Abstract. On the basis of an analysis of terrorist activity in different parts of the world, conclusions are drawn in the article concerning the transformation of terrorism to a military threat. The growth in different resources, available for use in states, including the military, has been required due to the intensive growth of terrorism and the different forms of violent acts carried out by terrorist organizations and groupings.
Taking international experience into account, the military aspects of antiterrorism protection are considered. This means the set of measures involving armed forces, other troops and the military forces of the RK involved in prevention of and response to current terrorist threats.
Recommendations are offered regarding improvements to the training of the Kazakhstani army in countermeasures against terrorist powers; and also coordination of activity with other states in this area during non-permanent membership of the UN Security Council.
When Kazakhstan was elected as a nonpermanent member of the Security Council, it entered new level of interaction with other world states with the aim of finding a solution to global international problems. Our country does not ignore problems related to the fight against terrorism and extremism, as these threats become larger and relevant to many countries.
Escalation of terrorist activity happens in modern conditions all over the world. Terrorism in its different appearances endangers the security of citizens in many countries. The nature of terrorist activity is complicated; the sophistication and scale of terrorist acts are increasing rapidly. The military-like approach to violent action has been noted by experts to be a distinctive feature of modern terrorism. Threats on the part of terrorist forces have become such that countermeasures are longer the monopoly of security services and law-enforcement bodies. A variety of approaches, including the military option, are required for an effective fight against them.
Events in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria and some other countries have demonstrated that terrorism is a serious threat to national and international security. For this very reason, the globalization of terrorism and extremism and the extension of activities over an increasing area, leading to military threats against our country, is one of the principal factors behind the idea of a new military doctrine for the Republic of Kazakhstan .
Different methods of research were applied during the research phase of the present topic: system analysis, logical methods (analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, analogues, summary), and also methods of establishment of cause-and-effect relations of the processes being studied, formalization and idealization, and also a wide spectrum of the methods of modern military science, political science and other related sciences.
In addition, the special methods of military science – military prediction; the best practice of counter-terrorism operation in different world regions; and the analysis of the experience of antiterrorist studies – were used for to analyse the level of readiness displayed by the military authorities and forces for the fight against terrorists, the identification of reserves and opportunities for their improvement.
System analysis and a complex approach to the study of problems related to the fight against terrorism allowed a determination of the role and place of the armed forces in this fight, and also trends in realtion to their training for effective countermeasures against terrorist forces.
Prior to the 21st century, terrorism was considered as a type of political violence, applied in a limited way. It was an object of criminal investigation within the criminaljustice system. In the present context, it is considered to be a military threat and a specific form of violation, which can be performed almost without restriction.
A military-style approach; terrorist-style violent action; and a network-style method of organization, where it is impossible to isolate the organization’s center, are distinctive features of modern terrorism. Such a center is available in the terrorist network, but, as a rule, only in terms of ideology, politics and sometimes finance. A vertical hierarchy is absent in such a network both operatively and organizationally. An absence of hierarchy subordinance in some groupings provides additional flexibility and stability to the terrorist nexus.
In spite of the support given by many countries within the world community to countermeasures against international terrorism, expressions of support are at variance with the real actions, direct or indirect, undertaken by countries in pursuit of their geopolitical aspirations. Hence emissaries from the Arabian monarchies and Middle Eastern countries actively and purposefully organize the distribution of the ideas of Wahhabism in the countries of Central Asia, resulting in specific impact and adherents in the territory of Kazakhstan.
Terrorism is not so widespread in our country. But experts note the interest in our state on the part of foreign terrorist and extremist organizations; missionaries of radical religious sects; and different extreme sects, all of which are trying to organise within Kazakhstan.
Organising countermeasures against extremism therefore requires a reasonable combination of power-based methods with ideological, social and economic measures in order to avoid the excessive radicalization of a sector of society due to the application of the criminal law, often perceived as repressive ones.
Extremism grows out of an extreme perception of society, and terrorism is born from extremism at the far end of the spectrum. It is impossible to fight against extremists efficiently, not knowing their intentions, and not controlling the processes inside organizations. Competent sources of information need to be used for this and special investigative measures require to be performed. It is also necessary to put together a package of measures around discrediting extremist ideology, the latter creating and and justifying terrorism.
