The influence of sowing time on the yield of maize in north Kazakhstan

Annotation

The research was conducted in the conditions of Northern Kazakhstan. The growth and development of various early-maturing maize hybrids depending on the time of sowing were considered. The influence of the sowing time on the elements of the crop structure of various maize biotypes, yields and productivity was analyzed.

The Irigh correlation of going through the phonological growth phases and development of maize depending on the sowing, air temperature and soil was proved.

Introduction

In modern theory and practice of fodder production and feeding of farm animals, there is no alternative to maiye as the main energy ComponentBasically, it refers to the feeding of swine and poultry. However, in dairy and beef cattle, important indicators of productivity without this component of the diet are also difficult to achieve [1,2].

The time of sowing most radically affects the agroclimatic situation defining also its components as photoperiod, heat and moisture supply, phytosanitary conditions, etc. (3 c 198-200). Therefore, the impact of sowing time on the growth and development of maize depends on the genetically determined response of hybrids to a variety of environmental factors, which suggests studying this issue in connection with the agroclimatic conditions of North Kazakhstan.

It is possible to analyze the development of maize with the account of long-term data on the natural and climatic conditions in the North OfKazakhstan and, on the basis of this, to increase its productivity and quality, agrotechnical techniques at the optimum time [4].

Maize during the growing season goes through several stages of development, each of which makes certain demands to the agro-climatic conditions. The correspondence of real and plant-specific weather conditions affects the maturity and duration of the phases of organogenesis of maize [5, 6].

Materials and methods of conducting research. The object of the study is various early-maturing hybrids of maize.

The research was conducted in the Agrobiological station of North Kazakhstan University named after M.Kozybayev during the stationary field experiment.

The soil of the experimental site was ordinary, with humus content of 4.7%, nitrogen 71.7, phosphorus - 20.7, potassium 700.0 mg/kg soil.

The scheme of the experiment is shown in Table 1. Agrotechnics in the experiment recommended for the zone.

All surveys and observations were carried out according to the method of forage crops field studies of All union Scientific Research Institute of Forages dedicated to V.R.Williams and methodological recommendations for maize field studies of Corn Research Institute, 1980. The economic efficiency was calculated by the method of M.F. Lupashku (1989) [7].The mathematical processing of the data was carried out by the methods of B.A.Dospehov [8].

Results and discussion

Agrometeorological conditions during the years 2015 -2016 were different and reflected the climatic features of the north of Kazakhstan. The vegetation period of the year 2015 was dry in the first half of the growing season (May-June) and moderately humid, in the second half (July-August) the hydrothermal index (HI)-1.0. 2016g moderately wet during the whole vegetation (May-September), HI 1.2.

The results of the experiments were processed using the analysis of variance, by the pair and multiple correlation method.

The sowing-sprouts period. The correlation analysis of the years 2015-2016 shows the significant correlation of duration of this period with the average daily air temperature (Xl) and soil (X2) at a depth of 0-10 cm, the sum of daily average positive (X3) and effective air temperatures (X4), effective soil temperatures X5) at a depth of 0-10 cm, the sum of precipitation (X6) during this period, the average daily relative humidity of air (X7). The period varies considerably from early sowing time for corn to late one. Seedlings appeared after 14.7 days during the control and after 16.5-9.5 days in the second and third sowing dates.

The highest correlation with the period of sowing was the intake of soil temperature with an increase in the mean daily seeding temperature by 10 ° C, the duration of the period decreased by 14 days. The thermal regime of the soil was more stable than the air, since the air of the soil was not influenced by such abrupt temperature fluctuations as atmospheric, and the soil gave off heat more slowly at low temperatures. The sowing-sprouts period was determined by the maximum sum of effective air temperatures (45.0-47.20 C) and soil (39.0-44.5 ° C). With the increase in the sum of effective temperatures the seeding emergence time was reduced.The sum of the effective temperatures of 44.7-58.OOC ensured the emergence of seedlings at the first time of sowing, with the second-third planting time it was 56.7-95.0 0C, with the late seeding time it was 68.5-115.6 ° C. The sum of the effective temperatures of 44.7- 58.OOC ensured the emergence of seedlings at the first time of sowing, with the second- third planting time it was 56.7-95.0 0C, with the late seeding it was 68.5-115.6 ° C. Moreover, due to the change in the value of one factor, the values of other indicators change. The connection between the sowing period and the meteorological elements can be shown in the form of an equation:

P= 9.027-0.546x1+0.102x2+0.007x3-0.0040x4-0. 004x5+0.042x6-0.03 7x7

The seventh leaf appearance. Maize sowing dates influence not only on the duration of emergence, but in general, on the plants development during the growing season.

