Training future specialists in dual-oriented learning

Abstract: Scientific research is devoted to the theoretical understanding of teachers training in the conditions of dual-oriented learning based on identifying the specifics of the information process between communicative subjects. The logic of our research suggests that the communicative subject acts as a collective-communicative principle, providing the possibility of organizing and implementing various kinds of subject-subjective connections.

Introduction.The actuality and expediency of introducing dual-oriented training into the educational process of a higher educational institution is not in doubt, since the qualitative characteristics for the development of professional education of the current stage in the Republic of Kazakhstan are integration processes that reflect: contextual and structural changes within the educational system itself; processes of interaction of professional education and production field.

The priorities of the state policy, the key tendencies of the modern education system are reflected in the Message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the people of Kazakhstan «Strategy «Kazakhstan-2050»: a new political course of the established state», which deals with intensive processes in the economy, which, in turn, has caused the highest demand for the specialists of the new formation. We assume that the dual education system is one of the most effective forms of training such specialists.

In spite of the accumulated specific amount of scientific knowledge in the sphere of project systems for training teachers, the application of the dual system for pedagogical education is an innovation. A separate domestic study on the design of the teacher training personal in the conditions of dual-oriented training was not carried out.

With a view to design the training of future teachers in the conditions of dual-oriented training within the framework of grant financing the fallowing steps were undertaken:

  1. validation of the necessity to integrate the research and educational environment of the university, college and school, aimed at consolidating various forms of support for the educational, research and professional aspects of targeted training of highly qualified personnel;
  2. suggestion of a model-schematic content of the communicative subject of the «corporate triangle «university - college - school»», taking into account the relations between them, their prescriptions, goals and intentions, to develop a structural-functional model of training future teachers in terms of dual-oriented learning based on the identification of the specifics of the informational process between communicative subjects.

Model and schematic content of the communicative subject of the —corporate triangle— university — college — school ∣∣∣∣. As it is known, the communicative subject is a true entity of the pedagogical activity, its collectively communicative source, providing the opportunity to organize and implement various kinds of agent-subjective connections.

This concept of a communicative subject is introduced by L.S. Vygotsky [1] in the problem field of theoretical studies as a figure that embodies the unity of thought and speech. In the conjunction of the concepts «verbal thinking», one can see the framework circumstances for theoretical study determining the boundaries of the path that can lead to the foundations of the conceptual construction of a communicative subject.

A distinctive feature of the study of the correlation thinking and speech, undertaken by L.S.Vygotsky, of basic importance for psychology comprised in the fact that it is revealed in the form of a model experiment, involving the construction of a multidimensional model of consciousness, two dimensions of which serve as thinking and speech. Consciousness itself is understood here as the integrity changing in the process of human development.

Another feature of the L.S.Vygotsky's research approach [1, p.56] consists in constructing, in the contextual model of consciousness created by him, a synthetic image of «verbal thinking» that represents the re-creation of a new dimension of a communicative subject, which in this case is represented in the status of a single entity. «Verbal thinking», as it should be in the structure of a systematic unity (the entire consciousness), should be represented not only by speech and thinking, but also by organic integrity. In this case, it becomes possible to isolate a unit of «verbal thinking» that embodies all the properties of this organic whole. Such a unit, which serves simultaneously as speech and intellectual phenomenon, is the meaning of a word.

The originality of the concept «meaning of a word» worked out by L.S.Vygotsky was that it was endowed with the semantic structure expressing historical variability and development of consciousness.

Noting the tremendous importance of «inner speech» for the formation of human consciousness and thinking, L.S.Vygotsky believed that it was its activity that provided not only work with the meaning of a word as «a dynamic, complex formation», but also a transition from the syntax of meanings to the syntax of a word, transformation of the grammar of thought into the grammar of words. Constructing the «vertical line» of speech thinking or the «longitudinal line» of the concept in the model of consciousness, the nature of the act of thought is revealed in the dynamic relationship of «discursive (conceptual) thinking - the semantic structure of inner speech». We should not forget about the «extensiveness» of the concept of speech thinking and consciousness, denoting, according to LS.Vygotsky, «the concept and the object correlation». In this intended dimension of consciousness, the socio-genetic pattern of the formation of «verbal thinking» is getting unfolded.