Events in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria and other countries demonstrate that terrorism is becoming serious threat. This factor, as well as the increase in the activity of international terrorist and extremist organizations in the region and specifically the deployment of emissaries and indeed Kazakhstani citizens who are members of terrorist and extremist organizations bent on destabilising the Republic of Kazakhstan, helped to determine a new military policy which has had an impact on the military security of the Republic of Kazakhstan .
Aggravation of the situation in some northern regions of Afghanistan, related to a considerable increase in IS rebel groups’ activities there and a series of defeats of this and other terrorist groupings in Iraq and Syria, has meant that many followers and adherents of Jehadi ideas can return to their countries, including Kazakhstan, where they can try to use their newly-acquired combat skills with the purpose of destabilization. There is a sufficiently high probability of growth in the terrorist threat due to the penetration of fighters from terrorist organizations into Kazakhstan from neighboring states. In this case, the activation of clandestine organizations, which are prohibited in extremist organizations, is possible, especially in the south and west regions of the country. It is necessary to prepare for this in advance.
As far as military personnel performing military operations against terrorism in peace time are concerned, there is a need for clear legislation on the issue of the use of weapons and military equipment and the issue of social guarantees.
The Ministry of Defence of the RK has therefore addressed a number of matters in connection with the fight against terrorism in Kazakhstan, as in some other states, in the law “On counter-terrorism” . However the purpose of the deployment of the armed forces is not for them to substitute for national security bodies or internal affairs bodies but to supplement those forces with efficient usage of military forces and facilities within enforcement of the right of the state on self-defense and its obligations on security enforcement for individuals and society.
The military aspects of counter-terrorism stipulates a package of measures in connection with the participation of the armed forces, which include, firstly, measures aimed at prevention of threats on the part of extremist and terrorist forces; and, secondly, measures connected with an operational response to large terrorist threats which are in progress.
Preventive measures are provided by the creation of an efficient system of state military security and the demonstration of a commitment to the resolute deployment of force against terrorism.
Related to preventive measures is the provision of security for military personnel and military objects in order to exclude the possibility of the theft of armor, ammunition and explosive substances, as well as sabotage and terrorist acts against military objects.
It is necessary to study our citizens during military service in order to see not only how to use armor, military equipment and special facilities, but also how to use the acquired knowledge and skills for the benefit of our community. Good army training can be a peculiar barrier against Kazakhstani people’s involvement in extremist, terrorist and criminal organizations. A well-organized system of military training and education allows the prevention of growth of a number of members of extremist and terrorist organizations due to current and former military personnel. This is one of the most important functions of the Kazakhstani army.
An operative power response to terrorist threats is impossible without management bodies and a fast-paced military contingent continuously available, both of which have been prepared in advance to carry out joint actions with national security bodies and other law enforcement agencies and trained and equipped for the fight against irregular terrorist formations as part of the armed forces.
For the implementation of such tasks, the structure of forces and prompt-response facilities when faced with terrorist threats was put in place within the armed forces at the beginning of 2017; and they are permanently on alert. Aircraft have been allocated for their transportation. In addition, as action plan for these subdivisions was developed, and issues worked out regarding their cooperation with other national security, defence and law enforcement agencies .
The measures taken by the management of the Ministry of Defence of the RK are very important for the improvement of efficiency in the fight against terrorism. The armed forces continue their fight against it in a series of stages:
first, when terrorist threats are aimed against military objects or personnel of the armed forces;
second, when national security bodies and law enforcement agencies need assistance in solution of special tasks, which are within the exclusive competence of the armed forces;
third, when terrorist threats are so large that opportunities for the national security bodies and law enforcement agencies are not enough for countermeasures.
Measures of the armed forces in the fight against terrorism include prevention, or if it is impossible, liquidation of terrorist forces; and also the liquidation of the consequences of terrorist acts. Moreover, the armed forces can render assistance to law-enforcement bodies in the fight against terrorist organizations and criminal associations supporting terrorism.