So if at the first term the appearance of the seventh leaf was observed after 14- 23 days , then in the second-third seeding period the phase of the seventh leaf was 2-3 days earlier. In the control period the average daily air temperature was in the range of 17.1-20.4 °C, and in the second - third it increased by 0.6-0.8%. The shortest (10-16 days) period of appearance of the seventh leaf was noticed in 2015, when the average daily air temperature reached 18.5-23.6 0C. At an average daily air temperature of 17.6 oC this phase occurred only on the 24-27th day (2016). The increase in the average daily air temperature by 1 oC accelerated the passage of the phase by 2.0 days.

The average daily soil temperature with the duration of the appearance of the seventh Ieafhad an inverse correlation (-0.78) and rose from early sowing to late one.

The high correlation was found between the sum of positive air temperatures and The sowing-sprouts period of the seventh leaf (+0.93) based on biennial data, the positive temperature for the first two sowing periods was accumulated in the sum of 329.7-346.7 0C in the third in the sum of 320.5-323.0 °C. The longer the period of appearance of the seventh leaf, the more positive temperatures accumulate. With the duration of 23-25 days the sum of positive temperatures was 390.0-424.5 0C, and at 12-16 it decreased to 250.0-300.6 °C. The sum of positive temperatures during the sprouts and the appearance of the seventh leaf period was determined by the sums of the effective air temperatures and the soil layer of 0-10 cm in thickness. Certainly, these factors were closely related to other meteorological elements. This explained some differences in the sum of the effective air and soil temperatures over the years of experience and the time of sowing. The values of the minimum and maximum sum of positive air temperatures for two years of observations were within 247.6-419.8 °C, the sum of effective soil temperatures at a depth of 0-10 cm was 127.5-199.3 °C, the sum of effective air temperatures was 115.2 -198.3 °C.

The length of the period can be shown by the linear regression equation:

P=17.88-0.701xi -0.246x2 -0.077x3 -0.040x4 -0.004x5-0.002x6-0.012x7.

Sprouts -sweeping the panicles. In this period maize formed the basis of the future harvest. The annual variations in the positivity of the phase, as well as the time of sowing, depended more on the climatic conditions of the early stage of organogenesis of maize. The beginning of the summer (2016) was cold, the delay in the appearance of the seventh Ieafwas 3-1, and the phases of sweeping were 3-15 days.

The reliable correlation of the sprouts -sweeping the panicles phase with average daily air temperatures (-0.96) and soil (-0.95), the sums of effective air temperature (- 0.86) and precipitation (+0.52) was revealed. The sum of positive temperatures (+0,02) and relative humidity (+0,38) slightly correlated with the period under study. The duration of the phase was reduced by 2.2 or 2.0 days with an increase in air and soil temperature by 10C.

The role and importance of meteorological factors for each year may vary slightly:

P= 48.436 - 2.350 Xi + 0.096 x2 + 0.052 x3 - 0.006 x4 - + 0.009 x6-0.028 x7.

On average, in two years the duration of the sprouting season - the flowering of the first sowing period was 67.0 days, and in the second and third terms it was 61.7- 57.0 ones. The sum of effective air temperatures had small deviations (530-550 °C), regardless of the sowing time.

Flowering - milk-wax ripeness of the ears. Between this phase and the average daily air and soil temperatures at a depth of 10 cm, the highest correlation was observed. As the temperature of the air and soil rose, the cobs ripened faster. Thus, at an average daily air temperature of 17.8 0C, soil - 19.9 0C in 2016 maturing cobs to milk-wax ripeness lasted 39 days, in 2015 with an average air temperature of 22.0 0C, soil - 27.2 0C, the onset of this phase was noticed on the 34 day. Reducing the average air and soil temperature at 10 C led to lengthening of the period of 1.59 and 1.40 days respectively.

The height of plants, mainly, depended on weather conditions. The more favorable the weather conditions were and, first of all, the moisture availability of crops, the higher the hybrids of maize became.

In 2016, the accumulated positive temperatures during all stages of sowing was higher than in 2015, but even in the first term of sowing (in the 2nd decade of May), the accumulated positive temperatures did not exceed 1900 0C. The accumulated positive temperatures were significantly lower during other dates of sowing. The plant height primarily depended on weather conditions. The more favorable weather conditions and moisture content of the crops were, the higher were the maize hybrids. Thus, the highest of all the plants of maize hybrids during the harvest season were in wet 2016 year. Sowing dates had some effect on the plant height. The highest plants of maize hybrids were sown during the second and the third decades of May in all the years of research. The plant height on average for the years of the research is shown in Figure 1.

For cobs ripening from the flowering period to the milky wax ripeness, the sum of effective air tempeiatures of at least 270-287.0 0C was required. At the same time, milk-wax ripeness of cobs was formed only on the 39th-42nd day.

The maturing stage of cobs of early sowing time maize took place during a period when the air temperature was quite high. The maize of a later seeding period before the flowering phase of panicles developed under more favorable temperature conditions, but the cobs were formed already at a low air temperature. This is due to the fact that maize of medium and late sowing time often did not have time to form the cobs of not only milk-wax, but milk ripeness. So, in the first two terms, the cobs were collected about 70.0 c / ha (7э and 60% in milky wax ripeness). The plants contained little 72% moisture, 5.8-6.0% protein, 22-23% fiber, 2.7% fat and 4.4-4.6% ash.

