The article considers the relationship between teachers and students, when the teacher acts as a “carrier” of knowledge and his active “guide” to the consciousness of students, that is, acts as a “subject of the educational process”, and students only “perceive” the offered knowledge, in fact remaining in the passive position of “objects of pedagogical influence” on the part of teachers. The new scheme is based on the fact that both teachers and students are active “subjects” of the educational process. At the same time, the teacher of psychology acts as a “subject of organizing the educational process”, and the student - as a “subject of educational (educational and professional) activities”. But not all students are ready to be such genuine “subjects”, and many of them have to prepare for a long time to become real students. In pedagogy, the subject of educational activity is a carrier of subject-practical activity and cognition, which makes a change in other people and in himself/ herself. Human subjectivity is manifested in his vital activity, communication, self-consciousness. The formation of a student as a subject Ofeducational activity involves teaching him the ability to plan, organize his activities, determine the educational actions necessary for successful study, the program for their implementation on a specific educational material and a clear organization Ofexercises on their formation.
In modern conditions, the training of specialists with a high level of professional competence and versatile personal development, capable of continuous self-improvement constant replenishment and expansion of the range of their knowledge and skills, that is’ capable of learning all their lives, is one of the central tasks of modem higher education.
Student age is the age of the heyday of a person s physical and mental development. At this age, there is a continuous increase in efficiency, dynamics of active activity and productivity. In the student age, the development of verbal intelligence, dynamic excitement is observed, the level of observation and the general culture of observation increase. The student age is characterized by a manifestation of dichotomous thinking, the desire for an early manifestation of oneself in difficult life situations, sometimes without a sufficiently deep assessment of the likely consequences of the committed acts Often psychologists note indifference to the experience of other people, and the advice, comments and instructions of the elders can be perceived as an unreasonable invasion of privacy. At this age the aspiration to self-reliance, independence, hobby new is characteristic, however along with self-confidence quite often there is an uncertainty in the opportunities that it can be shown in forwardness, negligence, and negativism and even in aggression.
The learning process is not only the work of the teacher, but also involves the student’s response. This is its bilateral character. One of the current problems in the field of training of specialists in the framework of higher educational institutions is the student’s personality formation as a subject of educational activity.
The process of acquiring life experience by a person in knowledge, accomplishments and skills is determined by several concepts. It is educational activity, training, the doctrine and learning. Educational activity is a process by which a person acquires or alters his/ her existing knowledge, accomplishments and skills, improves and develops his abilities. Such activities allow him to adapt to the world around him, navigate in it, more successfully and more fully satisfy his basic needs including the needs of intellectual growth and personal development. The concept of learning is a rather complex and multidimensional concept. It assumes joint educational activity of the pupil (the pupil, the student, etc.) and teachers, process of transfer Ofknowledge of exercises and skills characterizes.
According to N. V. Klyueva definition [1.43-49], training is a form of organization of the knowledge transfer process, a social system aimed at transferring the experience of previous ones to a new generation. Learning is an active process in which the teacher and the student interact.
E.V. Rapatsevich [2, 3-15] defines learning as a focused pedagogical process of organizing and stimulating the active educational and cognitive activity of a person in mastering scientific knowledge, accomplishments and skills, developing creative abilities, worldview, moral and aesthetic views and beliefs. In the modern sense, the learning process is characterized by a bilateral character, the joint activities of teachers and students with the leading role of a teacher, a special systematic organization and management, integrity and unity, compliance with the laws of students’ age development, management of development and education of students.
A well-known Russian specialist in the pedagogy field G.M. Kodzhaspirova [3, 24- 26] adds to these definitions the learning understanding as the awakening and satisfaction of a person’s cognitive activity by introducing him/ her to general professional knowledge, methods of obtaining, preserving and applying them in his/ her own practice.
