A fairly significant number of scientific papers are devoted to the consideration of the problem of the formation of competence in professional communication. However, the interest of scientists in this problem does not diminish, which indicates the special importance and relevance of its solution at the present stage of modernization and development of the system of continuous pedagogical education. From Latin, "competence" is translated as a range of issues in which a person is well informed, has knowledge and experience, so a person with competence in a certain field has the appropriate knowledge and ability to reasonably judge this area and work effectively in it. At the same time, professional competence is called individual psychological education, including experience, knowledge, psychological readiness. Thus, the competence is understood as set interconnected the qualities of the personality (knowledge, abilities, skills, ways of performance of activity, experience of practical use of knowledge and abilities, characteristics of thinking, providing ability to make effective decisions, to work rationally, etc.) set in relation to a certain circle of the objects and processes and necessary, that it is qualitative and productive to work in relation to them.
A fairly significant number of scientific papers are devoted to the consideration of the problem of the competence formation in professional communication. However, the interest of scientists in this problem does not diminish which indicates the special importance and relevance of its solution at the present stage of modernization and development of the system of continuous pedagogical education.
The terms competency , competence” are often used in the scientific literature and have already been established. Their wide application is justified, especially in connection with the need to modernize the content of education. For example, in the strategy for modernizing the content of general education, we read: ... “there the main results of the activities of an educational institution should not be a system of knowledge, skills and skills in itself. We are talking about a set of key competencies of students in the intellectual, legal, information and other fields” .
However, at present there is no single precise and unambiguous definition of “competence” in the European educational community regarding its use to describe the desired image (professional qualified model) of graduates of various levels of education.
From Latin, “competence” is translated as a range of issues in which a person is well informed, has knowledge and experience, so a competent person in a certain field has the appropriate knowledge and ability to reasonably judge this area and work effectively in it. At the same time, professional competency is called individual psychological education including experience, knowledge, psychological readiness.
The concept of “competence” in the dictionary of S. I. Ozhegov is denoted as awareness, authority in any field with competencies .
In psychological and pedagogical literature, the concept of “competence” has become widespread relatively recently. According to E.M. Przhivalskaya, for the first time the concept of “competence” is found in the works of the german scientist O. Habermas who used this concept as a sociological term in the context of the speech communication theory .
So, in the late 1960s - early 1970s in the western and in the late eighties - in national science, a special direction arises - a competent approach in education. I.A. Zimnyaya analyzed the research of the founders and developers of the competent approach (N. Khomsky, R. White, N. V. Kuzmina, A. K. Markova, V. N. Kunitsyna, G. E. Belitskaya, L. I. Berestova, V. I. Baidenko, A. V. Khutorsky and others) and identified three stages in the development of the approach:
1) The introduction into the scientific world of the categories “competence” and communicative competence (D. Hymes) as well as the creation of prerequisites for distinguishing the concepts of competence and “competency” are characteristic of the first stage (1960-1970).
2) At the second stage (1970-1990), the author notes that the active use of the terms competence and competency in the theory and practice of language education (especially not native), as well as in the analysis of professionalism in management. During this period, the concepts of social competency” and “social competence” are developed. J. Raven defined the concept of competency as a special ability necessary for the effective implementation of specific actions in a specific subject area including highly specialized knowledge, a special type of subject skills, ways of thinking, as well as understanding of responsibility for actions .
J. Raven gave the first detailed interpretation of the “competence” concept consisting, in the author s opinion, of a large number of components, many of which are quite independent of each other... some components relate more to the cognitive sphere and others to the emotional... these components can replace each other as components of efficient behavior”. As the author emphasizes, the essence of all types of competencies is that they are motivated abilities which are manifested in activities that are personally relevant to the subject and a valuable aspect is crucial in determining competence J Raven gives д7 types of competencies in the same work, among which: the desire for a clearer understanding of values and attitudes with respect to a specific goal, emotional attitude to activity, readiness and ability for self-learning, self-confidence and adaptability, some features of thinking (in particular, the habit of abstraction, criticality, reaction to an existing problem), readiness for innovation and the ability to make decisions, the ability for collective activity, etc.
Results of a research
The beginning of the active participation OfRussian scientists (N. V. Kuzmina, A.K. Markov, L.A. Petrovskaya and others) in the development of the competence theory in relation to certain professions also dates back to the same time. In particular in 1990 N V Kuzmina published the book Professionalism of the personality of a teacher and master of industrial training” where, on the materials of pedagogical activity, competence is considered by the author as a “property of personality” which includes 5 elements:
- Special competence in the field of taught discipline.
- Methodological competence in the field of ways of formation of knowledge, skills of students.
- Socio-psychological competence in the communicative field.
- Differential psychological competence in the field of motives, abilities of students.
- Autopsychological competence in the field of advantages and disadvantages of one’s own activity and personality .
