflicts, breakdowns, crimes committed, young people overcome emotions and prejudices. When children cannot understand each other, cannot understand their negative emotions in a conflict situation, in order to hear each other, they try to solve a complex problem in a «sim- ple» way: through threats, boycotts, manipulations or violence. methods.

Conflicts were, are and will be in school and in society as a whole. In particular, conflicts between children from different social classes, nationalities and different cultural levels. Reactions to other people's behavior that are acceptable in the family or national culture are completely inappropriate in today's multicultural environment. The main idea of mediation is to turn the school into a safe and comfortable space for all participants in the educational process. Based on this, a model of the school accommodation service was developed, which is described in our study.

The school services model is a mediation process in which participants (parties to a conflict) resolve their conflict using an impartial third party (mediator). The main participants in the mediation are the parties themselves, and the mediator organizes a constructive and safe dialogue between them [1,2].

Practice shows that knowing what happened and the agreements made during such meetings have more serious consequences than punishment. The attitude of a group of classmates towards the student, their determination of right and wrong, usually play an important role in the nature of the conflict. During a conciliatory meeting (and in preparation for preparatory meetings with each conflicting side), participants gradually move from distrust, misunderstanding, strong hostility and hostility to the other side and other destructive states to calm down and the need for a constructive way out of the conflict, and then — search a mutually acceptable solution and its implementation (already outside the mediation process).

Literature review

The mediator in the school conflict does not make decisions, he only teaches the participants the procedures for mediation in the conflict so that the parties can make their own decisions. The experience of the mediation institute in Spanish schools testifies to the positive result of the work of the reconciliation service over 15 years. They teach children how to deal with conflicts and how to get out with the least loss. Mediation in the education system in Kazakhstan was prepared by foreign experts: Professor of the University of Granada H. Balanos and Doctor of Science, representative of the Bulgarian Union T. Drozdina. The developers of this method focused on the importance of student participation in this process.

In Kazakhstan, the Mediation Act entered into force on August 5, 2011. The document regulates the PR work in the organization of mediation in the Republic of Kazakhstan, describes its principles and order, as well as the status of mediator. According to the law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On mediation» (of January 28, 2011 No. 401-IV) in Article 3, the purpose of mediation is to resolve a dispute (conflict) that is suitable for both sides of mediation. Reduce the conflict between the parties.

School mediation, a method that uses mediation in the educational process. School mediation helps all participants in the educational process (pupils, teachers, parents) to create conditions for reducing conflict, aggression, physical and psychological violence [3, 4].

Main part (methods)

At the same time, adults sometimes get into conflict or develop a tough attitude towards «strangers» in their children. The conflict itself may not be so bad if it does not turn into a fight, quarrel, violence or breakdown, if the conflict does not escalate and other people are involved (Table 1).

Table 1 Forms of reaction to the behavior of others in the conflict


The content of the response

If the child does not feel safe in school

He will not think about his studies, but about what and who is waiting for him after school.

If the child is in an environment where there is aggression, bullying, violence, teasing, where he is always forced to defend himself

He begins to perceive such relationships as normal, gets used to and learns aggressive ways of interacting with others.

If to achieve a high rating in the class it is accepted to humiliate, suppress, show violence

The ambitious teenager unwittingly becomes on the way of formation of aggressive (and even criminal) character traits.

School mediation, as a conciliation service, the parties to the conflict are invited to sit at the «negotia- tion table», listen and understand each other, and then independently agree on a mutually acceptable way out of the conflict. When young people make the decision themselves, they can make it. Since anger, resentment, and prejudice often damage mutual understanding, a neutral mediator is needed. It prepares participants for the meeting and helps them organize a constructive dialogue. The meeting takes place only with the voluntary consent of the participants [1].

The idea of an employment service in schools is being developed, and Kazakhstan has experience in introducing employment in schools according to European standards. Mediation is considered the most effective way to resolve conflicts in the school community. This is one of the alternative dispute resolution technologies involving a third party — a neutral, impartial mediator who is not interested in this conflict. Your task is to make the ceasefire positive for both sides.

The «school placement» method should take into account that the school has always been a «school of life», a «school of social interaction» and a school of communication. In addition to mediation as a dispute resolution procedure, the school mediation method also includes a «mediation approach», that is, a tool for positive communication between adults and children, based on the principles of voluntariness, openness, acceptance and mutual respect.

