Abstract. Since independence, Kazakhstan has pursued mutually beneficial relations with all countries, especially neighbouring ones, based on the principles of good-neighbourliness, mutual respect and non-interference in internal affairs. All those principles eventually have become generating ones in building a multi-vectoral foreign policy of Kazakhstan.
The report analysed basic documents which are the primary in the foreign policy of modern Kazakhstan and include N.A.Nazarbayev’s article “Strategy of the development of Kazakhstan as sovereign and independent state”, Foreign Policy Concept of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 1995 and 2001, as well as Foreign Policy Concept of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 2014-2020. An official course and peculiarities of the state’s foreign policy vector of each stage, the most important accents, similarities and differences have been identified on the basis of these documents.
The largest geopolitical tectonic shift of the XX century which entailed a parade of the independent states has set a complex challenge for a management of Kazakhstan: to create and practically realize the foreign policy of the new state. Despite 550-year history of the Kazakh statehood, modern Kazakhstan had another chance to build a new state with its domestic and foreign policy from the ground up. The state began to undertake measures for establishing dialogue with the world community, considering at the same time current international transformations and new challenges.
Creation of the concept of foreign policy by Kazakhstan was predetermined by not only awareness of its importance on the world scene, but also identification of accurate priorities of the foreign policy.
Foreign policy achievements of modern Kazakhstan are the result of the viable and rational concept of the foreign policy promoting cooperation with Russia, China, the countries of Central Asia, the European Union, the USA and others.
Relying on official documents, until now, the foreign policy history of independent Kazakhstan has been divided into 4 stages, and each of these stages have conceptual vision of the foreign policy which is known as guide to implementation of short-term and mid-term plans and protection the state’s interests. Thus, various concepts of foreign policy since the moment of independencehave determined a role and a place of the republic in the system of international relations, along with the "vision of the state on perspective tasks of foreign policy in the conditions of the growing globalization".
At the next stage of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy creation, the Head of state has determined a number of priorities of the foreign policy program which were arranged in the form of the Concept of the foreign policy, creating representation about places and roles of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the world scene, strategic priorities, the purposes, foreign policy’s tasks and methods of their achievement.
The article "Strategy of Formation and Development of Kazakhstan as Sovereign and Independent State" by N. A. Nazarbayev published on May 16, 1992, proclaims conceptual approaches to the foreign political strategy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. This article, in fact, is the first attempt to reflection on own way of development in difficult conditions.
This article has a fundamental character as it determines an ideological basis - a self-determination of the nation. As an integral component of the state, adhering to the basic principles of the international relations of the UN Charter, the Republic of Kazakhstan has strengthened its position on the world scene by implementation of abovementioned purposes. It is also rather important that the President declared intention to realize only peace-loving foreign policy, to establish and enhance equal and mutually beneficial relations with the states, showing interest in a cooperation with Kazakhstan.
On the economy, the strategy proclaimed two basic economic principles. First, creation of socially oriented competitive economy on market conditions. Secondly, development of special legal frameworks to implement the principle of economic self-determination of the citizen. The Republic of Kazakhstan officially declared the privatization program and reducing state properties to the level of 30-40% in the future. An application of indirect methods of economic regulation in budget and tax, monetary and social policies was supposed in the sphere of economy within implementation of the formulated purposes .
Today this document is objectively considered the first three-year plan of the state development, first of all, relying on the strong presidential power. The first state institutes of the Republic of Kazakhstan were created along with the first strategy: ministries, armed forces and intelligence agencies, customs and diplomatic services. There were taken some steps for strengthening of frontier with the neighbouring countries.
The Concept of foreign policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 1995 approved by the decree of the President became the second stage of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy creation. This document has declared, for the first time, the importance of multivector policy aimed at respect of long-term national interests. The central geographical location of the country in the region was estimated as the bridge between the West and the East. This moment has received the reflection in the concept according to which the Republic of Kazakhstan has defined development of friendship with the Russian Federation, fruitful relationship with the People's Republic of China and with other neighbours.