3) The third stage in the study of the phenomenon of competence of Russia originates with the release of works (1993, 1996) by A.K. Markova. The author, professional competence is considered comprehensively and purposefully from the point of view of the psychology of labor. Analyzing the professional competence of the teacher, the author identified four blocks in the competence structure:
- professional (objectively necessary) psychological and pedagogical knowledge;
- professional (objectively necessary) pedagogical abilities;
- professional psychological positions, teacher’s attitudes, demanded by his profession;
- personal features that ensure the teacher’s mastery of professional knowledge and skills .
L.M. Mitina, developing L.A. Petrovskaya’s ideas, I placed emphasis on social and psychological and communicative aspects of competence of the teacher and I included in “pedagogical competence” - knowledge, abilities, skills and also ways and methods of their realization in activity of the personality. The author identified two aspects of professional competence: activity and communication .
In the works of A. A. Rean, Y.L. Kolominsky, V. V. Trunaev, the level of competence is considered as a system of knowledge, in contrast to the concept of a professional level, understood as the degree of formation of skills and skills .
According to A.B. Khutorskii, competence is the possession, possession of the person of the corresponding competence including his personal attitude to it and the subject of activity. Competence is a set of human qualities, as well as professional knowledge and skills .
V.M. Shepel included the use of knowledge, skills, experience, theoretical and applied readiness to use existing knowledge in practical activities .
B.C. Bezrukova understands competence as knowledge and skills that qualify professionally Competentjudgments, assessments and opinions .
V.A. Demin defines competence as a level of personality abilities that reflects the degree of conformity of a certain competence and allows you to work structurally in changing social conditions. The author emphasized general cultural competence as the basis of professional competence considering that the basis of general cultural competence of a student in a person-oriented approach is personal potential .
Being competent means the ability to mobilize knowledge and experience in situations. Hence the concept of “competence” which comes from the Latin word “competere” and denotes qualification and suitability in some position.
According to O.A. Bulavenko, in the traditional sense, competence acquires significant evaluation value, since most professional associations and licensing bodies suspend those specialists who have proven their incompetence. With regard to competency in the use of skills that can be identified by applying criteria to assess the performance of operations, it can be determined with sufficient confidence. When competence is established in the profession, it is difficult for her to give a clear description.
Today, there are enough definitions that reveal the essence of the concepts of “competence” and “professional competence”. Some authors characterize competence in terms of what a competent person is capable of (that is, from the point of view of the result of the formation of competence), others describe its structure. Opinions on the structure of competence (and, in particular, professional) are also divided: from its definition as a combination of knowledge, skills and skills to practical synonymy with the concept of “professionalism” .
Several groups in competence studies are identified: Definitions which characterize competence through her external manifestations: as abilities of the person to work outside educational plots and situations (V.A. Bolotov) or ability to impart knowledge, abilities, skills out of limits of conditions in which this knowledge was initially created (V.V. Batyshev), ability to take out the qualified judgments, to make adequate decisions in problem situations, to reach, as a result of the purposes (A.L. Busygin).
This direction of definitions of “competence” contributes to the need to include in the competence structure certain creative characteristics of thinking which provide which includes the ability to extrapolate knowledge and skills in new areas of their application, independence in decision-making and the ability to solve a problem.
- Definitions that distinguish the structural components of competence: possession of competencies covering abilities, readiness of knowledge and relationships (behaviors) necessary for the performance of activities (V.I. Baidenko), a person’s ability and ability to perform certain labor functions (A.K. Markov), readiness and ability for activity as well as a number of personal qualities (O. M. Atlasova).
- Definitions in which the author’s view of the structure of competence is clearly reflected (mainly related to professional competence):
- G.M. Kojaspirova characterizes professional competence as a specialist’s possession of the necessary sum of knowledge, skills, representing the basis for the formation of professional activity, communication and identity of a specialist - the bearer of certain values, ideals, consciousness ;
L.M. Mitina defines competence as set of knowledge, abilities, skills, ways and methods their embodiment in activity, communication and personal development and specifies that, for example, the competent head has to know and possible consequences of a concrete way of influence, have experience of practical application of various methods of management ;
- E.P. Tongonogaya, determining the professional competence of the leader, calls it an integrated quality of personality, a blending of experience, knowledge, skills .
From the point of view of the psychological approach to the definition of the structure of professional competence, this quality can be characterized from the point of view of the structure of the person. In particular, E.V. Bondarevskaya identifies the following components:
functional, it is a system of knowledge acquired at the university (humanities, natural sciences, general professional, special and specializing disciplines), skills of the creative activity of a specialist - taking into account their depth, volume, style of thinking, ethics, social functions, motive, includes motives, goals, needs, values of actualization in professional activity,
- reflective: includes a complex of self-control skills, introspection, forecasting of the results of its activities,
- communicative: includes the ability to establish interpersonal relations, formulate thoughts, clearly state information, carry out professional interaction .
Thus, the competence is understood as set interconnected the qualities of the personality (knowledge, abilities, skills, ways of performance of activity, experience of practical use of knowledge and abilities, characteristics of thinking, providing ability to make effective decisions, to work rationally, etc.) set in relation to a certain circle of the objects and processes and necessary, that it is qualitative and productive to work in relation to them.
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