This requires not only the use of new technologies (mediation practices) to resolve individual conflicts, but also the training of all members of the school community in the basics of restorative communication and the integration of restorative principles in various aspects of school life.,

Currently, employment usually consists of a group of curators (usually an assistant director for education, social pedagogue, psychologist or one of the teachers) and about ten senior students. All of them, including curators, were trained as intermediaries.

The school mediator or the Territorial Reconciliation Service almost always finds themselves in a situation where the conflicting parties initially do not want to meet, listen and listen in order to resolve the situation peacefully, otherwise they will be agreed without intermediaries. Therefore, special training is required to become an intermediary. The mediator learns to establish and maintain contact with the interlocutor to explain the principles of restorative mediation. The mediator should help students understand the consequences of their actions, take responsibility for correcting the negative consequences of what is happening, and organize a constructive dialogue between the parties to the conflict. The mediator invites the parties to the conflict of responsibility («returns» responsibility to them). The mediator tries to make the subject of the conflict understandable and responsibly approach the search for a way out of the event.

A new type of response to conflict situations in schools is possible, since work with conflicts, disciplinary violations and crimes is carried out using various rehabilitation programs: mediation, «public circles», «school restoration». Conferences», «Family Conferences». Such programs will be implemented in all cases transferred to the service, if the parties to the conflict know and confirm their participation in the event. When implementing programs, mediators follow the standards of restorative mediation and the mediation procedure [5].

To ensure this work, conditions must be created for obtaining conflicting information (Table 2):

Table2 Creating conditions for obtaining information about conflicts

Forms of conditions

Information content

Informing the teaching staff, students and parents about the results of the service

Maintaining confidentiality about what happens at a particular meeting


Analysis of changes in the behavior of participants in conflicts and relationships in the school as a result of the work of the reconciliation service

Discussion of ways to respond to conflicts

Using a restorative approach (as the most» eco-friendly « method)

The holding of teachers ' meetings, workshops and seminars

Coordination of efforts to develop a restorative culture in the school

Study of methodological and other materials on restorative practices

The establishment of the Association of restorative mediation

Education and information activities for teachers, students, administration and parents

Communicating the values of the restorative approach


The reconciliation program is only carried out when the conflicting parties wish to participate, and the administration usually sends the student to a preparatory meeting with the mediator because he needs information to decide whether to participate in the program.

The refusal to mediate during a conversation with someone other than the mediator cannot be considered as definitive because only the mediator has the knowledge to invite students to mediate. In the preliminary discussion, the mediator only discussed various options for resolving the conflict, including a reconciliation session after which young people make an informed decision about whether to participate in the mediation.

The Reconciliation Service strives for constructive class relationships based on understanding and mutual support. At the same time, it should be noted that the concentration of power in the hands of several (even «positive») students increases the risk of violence for those who differ from the majority. So it's not about building a 'class team' led by a strong leader, but about stopping the mini community from understanding and supporting other classmates, a community where teens see each other's problems and try to solve them if possible. That is, the Atonement Service maintains confidence in the classroom and does not transfer power to a small group [6, 7].

Mediation specialists can not only work with conflicts, but also provide training and courses with students on conflict resolution and recovery communication. However, running recovery programs remains the primary mechanism for transferring recovery values.

In our opinion, one of the problems in education has to do with the lack of contact between teacher and student. If there is no contact between them, then there is no respect, there is no attention from the teacher to the student and the student to the teacher. Your relationship is too formal. Conflict mediation between teachers and students helps establish contact between teachers and students, restoring respect as the basis for the educational process.

In addition, in the learning process and in practical situations, mediators (both adults and students) learn to establish contacts, organize complex communication on problematic issues, understand people's feelings and circumstances, encourage others to act responsibly, reduce emotional stress, etc. Negotiation skills can be used not only in the reconciliation service, but also in his family (as teenagers and adults often tell us), in communication with friends, in his personal life. Wherever intermediaries work in the future, they need skills for organizing complex communications.

The skills that young people acquire in school reconciliation services are unique. No training in skills can compare the participation of their colleagues in conflict resolution, which is very important for them and for other situations when a separate presentation of the story seems correct, and we must help them find a way out. The participants in the conflict gain experience in a new constructive communication, which may be useful for their future lives.