Public authorities, including the MFA of the Republic of Kazakhstan, faced the task of the fastest completion of delimitation process. It should be noted that the Concept of 1995 once declared the West priority within a foreign policy cooperation of Kazakhstan. One of the reasons for that was Kazakhstan’s accession to the Partnership for
Peace program on May 27, 1994 for strengthening the dialogue and military cooperation with NATO
Since the first days of independence Kazakhstan tried to realize exclusively peace-loving foreign policy which result was a refusal of inherited nuclear missile arsenal the fourth in size in the world. The second Concept also proclaimed the idea of reducing weapons of mass destruction. It is necessary to recognize that this idea brought the greatest dividends to Kazakhstan both political, and image ones.
The Concept of foreign policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan approved by the Security council of the Republic of Kazakhstan on March 15, 2001 became the third stage of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy formation. As well as in the previous concepts, it paid special attention to the principle of multi-vector nature. The term "multi-vector nature" "is derivative of pragmatism and realism, of the aspiration to observe balance between desires and opportunities of Kazakhstan on the international scene".
The approach based on multi-vector nature quite often caused and to this day causes ambiguous reaction among some politicians and political scientists, but the alternative is barely found. The foreign policy of Kazakhstan remains multivector and diversified, but this multi-vector nature has begun to get a principle of different weights******. Besides, a specific place in the concept is held by a question of Kazakhstan’s participation in the international organizations, including CICA, which initiator was Kazakhstan. The important place is also taken by the place of the West — relationship with the EU and the USA.
Despite big adaptedness of the Concept of foreign policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 2001 to realities of that time, it was after all introduced some certain changes. External threats in the form of the events on September 11, crisis in Iraq and Afghanistan, distribution of terrorism and some other threats forced to rethink a situation in the world completely. In this regard, in 2005, under N. Nazarbayev's decree some amendments were introduced in the Concept of 2001. This time Kazakhstan faced a new problem requiring the solution: protection of Kazakhstan’s interests on the world scene as the new regional leader. Foreign policy strategy began to follow the rule "first economy, then policy". Priorities were accurately placed: the Russian Federation, People's Republic of China, the USA, the EU, Central Asia and Islamic world.
The Concept of foreign policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2014-2020 of January 21, 2014 relying on foreign policy outlined in Strategy Kazakhstan-2050 became the fourth stage of the foreign policy. There was a fundamental difference of this concept from all previous ones: new modernizations, "the increased international role and influence of Kazakhstan, emergence of essentially new trends in modern world politics and economy"*******.
Strategy Kazakhstan-2050 is guided by a long-term outlook till 2050. This document designates long-term strategic objective — inclusion of Kazakhstan in thirty of the most developed countries of the world.
Strategy was developed in the conditions of, on the one hand, preserving succession of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy and, on another, demonstrations of objectivity of this strategy in the conditions of world instability********.
An opportunity to give an adequate assessment to Kazakhstan’s potential, its interests in the sphere of geopolitics, economy, in the military sphere is currently of first-priority, as only taking into account such assessment it was possible to determine the country’s position on the world scene as the large regional state, which is interested in creating a zone of neighbourliness and mutual safety, respect of integrity of the territory and sovereignty.
Kontseptsia vneshnei politiki. March 15 2001 // Kazakhstan today. March 16 2001 Ibid.
Destruction of bipolar system of the world functioning and emergence of the signs of multipolarity, all of this "resulted in necessity of carrying out foreign policy which would answer realities of the modern world and would correspond to national-state interests of Kazakhstan"*********.
Its publicity became a distinctive feature of the new concept. It has been made for the solution of two tasks at once; first, to designate clear and concrete reference points for activity of Kazakhstan’s diplomacy, secondly, "to help our public and foreign partners to understand a course and important aspects of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy better"**********. Openness corresponds to spirit and the principles of creation of information policy within the republic where the emphasis is placed on informing on the directions of implementation of foreign and domestic policy, social and economic development. Such openness has also applied value as it excludes any opportunity for speculation***********.
