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Chinese migration and Kazakhstan

Аbstract. The article discusses the features of the contemporary Chinese migration and the role of the migration processes in bilateral relations. The analysis covers the problem of modern historiography and shows the results of the sociological research in the sphere of Chinese migration. The demographic and socio-economic characteristics have been represented basing on the researches, along with the definition of the role of migration in the socio-economic life of Kazakhstan. The authors analyze the trends in migration from China to Kazakhstan, reveal its peculiarities and the most important patterns, objective determinants and socio-economic impact of the expansion of the Chinese presence in Kazakhstan. The authors argue that these processes should not be considered without an analysis of the demographic and migration policy of PRC as well as policies in relation to the foreign “Huaqiao” diaspora.


Migration became one of the main factors directly influencing the state of economy, culture, national policy, and international relations. Now the political phenomenon of migration began to prevail over the social and economic determining. With this respect, the analysis of interrelation in political processes and migration, and also identification of essence, nature and an orientation of their interaction become a necessary element in achievement of national and regional security.

An international labor migration plays an increasing role in a general flow of the international world migrations. It will not be exaggeration to tell that today practically all countries of the world already participate in the international exchange of manpower as importers and exporters of labor power. According to data of the International Labor Organization, at the end of the XX century, there were at least 120 million people of legal labor migrants in total in the world. An international labor migration became an integral part of modern system of the world economy, normal existence in the majority of the states. Presence of foreign workers at developed countries of the world turned from a temporary phenomenon into a structural element of their economy. For years of independence Kazakhstan became an active participant of world migratory processes, being the country of entrance, departure and transit.

A new migratory situation has been created in Kazakhstan, the prompt growth of cross-border migrations flows is noted, migratory flows are being actively created in "neighboring countries", a number of migrants from the distant foreign countries has grown up.

Migration problems in Kazakhstan have always been relevant. However multimillion population migration within the former Soviet Union did not draw so much attention and did not cause rough reaction from the public as it happened to small on number migration (generally temporary and labor) of Chinese citizens.

The Chinese migration is one of the most important factors of impact on social and economic, and possibly, demographic development of Kazakhstan on a long-term perspective. Thus we recognize that a demographic situation and the basic migratory processes are the important areas of life and policy of modern China, determining not only its own development, but also development of its neighbors. In the long term they will act as one of the creating factors of relations between China and neighboring countries, including Kazakhstan.

The People's Republic of China concentrates the huge migratory potential implementation of which in the conditions of the happening market transformations leads not only to internal transfers of the population, but also is followed by its noticeable migratory outflow out of borders of the country. In recent years we observe the sharp growth of internal and external migration of the population.

Considering complementarity of the economies and considerable coincidence of the interests on international scene, China and Kazakhstan accepted joint Strategy of cooperation of the XXI century which designated the main directions of strategic partnership between two countries. Thus for the first time at the high official level the problem of the illegal Chinese labor power illegally imported into Kazakhstan by the Chinese oil and gas companies working in the Aktyubinsk area in the Western Kazakhstan was lifted. According to the President of Kazakhstan, the most optimum decision for Kazakhstan consists in reducing number of the Chinese workers hired by the Chinese companies by 70% and to replace them with local workers (Kazakhstan- skaya Pravda. — 22.12.2006. URL: www.ka- zpravda.kz).

There is very difficult situation with the Chinese migration in Kazakhstan. The first large- scale flows of the Chinese small traders and entrepreneurs captivated the country after entering a visa-free regime of crossing the Soviet-Chinese border in 1988. In the cities of Russia and Kazakhstan the Chinese street markets began to arise spontaneously. Flows of migrants resistant to any control and management began to cause concerns.

In modern publications it is quite often possible to meet statements that Beijing purposefully realizes expansion strategy, intending to occupy border spaces with its citizens. However, the set of quite available facts and documents do not allow this problem to be treated so unambiguously. A management of the People's Republic of China, facing significant increase in unemployment and skillfully adapting for globalization processes, really pursues the active migration policy directed on support of a foreign community and use of its powerful business and financial potential in interests of economic recovery of the country, however thus shows loyalty and a correctness concerning the countries which accepted its emigrants. In the light of all this it is impossible to imagine that Beijing decided to give a priority to policy of demographic expansion, risking provoking destabilization of the relations with Kazakhstan and with entire Central Asian region.