The school mediation service can also be considered as the professional development of teachers by developing constructive methods of communication, resolving conflicts and using them for educational purposes by organizing and supporting children's communities. To create voting services, you must select the schools that want to create such services. On the one hand, it is easier to create a service where many supports the ideas of restorative mediation and where there are interested teachers and students.

But such schools usually have good relations, conflicts are resolved by people without tension, and they control other teachers.

On the other hand, it is more difficult to offer reconciliation services in poorer schools, but more services are needed there.

The school mediation service and the culture of restoring relations, major changes in the direction of mutual understanding and creating mechanisms of responsibility require tremendous efforts from intermediaries. However, it should be noted that, according to the administration, a small number of conflicts can speak not only about well-being, but also that the administration ignores conflicts (hidden conflicts) or that teachers perceive conflicts as disobedience and trauma. Disciplines.

The mediator usually assumes interrupted communication between the conflicting parties, which act from their distorted view of the conflict about the situation and their «adversary». Young people in conflict cannot understand their situation correctly, and can also understand another person [8].

Conflict communication is characterized by:

– explanation of the behavior of the «enemy» as negative characteristics of his character. During a conflict, each participant often explains their actions with external circumstances and needs, as well as the actions of others through their negative personality traits. Knowing all the details of his situation, the teenager is convinced that his actions are correct. The details of the situation on the second side of the conflict are unknown to him, therefore he gives a non-negative and simple explanation to himself. This creates the idea of a second person as an enemy. The enemy is endowed with the characteristics of an «enemy» in which there are few people and for whom «military operations» are now permitted. There is a feeling of «being in the right» and apply force to the «enemy». Because of incomplete and distorted representation, there are destructive responses of the child to the problem situation, which aggravates it.

Children in the conflict feel that they are trying to resolve the situation, and the other side is against his good intentions to annoy him. From the slightest action (suggestions, comments), emotions flare up with renewed vigor, and they «explode.» They think neither of the consequences, nor of those who suffer from their conflict. The idea of defeating the «enemy» captures him. Strong emotions lead to «numbness» of logical arguments. The past, expressed in emotions by the word «enemy» (which he may regret later), has long been remembered by the other side and used for law enforcement purposes. A teenager justifies his own stern expression, as if he had accidentally escaped in the heat of battle. There is a lack of confidence in the possibility of a peaceful way out of the situation and a desire to attract others to themselves and use them to support the conflict.

In the behavior of such an «enemy», a «monster» is characterized only by negative qualities and actions, in all his actions he seeks secret evil intentions. On the one hand, compromise attempts are not perceived as steps to the world, but as manipulations with hidden consequences. As a result, these attempts at reconciliation (without considering the other side as reconciliation) cease to be in vain.

In the minds of each party to the conflict, there is a constant dispute with the other party, which proves its innocence and blames the other. Sometimes they cannot stop this stream of thoughts, which prevents them from concentrating on learning and communicating with others.

Not necessarily a manifestation of all these properties. But the more of them, the more tense the situation. This does not mean that the parties refuse mediation in the event of an acute conflict. It is possible that they themselves are so tired of the conflict that they gladly come out with the help of an intermediary. At the same time, it is important for the parties to the conflict to «save face» and not look or lose.


The pedagogical effect and the corrective approach to conflict resolution used by the school mediation service are of great importance here. This not only helps to completely resolve all the situations that arise in the school community, but also allows you to realize the global problems of the formation of a full-fledged personality.

Achieving a goal in this direction is determined by a system of methods for searching and researching labor, administrative, intermediary, psychological, educational and sociological methods that allow us to achieve qualitative changes in the areas of prevention and reduction. youth crime:

  • – The creation of mediation services allows a personality-oriented approach for minors with conflict or illegal behavior, which allows you to plan ways to resolve the conflict and illegal situations. interaction in solving preliminary investigations of a minor by the intermediary service;
  • – The school mediation service provides its activities with methodological material, determines the relevance of program activities and monitors the effectiveness of preventive work.
  • – The annual update of the list of program activities for the next academic year, as well as analytical and statistical reporting, allow us to identify changes in the school (social) environment and the effectiveness of the program. The goal is achieved through the implementation of program activities developed in schools, the list of which contains the following sections:
  1. Organizational and methodological support and improvement of the mechanisms of a network of intermediary services.
  2. Introduction to the culture of cultural restoration.
  3. Information and methodological support of intermediary services. The social consequences of the implementation of the mediation program should reflect the development of the ability of minors to understand each other, the peaceful settlement of disputes, conflicts and illegal actions. Improving interpersonal interaction to prevent crime and create an environment with a low level of conflict in the child and youth community.