The concept of teachings also refers to educational activities but when it is used in science, it focuses mainly on what R.S. Nemov emphasizes [4, 2-10], that in the composition of educational activities falls on the student. Here we are talking about educational actions taken by the individual, aimed at developing abilities, at acquiring the educational knowledge necessary. The most complete definition of the doctrine was given by LI. Ilyasov [5, 54-62]: teaching is the process of assimilating specific types of knowledge, accomplishments and skills in contrast to the acquisition by the individual of logical and creative techniques of cognitive activity, as well as in contrast to other changes in mental processes and activities - the transition from stupidity, involuntary to mediation and arbitrariness, from the processes’ external plan to internal.
Educational activities have a certain structure: motives for educational activities; setting of educational tasks; training activities; control; assessment.
Based on this structure, the essence of educational activity is to solve educational problems, the main difference of which is that their purpose and result are to change the acting subject himself/ herself consisting in mastering certain methods of action and not in changing the subjects with which the subject acts. Solving a separate educational problem defines a holistic act of educational activity, that is, its simplest “unit”, within which the structure of this activity as a whole is manifested. The implementation of such an act involves updating the specific motive for educational activities; definition of the final training objective; a preliminary definition of the intermediate objectives system and how to achieve them; the system implementation of training activities themselves; execution of control actions; evaluation of training results.
Results of a research
Modem researchers note that learning as a pedagogical process is a two-way process and the process of studying at a university is no exception. On the one hand, a teacher speaks in it, who outlines (teaches) the material and manages this process. On the other side of this process are students, for whom the didactic process takes on the teaching nature, that is, active mastery of the material.
Thus, teaching and training are the main components of the learning process. Their unity is the basic essential didactic characteristic of learning. In the elementary form, the “teaching- training” attitude is manifested in the specific interaction of the teacher and the student, but only such interaction is not reduced. A student in the system of didactic relations acts as an object of teaching and as a subject of teaching, as a subject of educational activity. In this duality of functions, the student’s activity as an acting subject is manifested.
In pedagogy, the subject of educational activity is a carrier of subject-practical activity and cognition which makes a change in other people and in themselves. Human subjectivity is manifested in his vital activity, communication, self-consciousness.
The formation of a student as a subject of educational activity involves teaching him/ her the ability to plan, organize his activities, determine the educational actions necessary for successful study, the program for their implementation on a specific educational material and a clear organization of exercises on their formation.
A significant indicator of a student as a subject of educational activity is his ability to fulfill all her forms and types. However, according to V.T. Lisovsky [6, 33-39], most students do not know how to listen and record lectures, inspect literature (in most cases, only 18-20% oflecture material is recorded). Students do not know how to speak to the audience, conduct a dispute and give an analytical assessment of problems. On the study basis of this scientist, it was shown that 37.5% of students strive to study well, and 53.6% do not always try, and 8% do not strive to study well.
Let us dwell in detail on those forms of educational and cognitive activity of the university, in which the student is formed as a subject of educational activity.
There are such activities involved as hearing, awareness, learning (personification of educational information at lectures, seminars, practical and other classes). Students, especially in the first year, find it difficult to perceive speech information (for example, some do not know how to highlight the main thing and others do not have time to record). It is important for the teacher in such cases to feel the audience and respond to the students’ difficulties, change the lecture pace, timbre and volume of speech, repeat and clarify what is said.
There are also reading, perceiving, processing, assimilating written information considered to be important. It is important for a student to learn rational reading which is presented by a scientifically sound technology that provides reading and personification of the maximum amount of information in the shortest time with minimal labor costs. Reading performance depends on its speed, and speed must be combined with complexity, type of reading and its novelty.
There is the abstracting. This form of work is carried out by students when listening to a lecture and when reading literature. The work’s techniques with this work form can be different: students can record without understanding, record the main thing and at the same time comprehend what is recorded, conduct a reference conception with a deeper understanding of the text. There are several ways to inspect.
Perform exercises, solve tasks. The main goal of this work form is the formation of skills in the specific disciplines study. Until recently, in higher educational institutions there was an opinion that tasks and exercises should be practiced in the field of studying natural science, technical and exact disciplines. However, educational practice has convincingly proved the fallacy of such an opinion. Tasks and exercises are appropriate in all university disciplines. Despite their different nature, they are necessary for the development of students’ analytical thinking, for the development of their independence.