Modern China needs a stable situation, first of all, for the solution of the acute internal issues, for implementation of large-scale programs of modernization. China has difficult, contradictory relations with the West, with which it aims to be integrated, without refusing, however, from the specific line of social, economic and political development and without passing to a provision, dependent on the West, in worldwide policy.

Kazakhstan and China are connected by special relations. Both countries need a peace environment for the solution of the internal problems, for implementation of deep modernization. Both are interested in wide and various economic cooperation. All this means that the relations between two countries are based upon a strong basis of coincidence in radical interests.

Discrepancy of estimates in demographic, economic and socio-political consequences of the Chinese presence expansion in the country, along with the policy towards immigration of the Chinese citizens to the country from the point of future development in Kazakhstan is constantly in sight of researchers and periodically becomes a subject of heated socio-political debates. The official relation to migratory flows from China is rather positive, than negative. Nevertheless, the level of the concerns based on the threats for the country caused by expansion of the Chinese migration doesn't decrease in the Kazakhstan society.

We should pay attention that despite the active and proceeding for some years discussion on a problem of Chinese immigration, it is obviously not enough reliable data on real scales and structure of migration from the People's Republic of China. Data of official statistics sharply discord with the opinion of the inhabitant. This circumstance determines importance of the comprehensive and weighed analysis of the main tendencies of the Chinese migration to Kazakhstan and those resulting effects to which these processes can lead.

Increase of scientific interest in the Chinese migration, concentration of attention on a problem of sociocultural, demographic, economic security are considered to be absolutely timely as there is a difficult situation connected with the Chinese presence in Kazakhstan. Now on the forefront there is a problem of studying not only quantity characteristics of the Chinese migration, but also its high-quality parameters. It has paramount value in understanding of current development of migratory processes and scenarios of their development in the future. Difficult modern cross-border migratory processes actualize the issues of adaptation among migrants and the accepting society, factors of their interaction, the problems of conflict situations. It is necessary to highlight that issues of regional and national security in Central Asia are in many respects determined by a demographic situation in China, nature and intensity of the Chinese external migration.

Methods of research

The Chinese migration is rather widely lit by the Russian researchers. V. Ya. Portyakov [1, 2] considers that in the analysis of the Russian scientists of "new Chinese migration" as object of research it is necessary to allocate the following main approaches: "Chinese history", "regional", "demographic" and "geopolitical". In case of the first approach, the problems of Chinese migration in a general context of the Russian-Chinese interstate relations are researched. This block of researches is provided by V. G. Gelbras's works [3, 4, 5, 6].

V. Gelbras's researches are based on survey results of the representatives of Chinese associations in Moscow and in the Far East. His works present the results of these researches — they are the largest scale inspections of the Chinese citizens in Russia. His work also contains results of the anonymous poll of the Russian citizens in several Russian cities devoted to the analysis of their opinions on the Chinese and views of a condition and prospect of the state relations between the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China.

The main conclusion which is drawn from the works of V. G. Gelbras is proof of lack of "the Chinese expansion". The author believes that the Chinese migrants should be offered "human living conditions" and at the same time not to allow territorial enclaves with the Chinese ethnic majority to be formed in Russia. Besides he considers that migration, on the contrary, is the positive moment during the modern period of economy development in Russia.

The second group of works in the context of "regional" approach is provided by V. L. Larin [7, 8, 9], V. I. Dyatlov [10, 11], V. G. Datsysh- chen's researches [12]. In these works not only extensive information is collected, but also the deep analysis of the Chinese migration phenomenon, problems of migrants and influence of the Chinese diaspora on society-recipient, problems of the Russian-Chinese trade and economic relations and integration of the Far East of Russia into the world economy, and also the problems of foreign policy and state security of Russia connected with the Chinese migration is provided.

