25 years of kazakhstan’s independence: the philosophical/ political implications

Abstract. The author examines the philosophical and political dimensions of the social and humanitarian processes that have taken took place in Kazakli society during the period of independence and conceptualizes the idea of independence as the idea of the integration OfKazaklistan into the global Iiistorical process.

The 25th anniversary of the Independence of the Republic OfKazaklrstan is the main topic of the current congress.

For a quarter of a century, since the proclamation of the state sovereignty of the Republic of Kazaklistan, a new generation OfKazakhstanis has grown up and steadily stood on its feet. Those who came of age during independence acquired professions demanded by the modem system of economic activity of the country; many having graduated from colleges and universities; and some who have already created their own families. At the same time, the Independence Generation’s identity has been shaped by being citizens of a sovereign state that independently solves all the issues of its own development. Therefore, socially and psychologically, today's youth is a generation with a qualitatively new type of social identity. One of the main achievements of independence is what young people take for granted, as a matter of course: the fact that they live in a free country with open borders; in a country where the basic human and citizen rights are constitutionally formalized and legally protected; where democracy is declared; and in fact has become the basis for the functioning of political institutions.

Today, by celebrating the 25th anniversary of independence and assessing its results, we should at the same time look to the future. The transformations experienced by Kazakhstan over the 25 years of independence have led the country to the point where it has been possible to set and solve fundamentally new challenges in terms of economic, scientific, technological, civil-political, social, and cultural development. In recent years, the Government and personally the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the leader of the nation, NA. Nazarbaev, has put forward a number of strategic initiatives, programs and concepts, the keynote of which is the idea of improving the welfare of Kazaklrstanis as the goal and the absolute priority of a new stage in the development of the Republic OfKazakhstan as a state.

Over the years of independence, Kazakhstan's economic development was based primarily on the extensive use of resources. Relying on the oil and gas industry, we formed a new level of citizens' welfare, simultaneously creating innovations and new industries, attracting technologies and investments. Meanwliile, the resource-base of world economic development has undergone fundamental changes. It is now primarily the products of the digital revolution, such as nanotechnology, advanced space technologies, the rapid introduction of robotics, electronic money, Internet banking, and the transition to renewable energy sources, which have created tliis competitive base worldwide.

Smart cities will largely determine the competitiveness of countries in the future, because they will become the place of concentration of the future economy (e.g. digital Ieclmologies and services). !Cities will act as hubs for the distribution of services and goods across the territories by high-speed transport. According to Juniper Research, only the introduction of ‘Smart’ traffic management and urban transport parking by 2021 will save 4.2 billion man-hours per year across the world, which is equivalent to one working day per driver.

It shouldbe emphasized that the projects contained in the Plan of the Nation proposed by the President of the RoK largely involve a step of the country into the postindustrial world. Tliis applies, for example, to the project of creating the International Financial Center in Astana. The target values of the AIFC are well known. Tliis is a $40 billion contribution to GDP and an additional 2,300 Iiiglily professional jobs by 2025.

Along with the creation of a multimodal Eurasian transport corridor, Kazaklistan will have the opportunity to provide liigher-class transport services - combined; mixed transport; and using different types of transport: land/air/water. As a result, it is predicted that the volume of transit traffic by all types of transport will increase from the current 18 million tons to 50 million tons in 2030; GDP will increase by one percent; 15,000 new logistics jobs will be created; and the country’s LPI rating will improve from 88th to 40th place.

Following the experience of leading countries such as Canada and Australia, we are creating a single provider of government services: the State Corporation for Citizens’ Govermnent.

For example, Canada Service and Australian Centrelink have a wide range of services for citizens in electronic format. Services cover almost the entire life cycle of a person, across birth, education, employment, naturalization and obtaining information.

The establishment of a visa-free regime; the simplification of customs procedures; universal declaration; and the transfer of tax and customs clearance into the electronic system, etc. all contribute to the adaptation of Kazakhstan to qualitatively new conditions in the functioning of the world market for goods and services.

Tlris will enable the country to adequately respond to emerging challenges and to make a step from the tliird world to the first, as Singapore did in its time.