Plants of late sowing for harvesting had mostly the onset of milk ripeness cobs and were well adhered, with high protein content (6.8-7.3%), moisture (78-80%). There were no significant changes in the content of calcium and phosphorus in various maize plants.

The maximum productivity was noted in maize of early sowing. Starting from the third term, the yield of air-dry mass was reliably reduced. At the third term it was 89.3%. It was obtained up to 69% of high-grade cobs at the third term of sowing maize, their collection decreased by 9.8-21.8%. The moisture content in plants increased to 70%, and the protein decreased to 53.69% (Table 1).

According to the survey, the best period of sowing the investigated maize hybrids was on May 15-17. At that time of sowing the maize plants had a high yield of both herbage and dry matter content, a maximum height of 230-235 cm, they were well- leafy and most yielding in comparison with other periods.The early-maturing hybrids such as Omka 130 -320.5 (72.4 percent), Kneja 310-337 (75.9 percent), the middle- early hybrids like Knezha 435 -340.5 (73 percent) had a low yield of herbage,thecrop yield of the middle-late hybrids such as Kneja 511 -343 (69.7%), Kazakhstani 435 - 350 (72.2) was significantly higher than that of the other hybrids, but the dry matter content was lower in the first period of sowing on May 7-12. At a later date of sowing on May 20-22 the content of fodder units in the herbage of maize hybrids and their crop yield of 1 hectare reduced significantly.The early-maturing hybrids to the beginning of harvesting for silage formed cobs of milky-wax ripeness.The middle-early hybrids such as Budan 237 MW with the length of the Vegetational season of 89-95 days had time to form a vegetative mass suitable for silage with the dry matter content of 25% or more.The middle-latehybrids, including the middle-early hybrid Knezha 435 did not reach the required moisture silage mass.

Table 1 Yield of maize hybrids of different ripeness groups depending on the crop crowdedness (on average for the years 2015-2016)

Density of planting, thous. pcs./ha

Hybrid

May 10-12

Mav 15-17

May 20-22

herbage, c/ha

dry matter, %

dry matter, c/ha

herbage.c /lia

dry matter, %

dry matte r, c/ha

herbage, c/ha

dry’

matte r,%

dry matte

r, c/ha

Moldavian 257 (standard)

292

22.9

66.9

322.5

23.3

75.1

299

23.8

71.1

Turan 150 SV

347.5

24.3

84.5

429

25.7

110

412

25

102.5

Turgay 5/87

340.2

24

81.6

420

25.7

108

406

24.8

100

Omka 130

320.5

22.6

72.4

389.5

24

93.6

372

22.7

84.4

Budan 237 MV

343

23.3

80

415.5

23.4

97.2

405

23.1

93.5

Knezha310

337

22.5

75.9

416

25.1

104.5

394

23.8

93.7

Knezha435

340.5

21.4

73

412.5

23.3

96

404

22.7

91.7

Knezha511

343

20.3

69.7

425

20.1

85.6

419

20.5

85.8

Kazaklistani 435 SV

350

20.6

72.2

439.5

19.4

85.4

428

20,3

87

Least significant difference (LSD) 0.5 for herbage Ofhybrids - 10.1 t/ha

The early-maturing maize hybrids formed the yield of green mass significantly lower than the middle-late ones. But thanks to the fact that during the harvest the early- maturing hybrids had gold ripe corncobs and their herbage contained more than 31% dry matter, during all the periods of sowing the difference between the early-maturing hybrids and the middle-late ones in collecting of dry matter per hectare significantly reduced.

Conclusion: economic entities need to start maize sowing when the soil is heated at a depth of 10 cm to 10—12 0C and when the sum of effective average daily air temperatures is 35-40 0C in the conditions of North Kazakhstan. It is necessary to conduct it within seven days from 15 to 22 May.

 

References:

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  3. J.K.Novoselov.” Guidelines on carry ing out of field experiments with forage crops/All-union Scientific Research Institute of Forages dedicated to V.R. Williams”.- M.. 1987.-198p.
  4. B.M.Kushenov, A.F. Kirdyaykin .The advantages of intensive maize technology// Maize and sorgo.1993 - № 4.- pp.5-6.
  5. Kushenov BM, Kazantsev N.Ya. The effective methods of maize cultivation in North Kazakhstan // Bulletin of Agricultural science of Kazakhstan-1998 - No. 9.- P.89-95.
  6. V.A. Prygunkov. The improvement of com fodder quality' // Fodder production. - 2004. - No. 3.-P. 30-32.
  7. M.F.Lupashku ,A.A. Babich , Bioenergetic and economic evaluation of crop cultivation technology. Kishinev, 1989.215 p.
  8. A.Dospehov. “Methods of field experiment.- M .: Kolos. 1985.- 336 p.
Year: 2017
City: Karaganda
Category: Biology