V. I. Dyatlov's work contains important conclusions. In particular, considering the Chinese migration and processes of adaptation, the author claims that in Irkutsk there are Chinese "trade minorities".

Separate aspects of population policy, problem of the population in the People's Republic of China found reflection in E.S. Bazhenova's and A.V. Ostrovsky works [13, 14].

Geopolitical and "Chinese history" approaches to the Chinese migration in the Kazakhstan historiography are provided generally in researches of K.L. Syroyezhkin [15, 16] in which the question of the Chinese migration was brought up for the first time, its assessment, the analysis of influence on social and economic processes in Kazakhstan were given. Besides, his works contain the generalized analysis of modern Chinese researches on the cross-border relations, migration policy of the People's Republic of China, the demographic potential of SUAR. Migratory processes in Kazakhstan and separate aspects of the Chinese migration are researched by E.Yu. Sadovskaya [17, 18].

Today there is a problem of studying not only quantity characteristics of the Chinese migration, but also its qualitative parameters. It has essential value in understanding of current development of migratory processes and scenarios of their development in the future. Migration as an important factor which is influencing a frontier cooperation and being of great importance for ensuring national security is also distinguished from the circumstances having impact on the question studied by us. Distinction of demographic capacities of China and Kazakhstan, active cross-border migration, long stay of the Chinese citizens in the territory of the republic, and also the tourism and extensive business contacts connected with crossing of border provide this matter with a special relevance.

The article considers current trends of migration from China to Kazakhstan, shows its features and the most important regularities of development, analyses objective determinants and social and economic consequences of expansion of the Chinese presence at RK.


Relying on classical western theories of social processes, scientists have developed research methodology. In particular, it is P. Sorokin's [19] theory according to which migration can be considered as horizontal social mobility, thus allocating two types: mobility as voluntary movement and the mobility dictated by structural changes (industrialization and demographic factors).

It is also necessary to note the neoclassical economic theory of M. Todaro [20] in which the center of attention is in the "attractions — pushing out" concept, and also factors of macrolevel of migrations.

Among authors whose works were performed within other theoretical approaches, it is necessary to focus on O. Starck and E. Taylor (the new economic theory of migrations) [21]; theory of migratory networks of A. Palloni [22]; the migratory behavior and adaptation potential were analyzed at the macrolevel by the theory of "a migratory chain" of D. Massey [23].

The empirical basis of this article is constituted by the results of selective questionnaire of the Chinese migrants in Almaty and Astana, surveys were conducted with use of qualitative methods in the form of questioning, unformal interviews [24]. Information received as the result of the survey was processed in the SPSS for Windows program. During research the existing data sources about the Chinese migration were considered and systematized, the system analysis of survey results, supervision, and interview was carried out.

The result of research

The Chinese migration totals two centuries. Historically the first and main migratory flow was constituted by the Chinese traders (huashan). Export of the Chinese labor power — huagun, provided generally by male peasants serving gold diggers on the mines in America, Australia and South Africa began in the middle of the XIX century.

The known concept "huaqiao" which is applied to all foreign Chinese living out of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan historically designated the highly educated Chinese leaving to Southeast Asia for conducting cultural and teaching activities among people of the Chinese origin. And, at last, Huai — the descendants of people of the Chinese origin migrating from one foreign country in another.

In his book "China and Foreign Chinese", Van Gunvu distributes the term "huaqiao" to all natives of China [25]. But in official Chinese circles other point of view is accepted. In 1985 the following terminology was officially accepted in the People's Republic of China: "huaqiao" — the Chinese who are constantly living abroad having citizenship of the People's Republic of China or Taiwan; "waiji huaren" — the people of Chinese

origin who accepted citizenship of the countries of accommodation. The reduced version of this term — "huaren" (foreign Chinese) is often used. "Huai" (ethnic Chinese) are descendants of "huaqiao” and "Huaren" [26].