Such new steps are being taken by the developed countries today. For example, in France under President Sarkozy, the ‘300 applications to change France’ program has been adopted. One of the conceptual ideas of the current French President F. Hollande is the creation of a ‘positive economy’. Tliis means the transition from an individualistic economy to an economy of universal interests and future generations; from an economy based on wealth and maximizing profits, to a commitment economy.

In the same way, we have adopted a 100-step institutional reform plan, which is a new program for Kazakhstan’s transition from a catch-up development model to an economic-growth model.

Indeed, in the 21st century, the criterion for the development of countries and the indicator of the effectiveness of public administration is no longer the level of income, material well-being, dynamics of GDP growth and other macroeconomic indicators; but the creation of a set of conditions for the creative, free, comprehensive selfrealization of the individual; and for the fullest satisfaction of the material, cultural and the spiritual needs of the citizens. Kazaklrstan is actively and in many ways successfully connecting to tliis megatrend of post-industrial civilization.

An integral concept is that of ‘improving welfare’ as applied to the conditions of development of modem Kazakhstan. Tliis has been introduced through a number of socio-pliilosopliical, political and cultural concepts, formulated in the program speeches of the Head of State and revealing the boundaries of the new image OfKazakhstan society emerging here and now. Let us dwell on the most important of these concepts, which are not only theoretical constracts, but also contain a powerful emotional and intellectual potential for mobilizing citizens to fulfill inspiring tasks to promote Kazaklistan society to a qualitatively new state.

  1. Society of Equal Opportunities. In Kazakhstan, as underlined by President N. A. Nazarbaev, social policy is aimed at creating equal starting opportunities for all citizens, regardless of gender, race, national or religious affiliation, etc. At the same time, the realization of these opportunities implies the active formation, multiplication and use by each citizen of their creative potential. In the society of equal opportunities, as the President noted in Iiis lecture, ‘Kazakhstan on the way to the knowledge society’, the state is not an endless donor, but a partner creating conditions for the growth of citizens’ welfare [1].
  2. Society of Universal Labor. In N A. Nazarbaev’s concept of the Society OfUniversal Labor [2] a major trend of Clianging the nature of work in the modem conditions of the permanent scientific and technological revolution is noted: the transition from the ‘ commodity economy’ to the ‘economy of human abilities’. In the economy of a new type, the intellectual potential of society, the accumulated Timnan capital’, forms the basis of productive labor. In the strategy entitled ‘Kazakhstan-2050: The new political course of the state’, N.A. Nazarbaev underlines the idea that: ‘our goal is to form a fundamentally new model of labor relations, combining the support of entrepreneurship with the interests of the workers’ [3]. At the same time, the successful functioning of tliis model is conditioned by the post-industrial type of motivation of labor activity. In the society of universal labor, the individual is no longer forced to work by the economic form of organizing social production, but labor itself acts as a free associated creativity, as a way of producing one’s own creative forces and self-realization of the individual.
  3. Society of Progressive Ideals. Presidential Strategy

‘Kazakhstan-2050’ offers Kazakhstanis an optimistic and at the same time a strictly realistic view of the future of the country through the prism of progressive social ideals and scientifically verified mechanisms for their implementation. Tliis is fundamentally important, since, in modem socio-pliilosopliical, political discourse, the idea of social progress, the idea of social development as a fundamentally unpredictable process, devoid of a historical perspective and without rationally known landmarks and goals, is almost the norm.

  1. The Kazakhstan model of inter-ethnic and inter-religious harmony. The irreversibility of the process of strengthening inter-ethnic and inter-religious Iiannony is one of the main achievements and the most impressive results of the 25-year Iiistory of the independent development of the Republic of Kazakhstan. In the Strategy ‘Kazakhstan-2050’ the President notes: ‘Peace and harmony and the dialogue of cultures and religions in our multinational country are rightly recognized as a world standard’ [4]. The example of our country is even more important in the light of the recent events in the world, demonstrating the growing general instability and conflict in inter-state, inter-ethnic and inter-faith interactions; the growth of extremism and xenophobic sentiments; and the radicalization of religious and political groups, etc.

