Ecological sustainability and efficiency of difficult agrophytotcenosis on the irrigated lands of the south-east of Kazakhstan

Annotation

Main objective of researches on the irrigated lands of the southeast OfKazakhstan is planned, was studying of ecological sustainability of various agrophytotcenosisof bean and cereal herbages for assessment of a potential possibility of their differentiation and allocation of competitive and long subpopulations. Highestproductivih' of perennial legume-grass mixtoes on irrigated arable land in the southeast OfKazakhstan for five-fold use is in the range 460.2-467.1 c/ha. Further their use for designing of steady agrophytotcenosis

Introduction

For implementation of actions for improving and the correct use of haymakings and pastures it is very important to know biological and ecological properties of plants. In case of their study generally consider vital forms of plants, their types on the nature of forthputting and root systems, the longevity, growth rates and development, an leaf formation, reproduction methods, ability to growth after bevelling, an aftermathion and the relation to growth conditions (moisture, soil, temperature, light).

The ecological sustainability is considered in the modern literature as ability of individuals, populations and types to survival and maintaining productivity in adverse conditions of an external environment [1].

Despite quite extensive material according to ecological stability of different types of plants including widely cultivated long-term cultures, remains the least developed a question of its increase during creation of agrophytotcenosis with the mixed bean and cereal herbages in certain conditions.

As the indices reflecting a level of ecological sustainability of different herbages it is possible to consider productivity of an elevated fitomass, safety of a bean component, competitiveness, etc. [2, 3]. In relation to practice of ecological researches, a fitotsenology and also applied botanical researches and selection, these indices are important both for community in general, and for separate individuals [4-8].

Assessment of ecological sustainability acquires special relevance in connection with a study of mechanisms of increase in productive longevity of bean herbs in case of the trans-species competition, especially with cereal cultures [9-14].

Main objective of researches was the study of ecological sustainability and productivity agrophytotcenosis of the mixed bean and cereals grass mixture in case of cultivation on the irrigated lands of the southeast of Kazakhstan for assessment of a potential possibility of their differentiation and separation of competitive and long subpopulations.

Experimental

Various grass mixture were objects of a research:

  1. 1st grass mixture (lucerne (25%) + sainfoin (25%) + BromusinermisLeyss (25%) + orchard-grass(25%)) control;
  2. 2nd grass mixture (lucerne (25%) + bird’s-foot trefoil (25%) +

BromusinermisLeyss (25%) + orchard-grass(25%));

  1. 3rd grass mixture (sainfoin (25%) + bird’s-foot trefoil (25%) +

BromusinermisLeyss (25%) + orchard-grass(25%);

  1. 4th grass mixture (lucerne (16.7%) + sainfoin (16.7%) + bird’s-foot trefoil (16.7%) + Bromusinermi sLeyss(25%) + orchard-grass(25%)).

Field experiments on a subject are put in EES Kazakh National Agrarian University on the irrigated site; at the first stage (2009) field experiments have been put. Soils of the skilled site meadow-chestnut, the maintenance of a humus in a layer of O- 20 cm - 3,20-4,60%, the humidity of the soil is maintained at the level of 70-75% of NV.

The area of skilled allotments is 50 sq.m, from them registration 20-40 sq.m. Frequency in experiences 4-fold. Experience has been put in the spring of 2009.

Observations, accounts and mathematical processing of the obtained data were carried out by the standard techniques accepted in experiences with long-term herbs [16, 17]. Between the studied signs applied the correlation and regression analysis to identification of communications [18].

Results and discussion

The long-term herbs growing on haymakings and pastures are under the influence of an environment, the person and animals. This influence influences formation and longevity of various herbages and their efficiency. Therefore along with knowledge of biological features of long-term herbs it is necessary to know their ecology, that is conditions of the habitat and relationship between plants and Wednesday in which they grow. Studying of regularities in the relations between plants and the environment of their dwelling allows to establish in what conditions this plant shows this or that degree of vitality, fitness to certain soil and climatic conditions, productivity.