On some expert evaluations considering a wide range of sources as of 2002 the number of people of Chinese origin in the world out of the territories of China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau has reached about 39 million people [27], in 2011 — 40.310 million [28]. The Chinese diaspora now accounts up to 1.560 people in Europe (in 2002 — 550 thousand people), 4.160 in the USA and 1.510 in Canada.

For 30 years after formation of the People's Republic of China, emigration from the country has been practically absent. And for the last 20 — 30 years, by data of Chen Xuzhun (Institute of geography and the resources of Academy of Science of the People's Republic of China), in total 1.7 million people have left the country.

The Asian Chinese diaspora (about 90% of foreign Chinese) is the most powerful clan of huaqiao. The most part of registered companies in Southeast Asia belongs to ethnic Chinese. The countries of Southeast Asia, where the main vector of the Chinese expansion is directed to, have especially strong Asian Chinese diaspora (about 90% of foreign Chinese).

The role of the Chinese community and in the USA is great. There are about 12 thousand of commercial enterprises belonging to people of the Chinese nationality. One of the main functions of huajiao in America is lobbying of the interests of the People's Republic of China [29].

Most of researchers explain the fact of preserving their influence throughout a long time by the Chinese communities with the high level of ethnic consolidation and intra communal mutual assistance. Perhaps, the secret of success of the Chinese diaspora is covered in existence in it the clan relations which are a peculiar basis for origin and development of associations, and subsequently public and political associations and the organizations.

Since the first days of the Chinese settlements existence— "Chinatowns", there were social relations which contained characteristic of the Chinese village. It was caused by the fact that all men of this or that village connected by related bonds, carrying the same surname, which constitutes a clan, often moved to a new residence together. Along with clans, the Chinese colony has functionally similar, but structurally different associations of mutual assistance (or home-town associations). Membership is based on a community of a dialect and the region of an origin of huaqiao in China. The special role in structuring of the Chinese diaspora is played by so-called the "secret societies" which are based on tough hierarchical system and control that part of diaspora which is for some reason dissatisfied with activities of associations. Tough structure provides considerable part of the Chinese diaspora with the "closed" nature which is maintained by accommodation in the Chinatowns, low interest of mixed marriages, orientation to preserving and development of ethno-cultural identity. Political processes included rather small, though rather effectively operating group. China actively uses the political, economic and cultural potential of emigrants.

In 2000 the People's Republic of China promulgated global external economic strategy under the motto "go outside" ("zouchuqu"). One of its main aspects is gaining considerable, to 10%, share of the international market of work (now the share of China constitutes 2-3%). If to consider that in 2001 the number of the working population in the country constituted 730 million people, and number of the unemployed in the city and the village — 150 million, it is clear that 10% in absolute value form multimillion weight. While preserving present growth rates of employment it means that by 2020 the number of army of the unemployed can reach 100 — 130 million only in the cities. The Chinese economists note that: annual sending abroad for the purpose of business activity of 1 — 2 million capable people will allow to create in the country and beyond its limits of 10 — 20 million workplaces, mitigating with that an employment problem in China [30].

Therefore, immigration processes will gain scope. At the same time Chinese entrepreneurs will take root into economy of host countries, increasing opportunities for capital accumulation which can be directed on purchase of raw materials and technologies and further development of production in China. In recent years the number of the persons legally leaving China with the private purposes increases more than by 30% annually. Thus, in the next one-two decades from the People's Republic of China some more tens of millions of people can emigrate. "Being not able to stop growth of unemployment and to provide all population with a worthy and steady source of the income — the famous Sinologue V. Gelbras writes — the government occurred to be interested in departure of persons out of the country’s borders, convinced that wherever there is a Chinese, he will serve for its prosperity sooner or later". And if the Chinese authorities help moving to Russia at least 0,5% out of from 150 — 200 million unemployed, he notes, only this "is capable to create in our country an emergency situation".