The following are related to such measures:
first, the implementation of protective measures for the reduction of the vulnerability of the civil population, territory, infrastructure and systems for processing information and communication;
second, the implementation of measures for the detection, prevention, prediction and suppression of terrorist activity;
third, the implementation of measures on the mitigation of consequences of terrorist acts and stabilization, rendering assistance to civil authorities;
fourth, peace-building activity in conflict areas for the prevention of terrorist forces and their distribution;
fifth, the military blockade of terrorist forces, with territorial remoteness;
sixth, military support for other lawenforcement authorities in the case of interception of criminal offences, related to transit and drug, weapon trafficking, borders protection against penetration of illegal armed groups and terrorist groups to the country;
seventh, the protection and prevention of weapons, ammunition and other military facilities leakage from the armed forces, other troops and military formations;
eighth, staff training for the anti-terrorist and counter-terrorist fight.
Constant attention should be paid to issues of anti-terrorism security of military units and institutions, and also the safe custody of armor, military and special equipment, ammunition and explosive substances during the everyday activity of the armed forces, other troops and military formations of the RK. Constant improvement of the package of measures on the physical protection of military objects and personnel is required, using modern technical facilities.
The improvement of algorithms on the training of the armed forces, other troops and military formations of the RK is required for effective countermeasures against terrorist forces.
First, the main efforts should be focused on joint and trans-species training, when management bodies and military formations of all security agencies, and also all kinds and service arms sorts perform tasks under consolidated management. Therefore measures on operative training of law-enforcement agencies, where issues of counter-terrorism operation are worked out, must be cross sectoral.
Second, primary attention must be paid to the fight against diversionary-terrorist militia in mountain-desert areas and in urban conditions, based on the experience of such activity in Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria, during measures on military and special training of the armed forces, other troops and military formations in the RK.
Governing boards and troops must be taught to fight against the opposing side, applying diversionary-terrorist and partisan methods of struggle. The principal tactic level of such training should be at battalion level.
Third, highly mobile subdivisions should be trained to carry out autonomous work at great depth and over a prolonged period of time.
Fourth, the training of specialist snipers, not only in special, but in combined arms subdivisions, plays a special role in the effective fight against suicide bombers.
Fifth, suitable tactics for special-operations forces (SOF) and Special Forces units, possessing appropriate weapons, munitions and equipment, should be opposed to diversionary tactics of terrorist and illegal military formations.
Operational security and high mobility, with the ability to defeat the most important targets of the opposing side and the ability to escape return fire mustl be the basis of training of Special Forces units and SOF.
Sixth, the role of small subdivisions is increased during the performance of military tasks and special operations against terrorist formations. The responsibility of key personnel for their planning and implementation is therefore also increased, while the role of company officers and junior noncommissioned officers of all security agencies taking part in such operations is strengthened. There is therefore a requirement to adjust the training programme for the National Defense Cadet Corps of the MD RK, higher military-training establishments and also the arrangement of measures and course training for commissioned and non-commissioned personnel of the armed forces and other troops and military formations of the RK.
Special attention should be paid to the improvement of the professional training of military officers and noncommissioned officers and improvement of their knowledge and skills regarding issues of anti-terrorist combat.
Seventh, The high mobility of subdivisions and units of the armed forces and the National Guard of the MIA RK should be provided in order to fight effectively against highly mobile terrorist formations with modern wheeled armoured vehicles.
The updating of the terrorist threat requires a search for new forms of activity and coordination with other states in the military field; the improvement of the common legal framework; and the creation of well-balanced multinational antiterrorism protection system. Joint actions of states in this area must be focused on prevention of terrorist acts and acts of sabotage. Regular joint anti-terrorist training exercises, war games and training with participation of the competent authorities’ representatives is one of efficient preventive measures.
For example, anti-terrorist trainings of military formations of SCO member countries “Peace mission” have been performed regularly since 2003. Anti-terrorism issues are worked out during the annual joint exercises of the coalition forces of CSTO “South Shield of Commonwealth” and “Yug-Antiterror”. Organizing of joint exercises on fight against terrorism by CIS member countries has been practice since 2001. Practical experience of cooperation of law-enforcement bodies, special services and armed forces is acquired during performance of similar measures and fight against terrorist formations, applying rebellious- partisan tactics.