Laconism is another feature of the concept. Accurately stated theses "as though represent the foreign policy philosophy of Kazakhstan calculated for the next seven years"************.
Features of Kazakhstan’s geographical arrangement provide it both certain geopolitical benefits and difficulties, if estimate it from the point of view of geoeconomy. The arrangement of Kazakhstan between two centers of force — from the North — Russia, from the East — China, serves as a factor for vigilance, but also gives it additional opportunities for implementation of the flexible, balanced policy which will be directed for achievement of its longterm interests. On the other hand, Kazakhstan is the biggest country in the world without direct exits to the World Ocean that is communication vulnerability. All this serves as an additional incentive for activization and diversification of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy activities.
In the conditions of quickly changing political and economic relations, the priorities in the concept are placed as follows:
- promotion of state interests on especially pragmatic principles, the sequence and balance;
- responsibility for regional security in Central Asia, assistance to elimination of prerequisites for conflict situations in the region;
- support of international initiatives on strengthening of security measures in the world;
- consolidation of a cooperation with various countries and organizations for strengthening of defensive control mechanisms and national defense capability;
- strengthening of friendship and cooperation with Russia, China, Central Asia, the USA, the EU countries, Asia Pacific region;
- gradual transition of the state to a "green" way of development and entry into number of thirty developed countries of the world;
- preserving national and cultural originality, support to the Kazakh diaspora and Kazakh language abroad*************.
As soon as the concept of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy for 2014-2020 is created based on the Address of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan "The Kazakhstan way — 2050: the single purpose, single interests, the single future", especial attention is paid to positive external conditions for the productive realization of the development strategy, strengthening of a multinational community, ensuring high welfare of the people, guarantee of the civil laws, creation of the constitutional and democratic state. If earlier emphasis was placed mainly on protection of the state’s interests, today the center of gravity would consistently displace on ensuring requirements of society that is very im-
- ********* Tokayev K.K., Pod styagom nezavisimosti. Ocherki o vneshnei politike Kazakhstana. Almaty. Bilim, 1997 p. 14-15.
- ********* Idrissov Y.A., Kontury kazakhstanskoi diplomatii do 2020 goda. Kontseptsiya vneshnei politiki RK na 2014-2020 gg. i zadachi po ee realizatsii. Materialy kruglogo stola (April 11 2014). Almaty 2014. p. 109.
- ********** Sultanov B.K. Prikladnoe znachenie otkrytoi politiki. Kontseptsia vneshnei politiki RK na 2014-2020 i zadachi po ee realizatsii. Materialy kruglogo stola. (April 11 2014). Almaty 2014 p. 118.
- *********** Ibid.
- ************ Kontseptsia vneshnei politiki Respubliki Kazakhstan na 2014-2020 gody I zadachi po ee realizatsii: Materialy kruglogo stola / Edited by B.K.Sultanov – Almaty: KazISS under the President of RK, 2014 p. 21-22
portant and necessary for the state which chose a democratic way of development.
Great importance is represented by the Asian direction in creation of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy, as well as expansion of a positive zone of cooperation with the states of other regions. Within ensuring regional stability and deepening of economic and political cooperation, as well as joint fight against the arising threats for Kazakhstan, the region of Central Asia comes out on top place. Such policy is extremely necessary from the point of view of promoting the national interests of the country.
Kazakhstan’s wellbeing is inseparably linked with its relations with the countries neighbours. But world security systems fail on the example of the countries of the Middle East, Iraq, Afghanistan, and also Ukraine and Syria. Therefore, it is unambiguous that among priorities of Kazakhstan there is an ensuring stability in Central Asia, including the organization of collective protection against new calls and threats. In this regard Kazakhstan has made a set of efforts on deepening of integration into Central Aisa. N.Nazarbayev pointed more than once that only within in- traregional interaction it is possible to solve hydro-electric, transport, communication, territorial and boundary problems.