However now cultural pastures in the republic are practically absent. According to us, wide dissemination of this very necessary production technology of high-quality pasturable green forages restrains still not a perfect of scientific developments, especially at selection of the range of herbs for creation of long agrophytotcenosis. For example, during creation of the irrigated cultural pastures 3-5 component cereal and bean grass mixture where a lucerne the sowing campaign and a cock's head were a bean component generally were used. In a year of crops the share bean in pasturable green forage was up to 45-55%. At intensive pasturable use of such herbages, by 3-4th year of use in herbage, the share of bean didn't exceed 20-25%. Luceme and cock's head didn't maintain frequent drain of stock mass and cultural pastures by 5th year of use became almost cereal, and it certainly influenced decrease in a digest protein in green forage and receiving a qualitative livestock product with low prime cost.

In this regard it was necessary to include in grass mixture new species of bean herbs, more perspective for pasturable use. Materials of researches of the countries distant (the USA, Canada) and the neighbor (Russia, Belarus) of the abroad demonstrate prospects of inclusion of a long-term bean grass of bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)in grass mixture during creation of the long irrigated cultural pastures. According to foreign researches, this grass was very perspective bean component for creation of highly productive cultural herbages [13-17].

Fast and rather wide circulation of bird s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)in a fodder grass cultivation in many countries happened thanks to a complex of its such economic and valuable signs as longevity (up to 10—12 years), high winter hardiness, indiscriminateness to soils (pH 4.5-8.2), a good after mathion after bevelling and drain that is especially important at resistance to a pasture of the cattle, ability to mature flooding by thawed snow (20 days and more).

In Kazakhstan bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)proved as very perspective grass for improvement of water meadows and for cultivation on a forage in a foothill zone of the southeast of the republic [5].

Research of bean and cereals of grass mixture are begun on irrigation of a foothill zone of the southeast of the republic. At the same time special attention was paid to selection of herbs for inclusion in structure grass mixture. At selection of herbs biological and ecological features of separate species of herbs were considered that have significant effect on dynamics of a harvest for the vegetative period and productive longevity of seeded herbages.

In the field experiments put in EES "Agrouniversity" of Enbekshikazakh district of Almaty region of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the spring of 2009 grass mixture consisting of the following components are studied: from bean - a lucerne a sowing campaign, sainfoin, bird’s-foot trefoil; from cereals - BromusinermisLeyss, aorchard- grass(a ratio of 50%+50%). Crops of grass mixture are made in the spring on April 18- 20. Herbs are seeded under cover of summer barley. In the fall under the main processing of the soil brought P90K60 of active ingredient on hectare, Neo brought in the spring. Methods standard in crop production and forage production.

The first hay crop on pasturable forage cleans up a phase of budding of bean herbs, the subsequent hay crops with a height of escapes of 20-24 cm.

The beginning of emergence of shoots of herbs is noted for 7-8 day and full shoots for 17-20 day after crops. Calculation of shoots on 1sq.m is carried out after cleaning of integumentary barley on May 20-22. The field viability of cereal herbs was at the level of 47-50%, bean 54-60%. By fall more than 70-74% of plants (459-496 pieces/sq.m) have remained. From artificial herbs the ryegrass one-year differed in more intensive growth.

In a year of crops of a grass mixture have given two hay crops. The first alienation has been carried out in 67-68 days after emergence of full shoots. The second alienation has been carried out in 38 days after the first hay crop: in the first hay crop by options of experience 94.5-108,4 c/hectare, in the second hay crop - 147.0-162.0 c/hectare of pasturable green material are received. For two hay crops of a grass mixture have given 241.5-282.5 c/hectare of a pasturable forage. It should be noted that the high productivity of the first year is provided due to intensive growth of a ryegrass one-year. It is a grass due to intensive growth during the initial period and a good after mathion after a hay crop considerably I have increased efficiency grass mixturein the first year of use. The specific mass of an annual ryegrass pasturable in a harvest was within 25- 35%.

In the second year has begun growth of artificial herbs it is noted on April 13-18. More intensive growth allocates birds-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus). The first hay crop is made in 31-32 days after growth of herbs. Duration of the second hay crop 30- 31 days, the third - 27-29 days, the fourth - 32 days and the fifth - 33 days. The last hay crop is made on August 15-17.

In the second year for five hay crops of a grass mixture have given 376.2-433.6 c/hectare of pasturable weight. The first hay crop was more fruitful (82.7-92.6 c/hectare). Then on hay crops decrease in a harvest is observed. In the fifth hay crop the pasturable productivity by options of experience was 64,0-75,6 c/hectare (Table 1).