The Office for the Chinese emigrants functions under the State Council of the People's Republic of China. Its tasks include development of the general concept and practical policy for compatriots, development of the mechanism of involvement of financial and material resources of foreign Chinese in processes of upgrade in economy of the People's Republic of China. All practical activities are in the field performed by public organization — Pan-China Association of Repatriates (PCAR) which works under a direct management of Office. The Law of protection of rights and interests of re-emigrants and his relatives, according to which the specified categories of citizens use considerable financial and tax privileges and opportunities for transfer, investment and reinvestment of the equities, has been functioning since January 1, 1991. In October, 2001 its revision came into force.

The thought-over policy of the Beijing management in this direction led to increase of business activity of the Chinese diaspora in economic construction of China. Foreign Chinese the first responded to an appeal of Beijing to make investments in upgrade of the Chinese economy from the beginning of implementation of its policy.

Within Strategy of transnational managing the particular interest of China is determined towards Kazakhstan. According to plans of the Communist Party of China, the labor power shall move to those countries where the Chinese companies start working or already work. And expansion of economic presence of the People's Republic of China in Kazakhstan led to change of a migratory situation. The Kazakhstan Sinologue K.L. Syroyezhkin considers that it is impossible to exclude such version (more hypothetical) that the Chinese labor migration to Kazakhstan is urged to create conditions for implementation of the doctrine of "transnational managing" when the Chinese diaspora (huaqiao) in the form of the Chinese associations and small Chinese business is created for the purpose of economic and geopolitical expansion.

The analysis of the Chinese migration in Kazakhstan assumed clarification of tendencies, regularities of this process and necessity to have an idea of social and demographic structure of migrants — their distribution according to demographic, social, ethnic and other characteristics. The basis for classification of migratory flows from China has various signs, the most important of which are:

  1. stay time,
  2. migration purposes,
  3. status of the migrant.

According to methodical instructions on to the statistics of the international migration of the UN, in temporary migration which is a main type of the Chinese migration to Kazakhstan and assumes resettlement by citizens of the People's Republic of China on the territory of our country for limited term (as a rule, for the purpose of employment in a new place of installation), it is necessary to allocate two subspecies:

- long-term migration is connected with arrival of foreign citizens on the territory of a certain state for a fixed residence for term over a year and provides receipt for them of permission to temporary residence (up to three years) or a type on a residence (for up to five years with the sub

sequent possible prolongation also till five years) or nationality change; thus in relation to this type of entry into the country such categories of migrants as migrant workers, students, trainees, dependents, etc. are allocated;

- short-term migration which assumes entry into the country by Chinese migrants with the status of temporary stay for the short period (for up to one year) and includes the business, commercial, recreational, transit, tourist and other travels of the Chinese citizens connected with temporary employment in the Kazakhstan territory, their seasonal employment, business migration, a frontier cooperation and shuttle movements [31].

The vast majority of the Chinese who are temporarily in the territory of Kazakhstan — are long-term migrants. Among them there are two main categories — representatives of "national trade" and small family business, and also workers under contracts. The analysis of general indicators of poll shows that in Kazakhstan there was a certain migratory environment with prevailing number of the migrants who lived in the country of six-ten years, visiting Kazakhstan less than five times. It is possible to allocate some basic reasons which cause intensive pendular migration of citizens of the People's Republic of Chin диаграмм а1ey come to Kazakhstan for

implementation of business activity according to commercial visas with limited term. If their work requires longer stay in the country, entrepreneurs leave home and already, perhaps, next day return. The second reason of entrance — employment at the entities, and also on officially or unofficial functioning Chinese firms. Some part from entering workers officially is registered as hired employees. But not smaller number enters according to the commercial visas which do not grant the rights to a labor activity and force to leave the country and again to enter during rather short period.

It should be noted that in migratory processes between China and Kazakhstan there are adjusted channels of migration provided by migratory systems on behalf of the states importing and exporting the migrants, as well as migratory networks on behalf of emigrant communities participating in formng intermediary networks of the formal, public and criminal organizations.

Figures 1 and 2 more visually represent the situation connected with arrival and stay of the Chinese citizens in the territory of Kazakhstan. Tables contain data provided by years and by two cities, and figures have the information processed in SPSS and covering information received in general during poll of 300 respondent.