According to Kazakhstan, regional integration forms a basis for involvement of the countries of Central Asia into the process of regional cooperation and, as a result, to economic integration. Then "it is possible to begin solving really effectively common social, economic and environmental problems of the region, to strengthen commercial and transport intercourses, to raise a welfare of our people"**************. It should be noted that attempts of integration at the territory of Central Asia were more than once, however none of them were realized owing to various circumstances. It is possible to include social and economic roughness of the countries of Central Asia, a difference of foreign policy priorities, a conjucture, and also a personal role of the Presidents, as the Head of states determined the main directions of both internal, and foreign policy in Central Asian countries.
Special attention in the new concept is paid to multivector diplomacy and a cooperation within such organizations as the UN, OSCE, SCO, OIC, CICA, the CSTO and other subjects. Actions for transformation of CICA into the full-scale international organization***************, presidency in which passed from Turkey to China during 2014-2016, are actively implemented.
There is an opinion that the international authority of Kazakhstan increases due to Kazakhstan’s participation in activities of various regional and global structures. It is logical that participation of the Republic of Kazakhstan in these or those organizations depends only on national interests in these structures. Because many Kazakhstan initiatives find support from the world community, it improves the international image of the country, raises Kazakhstan’s role in the UN.
Thus, in view of intermediary efforts of the Republic of Kazakhstan in different conflicts in the territory of Eurasia, it reasonably became the non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for 2017-2018.
Unambiguously certain position of Kazakhstan in issues on arms and global safety gave Kazakhstan the chance to increase its authority as the leader for expansion of the nuclear-free world, non-proliferation of WMD. And the new Concept keeps succession of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy in this matter. Moreover, the President of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev created the new special award "For Nuclear Disarmament and for a Contribution to Safety" which will be handed
- ************* Idrissov Y.A., Kontury kazakhstanskoi diplomatii do 2020 goda. Kontseptsiya vneshnei politiki RK na 2014-2020 gg. i zadachi po ee realizatsii. Materialy kruglogo stola (April 11 2014). Almaty 2014. p. 112.
- ************** Sultanov B.K., Vneshnyaya politika Respubliki Kazakhstan v sisteme globalnykh i regionalnykh trendov. Kontseptsia vneshnei politiki RK na 2014-2020 i zadachi po ee realizatsii. Materialy kruglogo stola. (April 11 2014). Almaty 2014 p. 21.
annually on August 29 — in the International day of actions against nuclear testing.
The fundamental problems which pushed the world to crises of 2007–2009, 2011 were not resolved. Therefore, it is impossible to secure itself against potential financial and economic shocks. In this regard, one of important provisions of the concept is the task of strengthening of economic diplomacy, strengthening of trade and economic position of the Republic of Kazakhstan, and improve attractiveness as regard investments in the conditions of a fierce competition and the crisis phenomena on the world scene.
Also much attention is paid to the integration process at the space of the CIS: to expansion of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU). Nevertheless, for Kazakhstan, firmness of sovereignty, pragmatism and mutual advantage shall remain the main principles for existence of such integration project.
The policy of Kazakhstan on deepening regional and, as a result, global integration cooperation is impossible without WTO membership on profitable terms. After twenty years of negotiations, Kazakhstan, at last, on November 30, 2015 became the 162nd full- fledged member of the WTO. Time will show how it is really profitable to the state.
Also the fact that national and language self-determination are referred by separate points to a number of foreign policy priorities is of special importance. So Kazakhstan for the first time has documentary fixed policy of "the soft force" for promoting the Kazakh culture and language abroad.
The principles and priorities of the concept of foreign policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan confirm the bases for political multi-vector nature of the country, applied since independence.
The adequate foreign policy directly promotes maintenance of stability in the Kazakhstan society. Such interrelation indicates the integrated character of the main directions of Kazakhstan’s policy**************** and new concept which has incorporated historical experience of previous years and generations, marks the beginning of the following stage of development for Kazakhstan diplomacy. According to many experts, Kazakhstan currently has the verified system of fundamental views on its foreign policy activity.
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