It should be noted that the Kazakhstani model of interethnic and inter-religious accord overcomes the narrow framework of tolerance and political correctness which has led to the dead-end European models of multiculturalism. The national unity achieved in our country during the years of independence is based on the formation in the public consciousness of a system of values and principles Commonto all citizens OfKazaklistan. As Suchprinciples, the following provisions are formulated in the Doctrine of National Unity of Kazakhstan: ‘One country is one destiny’.

‘Different origins - equal opportunities’. ‘Development of the national spirit’. One cannot fail to see the outstanding role in the strengthening and qualitative improvement of the inter-ethnic and inter-religious accord of such an institution of civil society as the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan under the Chainnansliip of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Leader of the Nation, NA. Nazarbaev.

Model for the Future of the Country. A complex of ideological values, social ideals, goals and tasks of the country’s development fonns a futurological image, or model of the future of the country. The President OfKazaklistan, NursultanNazarbaev, said: ‘We need to fonn a mental model, the image of the future of the country on the basis of a new political course, ‘Kazakhstan-2050’. Tliis image must be real, attractive and inspiring’ [5].

A realistic and at the same time rather ambitious Future Country Model adopted and shared by the broad mass of the population is an important part of the formation of a positive image of the country. The image of modern Kazakhstan and the Model of the Future of the Country among our compatriots is firmly associated with the image and activities of the President, NA. Nazarbaev, as a recognized leader of the nation. Within the information society, where an understanding has been established of the role of information and its exchange as key resources for development, the country’s positive image is now positioned as a tangible instrument for promoting national and group interests and improving the country’s competitiveness in the global world.

The President himself pays a great deal of attention to the problem of shaping an attractive image and model of the future of the country, with the main emphasis being placed on the values and world-view of the future model. Therefore, it is natural that the national intelligentsia should play a key role in the design of the world-view of the model of the future of the country, according to the President. Our forum, without a doubt, will make its significant contribution to the solution of the task set by the President.

At present, the potential of the state is determined not only by the economic resources and technologies that they manage. The centuries-old cultural codes, meanings and values of social life; a clear vision of the historical perspective; and a ‘competitive national identity’ become, along with economic innovation and efficiency, the most important resource for the sustainable development of the country in the modern world and its transition to a qualitatively new state. ‘In conditions of global challenges, an adequate response can be given only if our cultural code - language, traditions and values - is preserved. Of particular importance to all Kazakhstanis are love for their homeland, for the whole land’ [6], the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan has emphasized.

Preservation, reproduction and enrichment within the new historical conditions of the cultural code of the nation is a strategic task of the national idea of Mangilik El, as proclaimed in the patriotic act of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the leader of the nation, NA. Nazarbaev. Obviously, one of the main lines of philosophical and political enquiry to be followed by our national scholars will be a comprehensive development of the essence, content and values of the national idea ‘Mangilik El’, which clearly expresses the idea of the growth of national self-consciousness; unity; and the high spirituality of the nation which are the core of the new Kazakhstan patriotism. New ideological orientations and perspectives of spiritual development, the creation of a highly intellectual creative atmosphere in Kazakhstan science and society are being initiated and developed by the philosophers, political scientists and sociologists of Kazakhstan. This has opened up ontological opportunities for Kazakhstan’s humanitarian sciences to be relevant and in demand as part of the world’s humanitarian discourse.

 

REFERENCES:

  1. Speech of President Nursultan Nazarbaev to students of Nazarbaev University // Kazahstanskaya Pravda. - 2012. - 6 September.
  2. N.A. Nazarbaev Social modernization of Kazakhstan: Twenty steps to the Society of General Labor // Kazahstanskaya Pravda. - 2012. - The 10th of July.
  3. The Letter of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan - the Leader of the Nation NA. Nazarbaev to the people of Kazakhstan. «Kazakhstan-2050» Strategy; New political course of the state held // Kazakkhstanskaya Pravda. - 2012. - December 15.
  4. The Letter of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan - the Leader of the Nation NA. Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan. «Kazakhstan-2050» Strategy; New political course of the state held // Kazakkhstanskaya Pravda. - 2012. - December 15.
  5. Kazakhstan needs to develop the image of the future of the country // http://bnews.kz/ru/ news / post / 135568 /
  6. Kazakhstan needs to develop the image of the future of the country // http://bnews.kz/ru/ news / post / 135568 /
Year: 2018
City: Almaty