Forming of an informal migratory network facilitateди аграмма 2equent migration for citizens of the People's Republic of China to Kazakhstan where there aMorel than 10 timesctioning channels of migration and home-land communities. Migratory networks effectively interact not only within the Chinese community of one city,

but also other cities, and with the country of an outcome. Such ne30 orks are based on interpersonal and family 20lations. In spite of the fact 2hat contacts mor10 often happen between na- 8ives of one area, they can be expanded and in- 7 lude representativ0 s ofLess than fivet times grap From 6 groups. Emergence of migratory networks is a result of self-organization of migratory process by either migrants, or intermediaries.

Coming for the first time to the country to earn money, Chinese seek for the help of intermediaries — the persons helping with the organization of business for Chinese, having the necessary knowledge of features of conducting 10 timesbusineMore than 10 timeshannels for the organization of commercial transactions or their employment.

According to Department of migratory police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of RK, in 2015, 103 438 citizens of the People's Republic of China were registered in Kazakhstan.

The peak of the Chinese migration fell on 1993 — 1994, those days about 40 — 50 thousand Chinese traders permanently lived in Almaty. Further, this flow was considerably reduced and, except for Almaty, did not exceed three thousand a year.

All citizens of the People's Republic of China came legally, and illegal immigrants became when consciously abused regulations of stay in the territory of Kazakhstan (the overdue visa, acquisition of false documents, fictive marriage or the contract for study, the conclusion of fic- tive trade and economic agreements and contracts with the Kazakhstan partners, etc.).

It should be noted also that already during this period there were travel companies specializing on the invitation of Chinese and registration of the Chinese visas for citizens of Kazakhstan in defiance of requirements of the legislation of RK and PRC.

Other factor influencing uncontrolled increase in the Chinese diaspora was an agreement on a visa-free regime for trips between Kyrgyzstan and China (it is cancelled only in 2003). From Kyrgyzstan Chinese freely drove to Kazakhstan, and attempts the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of RK to unify an order of entry for citizens of China into Kyrgyzstan by negotiation with the Kyrgyz party at various levels did not bring any positive results.

Not the smaller concern was caused also by concentration of citizens of the People's Republic of China in certain spheres of business (mainly, in trade and the sphere of public catering), and also in certain districts of the large Kazakhstan cities (mainly in Almaty and Astana) which threatened to turn into prototypes of "Chinatowns". It is obvious that exactly this circumstance generated alarmist moods at residents of these cities.

The "attracting" factors of a labor migration to Kazakhstan are the desire to save up the original capital, to return to China, to open there own business. In China it is easier, better and

more profitable to be engaged in business. The second reason is to enter Kazakhstan as transit country and to leave then further. Therefore we fix very small quantity of mixed marriages, as well as very small number of the people wishing to obtain the Kazakhstan citizenship. According to Management of migratory police, during the period from 1992 to 2007, 21 012 people, among them Kazakhs — 20 968, Chinese — 5, Uyghurs — 35, Russians — 2, Dungans — 2 obtained citizenship of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

But considerable number of citizens of the People's Republic of China, namely Hanzi, aim to receive the commercial visa which gives the chance of repeated entry into Kazakhstan, and Uyghurs and Kazakhs — the residence permit.

Social and professional structure of the Chinese migrants who arrived to Kazakhstan is tity, means that the worker has not only rather rather various. Thus, the persons who had own high earnings, but also social privileges which

business, working at a fixed basis prevail. These conclusions confute an established opinion that a basic reason for the Chinese migration is unemployment therefore people aim to leave. 31,9% of respondents in 2007 had permanent job. Permanent job, especially at the state enonly the public sector has. Own business also assumes rather steady level of living. Among respondents in Almaty the column "unemployed" was not noted by any of the respondents. All this testifies to the high social status of the most part of survey participants. Often there is an