In third and fourth uses on experiences 5 hay crops are made. The beginning of spring growth and distribution of productivity grass mixture on hay crops was approximately, as in the second year. In the third year for 5 hay crops of a grass mixture have given 386.2-447.0 c/hectare of pasturable green material. In the fourth year 390.8- 467.1 c/hectare of a pasturable forage are received for 5 hay crops on experiences. From table 1 it is visible that in all years of use of a grass mixture with participation of bird s- foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) have yielded more big crops.

In the first year the increase has made 15,1-41,0 c/hectare, in the second - 26,3- 57,4 c/hectare, in the third - 32,9-60,8 c/hectare, in the fourth year - 37,4-76,3 c/hectare, in the fifth году-43,5-71,7ц/hectare and in the sixth year-26,6-59,0 c/hectare. Decrease in efficiency of the 3rdgrass mixture, since 3rd year of use is observed that it is connected with loss of a cock's head.

The structure of productivity of bean herbs is given in table 2. From here it is visible that in the first years the share of a lucerne and a sainfoin in a harvest was more, than bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus). Starting with the 3-4th years of use the share oflucerne and especially a sainfoin in a harvest has significantly decreased. By 4 years the lucerne share in pasturable weight on hay crops was within 10.0-13.0%, the share of a sainfoin of 1.5-7.0% and vice versa, the share of bird s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) has increased to 18.5-24.6%, by sixth year a share of a lucerne and a sainfoin has considerably decreased, and the share of bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) has increased to 29%, that is growth and increase in mass of bird s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) in pasturable weight is noted. In general by 4th year the share bean in a harvest was at the level of 25.5-35.0%, and in the sixth year - 20 6- 29.0%.

Table 1 Pasturable efficiency of bean-cereals grass mixture (2009-2014)

Grass mixture

Productivity of pasturable green mass

>y years, c/hectare

1st yearofu se

2nd yearofu se

3rd yearofu se

4th yearofu se

5th yearofu se

6th yearofu se

1 st grass mixture (lucerne (25%) + sainfoin (25%) + BromusinermisLeyss (25%) + orchard-grass (25%)) control

241.5

376.2

386.2

390.8

353.0

325.6

2nd grass mixture (lucerne (25%) + birds-foot trefoil (25%) +

BromusinermisLeyss (25%) + orchard-grass (25%)

256.2

402.5

417.1

460.2

420.4

375.7

3rd grass mixture (sainfoin (25%) + bird,s-foot trefoil (25%) +

BromusinermisLeyss (25%) + orchard-grass (25%)

270.9

422.9

430.0

428.2

396.5

352.2

4th grass mixture (lucerne (16,7%) + sainfoin (16,7%) + bird’s-foot trefoil (16,7%) + BromusinermisLeyss (25%) + orchard-grass (25%)

282.5

433.6

447.0

467.1

424.7

384.6

Analyzing efficiency grass mixture it is possible to note that in the 1st year in structure of a harvest the share of cereals was more. It is connected with inclusion in structure of a grass mixture of an annual ryegrass pasturable. She was perspective as integumentary culture and for increase in pasturable weight, in the first year of use of a grass mixture.

Are noted by us intensity forth putting of cereal herbs during two periods of growth - spring and aestivo-autumnal. For example, in our research intensive forth putting of Bromusinermis Leyssis noted during the aestivo-autumnal periods, than in the spring. Hedgehogs of the national team didn't observe a difference in intensity of forthputting. The good aestivo-autumnal tillering of cereals yields a big crop next year. As a part of grass mixture the steady productivity is observed at Bromusinermis Leyss.

We have established an intensive tillering and a high aftermathion of both cereal, and bean herbs which is noted at sufficient moistening and security of the soil with nutritious elements. Long-term bean and cereal herbages don't demand intensive fertilizer nitrogen, grow coarse more slowly and are more willingly eaten by animals in later phases of development, than cereals. They are rich with a protein, macro - and minerals and in stronger degree exert beneficial effect on fertility of the soil.

At the same time, for obtaining high productivity on bean and cereal pastures it is periodically necessary to introduce phosphoric or phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, and nitric food is generally carried out due to nitrogen fixing by bean components. Sometimes pastures it is necessary to feed up in small doses (N15-30) mineral nitrogen. At the shortage of moisture deterioration in an after mathion of herbs and even a stop of this process is noted.

Production of crop production is connected with use land, monetary, material and a manpower. Use of resources, validity of forms of the organization of production generally are reflected in its efficiency.

