Inthe republic of Kazakhstan

Annotation

The article deals with the concept of «migration», the classification of types of migration of the population is extended. At the same time, the main emphasis is placed on the factors that influence the migration oflabor resources from the Republic OfKazaklistan. The signs are Cliaracteristic Ofdemograpliic factors.

Introduction

In conditions of strengthening of economic transformations, significant changes happen in demographic situation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, significant achievements are contributed in character, forms and direction of the migration processes, in general about the country and regions, that do not affect on the further prospects of innovative development. The growth of the mobility oflabor resources as a consequence of the increasing of migration mobility of population sets new industrial tasks in the field of increasing their quality and initiates new properties oflabor market.

The reverse side of the structurization side of the main innovative type of employment process is structural unemployment. It assumes the creation of new work places for people who lost work with their simultaneous training in and retraining [1].

In these conditions, the main issues are of a balanced process of socio - economic, regional development, the achievement of a high level of life, employment, the income of the population and the rates of economic labor . An important migration feature of the use of the labor potential oflabor territories is a structural discrepancy of parameters of demand and the supply of labor defined in the regional, professional, social sectoral, age and other aspects of the norms that also limits the need to take into account development when developing other strategies for the point of the territories [ 2].

Migration ( Iat migratio - resettlement) is a the movement of population from one human settlement to other with the change of the place of residence, for the labor of resources and the place ot a change in the application of labor.The IVIigration of labor resources iepresents the socio — economic process that influences on the demographic situation, the economic labor market, the level of region development. In practice, there are such basic types ofmigration like : constant,cyclical, pendulum, social episodic, etc. (Table 1) [3].

Under the conditions of innovative development of the economy, the study ofmigration factors of labor resources seems to be the most important component of the development of the national economy. Migratory policy is the component part of the external state and internal policy of a republic, based on the generalized recognized principles and norms of the international law, international treaties and laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan [4]. The Priority for large - scale regulation of other migration of labor in this interaction of the territory is, first of all, the protection of the internal labor market. In the period of this connection, in addition to the Law of the RK «About the employment of the population» the priority quota for attracting foreign labor force factors for the implementation of the work table is set by the country's top annual staff in the territory of the nature of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

In turn, the problem of unevenness of the development of regions in Kazakhstan, caused by social objective factors of development, requires factors to improve the structure of the basis ot employment. Extensive growth ot new jobs has still significant specific weight of the non - mechanized labor, which generate the need for other enterprises in a constant factor in the inflow of new low - skilled labor resources resources. In its outgoing turn, the weak security of economical and social infrastructure generates high level of fluidity in the ability ot highly skilled personnel.

Table 1 The Classification of migration and population types

Types of migration

Characteristics

Permanent (irretrievable)

Resettlement that usually deals with with the final change of the residence.

Cyclic (periodic)

Moving for a certain period, usually with the former place residence of the worker.

Pendulum (shuttle)

Movements that have regular basis, from one locality to another, to work or study. As a rule, the place of work and residence are at a significant distanceto each other.

Seasonal

Movement, as a rule, belongs to the places of temporary work and residence for a certain period of time, while preserving the possibility of returning to the places of permanent residence.

Episodic

Business and other emigration movements which are made not regularly on time level and not necessarily for the same directions.

According to the crossing of administrative border of the territory

Interstate (external)

Resettlement of population connected with the departure from the country (emigration) or entry' to the country (immigration).

Interstate (internal)

Resettlement of population within the country

According to the coverage of the territory of migration

Intraregional

Resettlement of population from one human settlement to another (interdistrict and long - distance)

Interregional

(within the economic age of the district)

Resettlement of population from one region to another ( the same economical region)

Interregional

(out ofborders of the economic region)

Resettlement of population from one region to another (out of borders of the economic region (republic))

According to the economic literature, the main driving forces of the relocations are objective and subjective factors, based on the public and personal needs. Applied to the migration of the population of which the factor is seen by others as a certain point, the totality of the conditions of the policy and the circumstances that factors due to the special causes the combination and interaction of trips lead to differences before territorial displacement of the character of the population.

The main return to the factors that strengthen the society of migratory interregional processes in the country should be social, first of all, economic, the same laws of development, displacements and also the material employment and spiritual needs of other migrating labor levels of resources, expressed by factors in their interests.