opinion that there is a large-scale unemployment in China therefore people aim to leave from there. Survey results reveal a difficult situation. As appears from nature of employment, the most part of migrants had permanent job in China. Both provided the solid status. Permanent job, especially at the state entity, means that the worker has not only comparative high earnings, but also social privileges which outside a public sector practically nobody has. And own business assumes rather steady, and sometimes and quite high level of living. All this testifies to rather high social status of the most part of survey participants. In 2004 there were 51,6% respondents, having own business in China. The wholesale, construction markets opened during this period in the new capital, and many migrants from the People's Republic of China were connected with trade and purchasing business. Perma- диаграм маp 3cially at the state entity, means that the worker has not only rather high earnings, but also social privileges which outside a public sector practically nobody has. And own business assumes rather steady, and sometimes quite high standart of living. All this testifies to quite high social status of the most part of survey participants. The social and professional structure of the Chinese migrants is provided by contractual workers, representatives of family business. Status characteristics should be related with the number of important proportions of employment of the Chinese citizens in Kazakhstan, which are connected with classification of migrants as occupied on hiring and self-busy. The greatest part of migrants is constituted by the persons working on hiring (contract) with the Kazakhstan or Chinese entities, the organization, firm. The considerable part of migrants carries on small business or participates in various forms of self-employment.

For an option about standart of living in China most of survey participants gave the answer showing that their level of living was quite high. Indeed, from 30 to more than 65% of survey participants declared that their financial position in China was "very good" or "good". Only the few, 12%, noted that their "vital con- иаграмма 4re bad. The column "very bad vital conditions" was ignored by the respondents.

These data witness that the Chinese migration is not provided by the unemployed, ready for any work as migrants. Many migrants, having saved up enough money, aim to expand the business, while others work in the Chinese companies. "Family business", "national trade" stimulate migration and are the incentive moments for migrants.

Spatial characteristics are one of the features in structure of migration of the People's Republic of China. The geography of the Chinese migration is quite extensive. Natives of absolute majority of provinces, cities of the central subordination live in Almaty and Astana. Migrants from economically developed regions of the country go to Kazakhstan, as a rule they are from Beijing, Shanghai, from regions of traditional Chinese migration to other countries of the world (Fujiang, Guangdong), the migration percent from east part of China (Jiangsu, Anhui) is high. The orientation of migration is influenced by geographical proximity of territorial administrative units (SUAR, Urumqi). Also there are migratory flows from regions, remote

from Kazakhstan (Guangzhou, Dalian). There is a division of spheres of business between groups of fellow countrymen — natives of one city, the district, the area. Close compatriot ties are especially noticeable in Guanzhou, Nantong (the city in the Province of Jiangsu of the People's Republic of China) groups of Chinese. The Guanzhou group controls wholesale trade of vegetables and fruits. Natives of the Province of Jiangsu, of the city of Nantong generally prevail on construction sites of Astana. "Nan- tongci" — traditionally are considered as the groups controlling construction. Such kind of associations covering business areas allow Chinese to use traditional acceptances for control of the field of activity.

Discussion on the results

Kazakhstan mass media quite often write about aggressive economic policy of China in recent time. On the one hand, it is possible to agree with availability of powerful economic aggression, by the way, not only to Kazakhstan, but also to other countries of Central Asia, the Middle East. The Chinese very actively work in some Gulf States. But the existing investment legislation in RK allows the government, the national companies to have a priority right upon purchase or participation in development, production, transportation of oil and gas resources in perspective oil and gas fields. The government of Kazakhstan has legislative levers and certain legal opportunities to constrain excessive presence in the territory of Kazakhstan of this or that investor if it is not equitable to economic interests of RK.

Nevertheless there is a demographic and social danger for Kazakhstan from China. It is known that for implementation of joint projects the huge number of the Chinese workers was attracted. Considering the demographic capacity of the People's Republic of China and the Chinese’s tendency to moving worldwide, it is possible to speak about danger of China’s demographic expansion to Kazakhstan. Besides, mass media repeatedly publish some articles about discrimination in compensation of the Kazakhstan specialists at the oil and gas entities of RK which controlling stock belongs to the Chinese party.