The efficiency of crop production, as well as in general agriculture, is defined by comparison of the received result to expenses and resources. The generalizing indicators of results of production - gross and products, gross and the net income, volumes of the major types of production in kind given to economic efficiency.

At a research of bean and cereals grass mixture for creation of the cultural irrigated pastures are revealed economic return on creation in the first two years. From 3rd year net income from each hectare of cultural herbages in all options raises. High conditional net income is gained on option where in grass mixture there was ofbird, s- foot trefoil (Lotus Corniculatus).

Table 2 Structure of pasturable green mass of bean-cereals grass mixture (on the 2nd hay crop)

Grass mixture

Structure of a harvest by years, %

1 st year of use

4th year of use

6th year of use

Grass family

Legumes

including

Grass familv Lj

I

Legumes

including

Grass family

Legumes

including

lucerne

sainfoin

birds-foot trefoil

lucerne

sainfoin

bird’S-foot trefoil

bird’S-foot trefoil

1st

grass mixture

54.6

42.2

22.0

20.2

60.2

27.4

20.0

7.4

73.8

15.0

-

2nd

grass mixture

53.9

43.0

30.5

12.5

59.5

30.2

12.0

-

18.2

61.8

28.7

20.6

3rd

grass mixture

55.8

40.9

27.9

13.0

61.4

25.5

6.0

19.5

60.6

29.5

29.0

4th

grass mixture

56.3

41.3

16.7

15.4

9.2

60.7

33.5

11.0

4.5

18.0

60.8

30.5

22.8

Long-term bean and cereal grass mixture positively influence structure and volume mass of the soil. By researches it is established that at cultivation and at long use grass mixture, the structure of the soil significantly improves (Table 3).

ТаЬІеЗ Influence of perennialbean-cereals grass mixture on structure and volume mass of an arable layer of earth (0—30th)

Grass mixture

Firm phase of the soil, %

General porosity, %

Capillary porosity, %

Not capillary porosity, %

Volume mass of the soil, g/cm 3

1 st grass mixture

54.0

54.2

25.0

27.4

1.24

2nd grass mixture

54.4

54.0

26.0

28.2

1.25

3rd grass mixture

53.1

55.0

24.0

21.0

1.26

4th grass mixture

54.2

55.0

28.0

29.5

1.26

 

On the 6th year of use by herbage conditionally net income from hectare by options fluctuates within 98.7-126.38 thousand tenges. Profitability by options was at the level of 232.2-290.5 % (Table 4).

Table 4 Economic efficiency bean-cereals grass mixture 6th year of use (2014)

Grass mixture

Indicators of the 6th у ear of use (2014)

Greenma ss, c/hectare

Fodder units, c/hectare

Costs of hectare, one thousand tenges

Total income, one thousand tenges.

Condifional net income, one thousand tenges.

Profitabil ity, %

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Without fertilizer

 

1

1st grass mixture

325.6

65.0

42.5

130.0

87.5

205.9

2

2nd grass mixture

375.4

75.7

43.7

151.4

107.7

246.5

3

3rd grass mixhire

352.2

70.4

43.0

140.8

97.8

227.4

4

4th grass mixture

384.6

76.9

43.5

153.8

110.3

253.6

Top dressing N35 kg/hectare

1

1st grass mixture

368.8

73.8

44.5

147.6

103.1

231.7

2

2nd grass mixture

403.9

80.8

45.7

161.6

115.9

253.6

3

3rd grass mixture

395.1

79.0

45.0

158.0

113.0

251.1

4

4th grass mixture

430.2

86.0

45.5

172.0

126.5

278.0

Costs of use of a grass mixture have generally made on their cleaning, irrigation and top dressing and also spring leaving for grass mixture.

Conclusion:

  1. The greatest efficiency of long-term bean and cereals grass mixture on the irrigated arable land of the southeast of Kazakhstan at fivefold use is within 460.2- 467.1 c/hectare.
  2. Inclusion in structure of artificial bean and cereal pastures of bird s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) increases efficiency of herbage from second year by 15—25%.
  3. In structure of a harvest from 3rd year of use there is a decrease in a share of a lucerne and a cock's head and increase in a share of bird s—foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus). Perennial bean-cereal grass mixture positively influence structure and volume mass of the soil.
  4. Profitability by options was at the level of 232.2-290.5 %.

 

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Year: 2017
City: Karaganda
Category: Biology