Therefore it is necessary to activate interaction between neighboring countries on a bilateral basis, and also in the line of SCO, CIS and CSTO on issues of coordinated measures’ implementation for timely detection and deactivation of terror operatives. Development of algorithms of joint actions on prevention of terrorist activity, performance of joint special operations, and also advanced training of appropriate officials are among the most important issues of such cooperation.
Nowadays terrorism as extreme form of religious extremism has been included in the political reality of most countries and has become one of the most dangerous threats for most world countries. Modern terrorism has become a highly-profitable business of global scale with developed “labor market” and huge capital. Availability of financial assets allows terrorist groups to search their followers and attraction of citizens in different world regions, including in Central Asia and particularly in Kazakhstan, for terrorist acts and military actions in Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria.
Counter-terrorism is one of the most important tasks in the promotion of safety at the country level.
Research into the problem of the fight against terrorism and international experience on employment of military forces in this area allows some conclusions to be drawn.
The first conclusion lies in the fact that there is a sufficiently high probability of terrorist threat growth in case of penetration of terrorist organizations’ fighters to Kazakhstan across territory of the neighboring states. A certain number of Kazakhstani people were attracted as participants in combat operations on the side of ISIL and other terrorist groups in Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. Having returned from these countries, former fighters can create a an underground terrorist network, especially in the south and west regions of the country.
Therefore coordinated work of central and local executive bodies, security agencies, religious and public associations, mass media on countermeasures to extremism and terrorism with emphasis on their prevention and reasonable combination of ideological and social and economic measures with power methods is required.
Second conclusion. Improvement of training methods not only of special and law-enforcement bodies, but the armed forces, other troops and military formations of the RK is required for effective countermeasures to terrorist forces.
The main efforts should be focused on joint and interspecific training, when governing bodies and military formations of all security agencies, and also of all kinds of service arms of our army perform tasks under consolidated guidance.
In this context measures of operational training of force authorities, during which issues on anti-terrorist operations are worked out, should be intergovernmental.
Third conclusion. The growth of threat on the part of terrorist forces extends the frame of the armed forces, other troops and military formations of Kazakhstan usage; and therefore primary attention should be paid to fight against diversionary-terrorist militia in mountainy desert area and in urban conditions, upon experience of such activity in Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria, during measures on military and special training of troops.
Governing boards and troops should be taught to fight against the opposing side, applying diversionary-terrorist and partisan methods of struggle. The principal tactic level of such training should be battalion. High- mobility subdivisions should be ready to carry out autonomous work in deep water and over a prolonged period of time. Training of sniper specialists, not only in special, but in combined arms subdivisions, plays a special role in effective fight against suicide bombers.
Fourth conclusion. Constant attention must be paid to anti-terrorism security of military units and institutions, security of military objects, and also to the safe custody of armament, military and special equipment, ammunition and explosive substances during the daily activity of the armed forces, other troops and military formations of the RK. Constant improvement of package of measures on physical security of military objects and military personnel is required, using modern technical facilities.
Fifth conclusion. The growth of the international terrorism threat requires a search for new forms of activity coordination with other states in the military field, improvement of common legal framework and creation of well- balanced multinational antiterrorism protection system.
Therefore it is necessary to activate interaction between neighboring countries on a bilateral basis, and also in the line of SCO, CIS and CSTO on issues of coordinated measures’ implementation for timely detection and deactivation of terror operatives, and also for countermeasures to ammunition and drugs traffic.
Joint actions of states in this area should be focused on prevention of terrorist acts and acts of sabotage. Regular joint anti-terrorist training exercises, war games and training with participation of the competent authorities’ representatives is one of efficient preventive measures.
Sixth conclusion. During the period of nonpermanent membership in the UN Security Council, Kazakhstan should apply its forces for the promotion of the initiative of the President of our country, N.A. Nazarbayev, for the creation of an international anti-terrorist coalition under the auspices of the United Nations, on adoption of resolutions of the UN Security Council, which are legally binding for implementation of the UN Global counter-terrorism strategy, which was suggested during the Summit on countermeasures against violent extremism in September 2015 .
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- там же.
- О противодействии терроризму. закон Рк (с изменениями и дополнениями по состоянию на 11.07.2017 г.) от 13 июля 1999 года № 416-I // https://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=1013957 (дата обращения 6.11.2017).
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