Since the beginning of the 1990th Kazakhstan as the country of the initial stage of modernization represents a real field of the extending Chinese immigration. Indicators of a modern migratory situation allow a conclusion on quickly accruing migration tendencies from the People's Republic of China and increase of the Chinese presence in the territory of our country.

Researchers of the Chinese migration note that it is the most closed migration: it is not integrated till the end and does not want to be integrated into national systems. And in case of national systems weakness the Chinese migration will be able to easily take this most weakened system under the control. Increase of scientific interest in the Chinese migration, concentration of attention on a problem of sociocultural, demographic and economic safety is represented timely as there is an ambiguous situation connected with the Chinese presence in Kazakhstan.

The analysis of the Chinese ethnic element penetration in the territory of other states allows major factors, such as economic and demographic to be allocated. The Kazakhstan researcher N. Mustafayev (The Chinese immigrants in Kazakhstan: myths and reality. Agency of political news. 22.07.2002) considers that the Chinese trading capital and, respectively, the Chinese immigration, as a rule, direct to the multiethnic countries performing the forced upgrade. In the 1970ss, 60 — 80% of transactions on domestic trade of the countries of Southeast Asia, including 70 — 85% in retail and to 40% in foreign trade, fell on the local Chinese equity. In 1960 — the 1980ss, SEA passed a number of phases of the catching-up upgrade. During this period penetration of the Chinese ethnic element into these countries especially amplified. In economically developed countries there are practically no Chinese "trade minorities", neither Chinatowns (an exception — Great Britain and the USA). The effective limiter of the Chinese immigration is consolidation of the nation based on national idea, religion. So, in the Southeast Asian countries Islam acts as the powerful limiter for economic, cultural and civilization expansion of the Chinese diaspora. Most noticeably the Islamic factor is shown in Indonesia and Malaysia (where Islam is the state religion). We should note almost total absence of the Chinese migration, the Chinese diaspora in the Arab countries, the Islamic states (Iran, Pakistan), the states where Islam is traditional religion (Turkey, Uzbekistan). All these countries have passed or pass an upgrade phase.


The Chinese migration is one of the most important aspects of demographic and social and economic development of Kazakhstan on a long-term perspective. The People's Republic of China concentrates the huge migratory potential which implementation in the conditions of happening market transformations leads not only to internal transfers of the population, but also is followed by its noticeable migratory outflow out of borders of the country.

The data from the survey of the Chinese working in Kazakhstan provided in this work show that their social, gender, age and other characteristics witness that those who are ready to compete in the market of labor power come to work here.

The second conclusion and the world practice show that wherever the destiny leads the Chinese, they strive to compact settlement and preserving of national identity. The increase in their number on a new place leads to formation of the Chinese home-land associations with is a closed system of self-service.

The third conclusion — the Chinese migrants extremely slowly assimilate with local population. Mixed marriages are almost excluded for them. They are generally oriented not to subsidence in Kazakhstan, but on business activity, the forced capital accumulation, capture and deduction of the market or on the further moving to Russia and Europe.

The fourth conclusion — increase in the Chinese migratory flow goes after growth of a goods turnover between China and Kazakhstan. Polls among labor migrants from China show that practically all of them repeatedly visited Kazakhstan and lived in its territory for more than one year.

The directions of the Chinese migration keep within traditional practice of work for majority of the Chinese firms outside the People's Republic of China, these are small and medium-sized family companies with high concentration of the power and managerial functions in hands of their owners. They rely on the low level of profitability, compensating it is by high rates of turnover, prefer to deal with other Chinese companies, build the business generally on trade, services industry.

It is obvious that such scheme of business does not require big and fixed inflow of unqualified labor power from the homeland. Though general figures of the Chinese migration do not give serious reasons for a panic, historical memory and specifics of structure of business in a number of the countries of Southeast Asia where Hanzi represent the "significant" or "prevailing" ethnic component of their population, give the grounds for concern. There is a need of monitoring the Chinese migration and maintaining competent migration policy.



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