The analysis of the conceptual scheme «development - training» makes evident the functional load of the temporal and communicative components of «verbal thinking» in the framework of the «horizontal» range of consciousness. He also reveals grounds for understanding the reason that inspired L.S.Vygotsky to introduce the figure of the «Other» into all the schemes of the chronotopic deployment of «verbal thinking» developed by him. With its help, they are finally transformed into operational-functional schemes as «verbal thinking» of the subjects of the educational process. Explaining the role of the «Other» in the formation of the child's mind and consciousness, L.S.Vygotsky writes: «The whole history of the child's mental development teaches us that from the very first days his adaptation to the environment is achieved by social means through the people around him» [2, p.147-164].

Developing L.S.Vygotsky's targeted schematic sequence of mental motions revealing the nature and mechanisms of the functioning of human consciousness the third mental movement can be formulated that brings us closer to an understanding of the specifics of constructing a conceptual model of a communicative subject.

«The Other» is also the researcher himself, whose position is shared and realized by L. S. Vygotsky. He explores not only the consciousness of another person, but also the reflexive movement of his own consciousness, immersed in the element of another consciousness. Describing the phenomenon of «verbal thinking», he, in fact, carries out reflexive acts of awareness of his own verbal description of «verbal thinking». The closest consequence of this reflexive movement of research idea is the conceptual model of the communicative subject, which embodies «the Other» mind explorer.

This model is a model of the researcher's activities, describing the acts of constructing the consciousness of another person as his own consciousness.

Summing up and trying to assess the methodological significance of the conceptual model of the communicative subject constituted by L.S.Vygotsky and reconstructed by us, it is worth asking some questions that require additional clarification. Indeed, why and for what reason it was necessary to conduct a rigorous study of L.S.Vygotsky's texts, formulate a system of arguments and evidence, recreating, in the end, an obviously speculative model of a communicative subject? The matter of concern is that in attempts to limit oneself to a description of such practices, the researcher obviously falls into a methodological trap: the subjective-anthropological initiation of verbal communication and thinking, i.e. within the framework of such descriptions, the living person himself «dissolves» either in the speech activity itself, or in the acts of information exchange, or in symbolic-sign structures of the process of communication [3].

In this case, the advantages of the conceptual model of the communicative subject developed by

  1. S. Vygotsky become apparent. It allows you to «hold» anthropological position in various acts of communication autonomous beginning of the «speaking person» and combine it with thinking as a «system of internal organization of experience», which in this particular case embodies the conceptual design of the communicative subject.

«The experience of Russian history and the history of so-called «civilized» countries show that the growth of economic and social well-being started with reforms in education and speech communications [4].

But, possibly, the main socio-cultural function of speech communications both of an individual and the nation as a whole lies in the formation of cultural national, social grouping and personal identity. These types of identity ultimately come to the processes of human acceptance, shared by one or another social community, cultural patterns, values and norms, as well as drawing up a sample of the «Other» («others») in his self-consciousness. These recent mental actions of constructing the image of the «Other» and the attainment of personal identity and become the subject of thorough concern by M.M.Bakhtin [5].

Consideration of the communicative subject as a member of the «world speech» M.M.Bakhtin's and the language community of people lays an indelible imprint on the essence perception of processes of socio-genesis and psychogenesis of the communicative subject. They arise and constantly exist in the acts of speech and verbal communication. In this case, the speech and the word are interpreted by the Russian thinker not as formal symbolic-sign structures of communication, but as aggravated by social and cultural-ideological connotations of the expression of psychosomatic states - experiences of the presence of the «Other» in the inner world of the communicative subject as a «heavy» sensual body and energetic complex fits of passion.

The third area in which the creative act goes beyond the limits defined by the master is the language. Discovering the «real» human existence necessary, the linguistic tradition involves a person into co-being, the unawareness of which doesn't mean the mind denial consciousness, but recognizing the fact of meeting with others that are fundamentally not reducible to the results of human finite understanding». Another necessary circumstance for original presentation of «the word» by M.M.Bakhutin's point of view is the nature of «speech communication» as the basic structural unit of «physical contact» in a «speech world of society». In the word itself, as

M. M.Bakhtin believes, the person's «inner personality» is fully expressed.

Thus, it turns out that in a separate word of a person at the time of his utterance, the «inner personality» manifests itself in the completeness of its concrete historical being. In the word one can hear not only his own sounding but ideological and vital connotations. It is this understanding of the word that finally gives the opportunity to proceed to the description developed by M.M.Bakhtin, the methodology for constructing a conceptual model of a communicative subject as a kind of creature that arises and «lives» in the dialogue with himself as the «Other» and «Others» with themselves.