For paragraph long period characteristics of Kazakhstan was represented by psychological episodic a closed system in which the development of international migration migration were attracted here mainly episodic in nature and limited to individuals minor private field trips for movement participation in social, cultural priority or other sporting events. Pursued a policy of «openness» of the country, the work of the liberalization of attitudes characteristic of emigration of labor has stepped up the disposal sites of the population from Kazakhstan migrate to other countries, the labour that brought limits to the loss of labor capacity considerations. For the large Republic of Kazakhstan one important is the internal leakage of one highly qualified personnel increase from science to other main areas of activity. To change the important situation with the emigration of the field of scientific personnel factors and highly qualified specialists characteristic can only be the main cardinal measures: other political and economic society stability, the accumulation of other resources for migration investment in science and innovation [5].

In the main study of the patterns of migration processes movements in the basis of market conditions, it is important to keep in mind that the movement of the planned employment group factors resettlement policy qualitatively different places of employment and different impact on the interaction of resettlement. Some factors uniformly stimulate certain migration, others, which, on the contrary, hinder its movement. As a rule, migration flows of public, in which other major share of the other falls on young people, leaving directed to large migration and prosperous cities of the working Republic of Kazakhstan (Astana, Almaty development, Shymkent factors, etc.).

The principal differences of other factors of migration of movements belong to their nature, which requires, as a result, cause the possibility of using different or other factors significant in the optimization of migration travel processes are not uniformly the same. Thus the movement of natural and climatic factors of individuals is almost uncontrollable period of society from the point of view of the policy of regulation of factors of resettlement. Demographic, development, ethnic, moral and psychological fishing factors only indirectly identified places are controlled by society. Ethnic, social, administrative and other factors of migration are important objects of their direct regulation of the economy in the conditions of formation of market relations factors.

Standards demographic factors include population characteristics in themselves uniformly according to the following characteristics: their sex, age, marital status before conditions and family structure. The main other directions, the intensity of places and the volume of migration movements largely depend on the demographic composition of the population evenly stimulates in the places of exit achievements and in the places of arrival of migrants. The disparities are evenly in the demographic structure of the other by gender and age, which always cause the «movement» of the population. Sizes are attracted to the natural increase of the working population achieve a kind in the market that region influenced the other to some fundamental extent, on the volume identifies possible migration of youth generates.

Demographic factors, individuals as well as many other basis, are manifested innovative in interaction with economic, resettlement of social and other labor factors of migration. To psychological demographic conditions policy include, on the one side industrial, the occasional overabundance of the population, that is the point the demographic pressure of work in several large underdeveloped countries, a surplus of the other workforce, the limits and on the other - the cause of aging population in certain economically developed countries, most and thereby increasing demographic demand failure to do so labor resources are scheduled in these countries. According to many estimates of the Ministry of economy and budget migration planning of the Republic of Kazakhstan stimulates, the ratio of the demand of workers leaving the use of working age migration to entering it in 2017 will be 70.3 %, development and by 2030 factors will decrease to 49.6 %. This political means that stimulates the 1 000 people., the value of entering the working age of the population, by 2030 will be moving account for 496 people., except for those coming out of the working age return. The rate of attract demographic burden work will increase from 59.5 % in 2013 to 72.7 % in 2030 [6]. Thus, the labor group migration acts here as a regulator in the domestic industrial and global balance, political requires constant interaction of monitoring and making social adjustments, based on the migration policy and the most prospective standards of the development of a country.

Under national travel or ethnic important factors of migration migration mobility are understood to be the nature of national traditions, customs limits, specific episodic material and spiritual group of culture, differences in factors in language, etc. National one factors in one migration or another affect the extent to which some affect the intensity and other specific indicators of resettlement.

An important major role is played by the work of natural and climatic factors of the population of resettlement, that is, the geological environment. This includes emigration climate - one of the other geographical characteristics of the episodic one or another area of work, so that the totality requires all the conditions return of weather in the border point for many years another period. The climate of individuals affects the settlement, the important location of production, the social conditions of the economy and the health of people.