There is also the experimentation taken into consideration. The study of natural science disciplines provides for students to conduct experiments in laboratory conditions. This is a mandatory form of educational work provided for in the university curriculum. Conducting experiments requires that students be prepared theoretically and know well the laboratory equipment, materials and technology for organizing experimental work. The value of this work form lies in the fact that students acquire the accomplishments and skills to conduct scientific research, deepen their theoretical knowledge, they develop curiosity, responsibility, independence, which is an indispensable condition for the student formation as a subject of educational activity.
Educational research is the most important work form that forms a student as a subject of educational activity. This work form has become mandatory at the university since the second half of the 20th century. These educational studies include coursework and thesis, abstracts, various projects, etc. Performing educational research requires a high degree of independence and cognitive activity from students, contributes to the development of scientific search skills and the formation of analytical thinking, and also awakens and deepens interest in a particular science.
There is the pedagogical modeling revealed. This work form is used during practice at a school or other educational institution. Its peculiarity is that students, developing plans, preparing and conducting lessons, extracurricular events, meetings with parents and other events, are approaching the real pedagogical process, learning to model its various options. Students “try on” the teacher role, and the formation of a specialist professional competence is one of the indispensable conditions for the student development as a subject of educational activity. Pedagogical modeling involves sufficient preparation for professional activity. Performing creative training tasks is also considered to be one of the constituent. The development of creative abilities, the ability to think and act independently is the key to the success of the formation of the student as a subject of educational activity. Creative abilities are manifested in the ability of the student to think unconventionally, to look for new approaches to solving educational and scientific problems.
The student formation as a subject of educational activity is not a one-time process, but is a long-term focused joint activity of the teacher and student. A.V. Beloshitsky [7, 42-44] and I.F. Berezhnaya [7, 44-52] distinguish several successive stages of this process.
The first stage is the adaptation stage to the university conditions. At this stage, the active adaptation of students to new conditions dominates, the requirements of the university are mastered, and awareness of their rights and obligations takes place.
The second stage is identification with the requirements of educational and professional activities. This stage is aimed at active assimilation and qualified performance of the student’s social role; it involves preparing the student for the upcoming specialization, consciously directing his own activities and behavior on the basis of conscious motives and goals.
The third stage is the self-realization in the educational process is the purposeful formation of personal qualities and professional skills. At the same time, in all types of activities, the relationship and connection of motives and goals, internal intentions with external pedagogical influence is ensured. At this stage, self- determination and conscious self- realization in various activities are increasing.
The essence of the fourth stage is the stage of self-design of professional formation - consists in the manifestation of the subjectivity of the student, who carries out an independent, purposeful transformation of the initial abilities and personal properties into socially and professionally significant qualities.
In conclusion, let us summarize the main conclusions. The student’s educational activity in a higher educational institution is only one of the parties to the holistic professional and personal formation of a person. The student’s educational activity is understood as purposeful, regulated by plans and programs, a managed process of assimilation of the student’s knowledge, accomplishments and skills, development and formation of the student’s personality. In the academic activity course, the student acts as her/ his subject, i.e., the carrier of subject-practical activity and cognition. The student formation as a subject of educational activity involves his/ her mastery of the main forms of this activity, the ability to plan and organize this activity, determine the educational actions necessary for studying and the program for their implementation. It is especially important for a student, as a subject of educational activity, to master its main forms: listening, awareness, assimilation of educational information, inspecting, performing exercises, solving problems, conducting experiments, conducting educational research, etc. Modem researchers distinguish several stages of student formation as a subject of educational activity. It is a stage of adaptation to conditions of higher education institution, stage identification with requirements educational and educational professional activity, a stage of self-realization of the student in educational process and a stage of self-design of professional formation. The student formation student as a subject of educational activity can be considered as a deterministic, controlled and self- developing process. At the same time, according to A.V. Beloshitsky [22, 62-64], it can be more or less manageable depending on the tasks being solved, the content, methods and means, as well as the needs and capabilities of the subjects of this process.
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