Program performance criteria should include a system of diagnostic measures to provide objective information about program results. Collection, processing and analysis Using the information received, it is possible to evaluate and adjust the process of implementing program activities, including monitoring and analytical diagnostics.

Monitoring and statistical analysis should be carried out four times a year, monitoring the effectiveness of the program taking into account data according to certain criteria (Table 3): reducing the number of conflicts and illegal situations in the youth community; increase the number of job placement services in schools (in every school in the city) with a developed work system; increase the percentage of students covered by measures to prevent interpersonal conflicts and illegal activities.

Table 3 Criteria and performance indicators of the program


Performance indicators



Criteria for the progress of innovative processes (implementation of mediation).

A wide range of applications in the practice of meditation aimed at resolving conflict and illegal acts.

The number of procedures performed with a positive resolution of a conflict or illegal situation.

Criterion for the formation of a holistic preventive space

Network approach to the implementation of measures aimed at preventing conflict and illegal acts among minors.

Percentage of students covered by relationship education activities.

Criterion of General cultural and individual — personal development

Observance of norms and rules of behavior in society, manifestation of tolerance.

Reduction of the number of offenses committed by minors, including repeated ones.

An important topic in the study of the culture of interpersonal relations among students is to identify the structure of such relations and their content. This can be done on the basis of the analysis of the social situation of the development of small groups.An important task of educational institutions in the school is to improve the mediation process and improve the quality of rehabilitation work with students by organizing a development environment that ensures the creative activity of each adolescent and allows them to show their activity and understand themselves best.

It is very important to maintain and normalize relations, since in most cases the criminal and the victim know each other and will continue to meet on the walls of the school after the incident.

If the offender and the victim are present in the conflict (fights, theft, extortion, financial losses), consideration should be given to compensation for the damage caused to the victim by the offender.

At the same time, one should not forget that such methods can achieve the desired long-term result [9, 10]. However, it should be noted that the same psychological techniques can be used for different purposes and depend on the position of the communicants (students, psychologists, mediators, etc.).

We are celebrating something closer to reconnecting. Communication methods are required if understanding and communication «freeze». The school mediation service, which implements the principle of a restorative approach, helps to build a «productive» interaction between children through a series of games that form a culture of relationships that increases the efficiency of work in school education. in this direction (Table 4).

Table 4 Implementation of the principles of restorative communication

Principles of restorative communication

Implementation (in what and how it appeared)

Restoring children's ability to understand each other

The task was to restore communication between the parties to the conflict, to teach them to resolve the conflict peacefully.

Participation of the social environment (relatives, friends, teachers).

Parents of the parties to the conflict and class teachers actively participated in the preliminary meetings.

Responsibility of the offender to the victim (if there was an offender in the situation).

All participants recognized the illegality of their actions.

Healing the victim (if there was a victim in the situation)


Acceptance by the parties to the conflict of responsibility for its settlement.

All participants in the preliminary meetings admitted responsibility for the offense and were ready for reconciliation.

What has been done/it is important to do, so that this does not happen again.

The participants of the conflict, with the help of volunteers, developed the rules of friendship and promised to observe them.


The principles of restorative communication in the mediation process allow you to resolve the conflict by determining its cause and driving force, preventing conflict, protecting children and adolescents from aggressive situations, sometimes rejecting the environmental impact and correcting the behavior of those who have already stumbled. to be.

Restorative communication is also a tool for resolving conflicts between students, children and adults. The school environment often does not contribute to the development of youth communication skills, the acquisition of cultural forms of power and the development of constructive environmental skills necessary for a future life [11,12].

In view of the above, it should be noted that by creating the conditions for the development of the school system in school educational institutions and carrying out systematic work in this direction, it is possible to develop an interpersonal culture, a positive attitude towards oneself and oneself, Environment. Mediation is one of the most common ways to resolve educational disputes for parents and schools. Thousands of successful special educational mediators are held throughout the country each year.



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Year: 2020
City: Karaganda
Category: Pedagogy