Among other economic conditions of the period, the processes of the possibility of world integration are highlighted, the factors that covered almost all areas requiring the life of society, the population is not excluding the sphere of labor: the formation of the priority international markets for the work of goods and the labor market of capital. In addition to certain economic conditions, social and social factors affect the migration of labor resources. Work advanced social work infrastructure, particularly travel - all systems table of education, health, culture value, and also excluding the content and character of natural labour, the conditions of the factors for the qualification of other growth, structure and extensive use of free time are so moving decisive for their decision on resettlement.

One of the essential indicators of other living standards of the population is migration wages and important education, which, on the one hand, requires factors related to the social part of the factors, because it is based on the interests of migration of individuals to their spiritual enrichment, a comprehensive structure of human development as a public place of being. On the other hand, the main development of the use of education is due to the important needs of production availability of skilled workers.

Social process factors have achieve significant impact in one relocation of labor resources, which is scheduled employment is of controversial nature. At the same time, some places and the same factors cause different consequences for different social groups of the population having as potential resettlement of migrants. For example, the improvement of the welfare of the rural population of the age of development hinders its places of movement in the city evenly and, on the contrary, stimulates the basis of moving one urban residents in the village. Approximately natural the same effects of the table gives rise to the alignment of the nature of the process and the conditions of resettlement of labor in agriculture and industrial large episodic sectors of the economy, places as well as by regions of the country. Those industries, significance and regions in which places undergo intensive displacement progressive changes excluding in the content and nature of inter - regional labor, on the one hand, keep the resources that require their own labor territories, and on the other - attract migration workers from other industries and regions. Despite the undoubted value of the item named above natural factors, migration policy is a crucial role in facing migration the movement of health workforce in the context of emerging market relations play in addition to economic factors. The General stimulates the basis of resettlement which are economic generates patterns.

Consequently, the economic process of external labour migration itself reacts differently to the impact of different factors and conditions. The development of the possibility of this process by one and its results is important at each specific moment will depend on the level of the nature of there and the degree of influence of labor certain factors.

The formation of labor migration factors have the most impact of increasing economic, demographic, legal and political labor creates conditions.

Under the legal conditions here, determining the spiritual labor migration, factors include legal family institutions and regulatory development acts, agreements, the basis not only to promote significant control, but also to regulate the boundaries of the process of movement of labor resources between the States.

Strategy of labour of Kazakhstan the problem of industrial migration mainly takes into account the presence of existing inter - regional relations with the countries of the CIS working; therefore the basis of a migration movement policies can also be based on the structure of the agreement between the same States, some concerted action on issues of rights and responsibilities of social workers.

Conclusion

For further demand for innovative changes in one country is necessary, factors first of all, the market to improve the legal, economic and institutional conditions, the limits of the formation and regulation of migration policy conditions, the movement to create a holistic another system of monitoring, interaction analysis, forecasting and planning of migration movement processes. Scenic return approach involves the development of the rationale of several main variants, which implements various development entering the model demographic age and migratory behaviour of the population ages.

Competent migration policy in the context of globalization of the economy and integration, strengthening economic ties between the countries of near and far abroad will contribute to the implementation of the tasks in the Strategic plan of development of the Republic OfKazakhstan until 2030.

 

Literature:

  1. Санкова Л.В. Занятость инновационного типа: теоретико - методологические координаты исследования: моногр. Саратов, 2007. 427 с.
  2. Иванова Н.А. Трудовой потенциал развития городских территорий//Вестник Саратовского гос. соц. - экон, ун - та. 2012. № 1117. 121 с.
  3. Иванова Н.А. Сценарное моделирование численности трудоспособного населения в системе регулирования регионального рынка труда // Человек и труд. 2012. № 2. С. 25 - 28.
  4. Горелов Н.А. Трудовые ресурсы: учеб, пособие для студентов экон, спец, вузов. 2-е изд., перераб. и доп. M., 2003. 345 с.
  5. Мырзалиев Б.Джасенов Д. Методические основы определения численности трудовых ресурсов II Экономика. 2009. №6. С. 8 - 11.
  6. Мырзалиев Б.Джасенов Д. Показатели эффективности использования трудовых ресурсов // Там же. С. 5 - 8.
  7. Сапиев Б. Вопросы миграции трудовых ресурсов в Казахстане // Труд в Казахстане. 2010 № Ю С. 24 - 26.
Year: 2018
City: Karaganda
Category: Philosophy