So, the communicative subject by the definition of M.M.Bakhtin is a subject modeling the act of acquiring the personal identity of the moments of awareness of the uniqueness of his involvement in to the historically accomplished being, the exceptional and inimitable creative act of generating activity [5, p. 103-127]. These moments of awareness are united by M.M.Bakhtin into acts of inner pronunciation, verbal auto-communication, and the concept of «action».

M.M.Bakhtin's statement of the «two-dimensional estimation of the world» marks not only the apotheosis of the process of acquiring personal identity by the creator and master, but also clearly outlines the internal space of the communicative subject, who begins to see his own nature as the nature of the moral subject» [6]. The formulation of this provision not only completes the description and analysis of the conceptual model of the communicative subject, but also builds «bridges» to the questions raised by M.M.Bakhtin. The issue under discussion is the question of ethos and discourse of the communicative activity and communicative subject.

An attempt to formulate our own research position implies the explanation of the principles for choosing the concept of discursive ethics by Jurgen Habermas [7]. In this conception, it seems to us, the line is to displayed that consistently continues and develops those directions of a conceptual model of the communicative subject accepted by L.S.Vygotsky and M.M.Bakhtin. Although J.Habermas was not, judging by the texts of his works, familiar with the works of Russian thinkers, the existence of the combination «communicative community» - an «invisible collage» of scientists from different countries and different historical epochs allows the establishment of mental- communicative, debatable composition.

There is a single logic of research thought movement within the framework of a single problematic character and a single array of historical and cultural information.

Their role in the development of psychology, consciousness and social behavior of a person is undoubted.

Final identification of the research position, carried out by J.Habermas [7] within the limits of «decentralized understanding of the world», affects the characteristics of a «speaking person» in the conceptual model of the communicative subject, which in a concentrated form contains the reflective and rationally positioned self-consciousness of the researcher while investigating discursive practices. The characteristics of a «speaking person» in the conceptual model of the communicative subject are as follows:

  1. the communicative subject is oriented towards mutual understanding, precisely distinguishing this orientation from the orientation towards success;
  2. the communicative subject perceives mutual understanding as a coordination mechanism connecting «among themselves the action plans of various participants and connecting targeted actions into a single and coherent interaction ...»;
  3. the communicative subject understands the communicative action as mastering the circumstance, simultaneously acting as a situation of action and as a situation of speech, in which acting characters alternately assume the communicative roles of the speaker and the addressee»;
  4. the communicative subject follows a setting that is «oriented towards mutual understanding», where «a speaking person with his articulated utterance puts forward pretensions for that:
  5. communicative subject fulfilling all the requirements and prescriptions set forth above can require the status of the «competent subject of speech», disposing the possibility of choice between «objectifying», «standardizing» and «expressive» course of action [8, p.200-205].

Ultimately, the communicative subject comes to a «decentralized understanding of the world», in which the opportunities provided to him form the core of the conceptual model of the communicative subject. This subject obtains the form when he becomes «public discourse initiated by its autonomous entities» [8, p.75]. In other words, the conceptual model of the communicative subject becomes objectively significant only if it embodies the moral and practical discourse of the «communicative community».

The presented characteristics of the communicative subject allow fixing various forms of its existence in the educational process. These forms include:

  • reproduction of the communicative subject in the form of a conceptual model that provides an integral vision of the active nature of this subject;
  • the communicative active nature of the communicative subject, exposed by methods of practitioners and innovators, and introduced into the practice of schools.

The above presented characteristics of the communicative subject and its systemically isolated forms (the first relates to the form-structure, the second to the form-function, the third and the fourth to the form-conditions for the implementation of the pedagogical communication) symbolize the main organizational moments of the communicative subject existence and the integrity of its manifestations in the educational process and introduce the structural basis of the communicative paradigm of contemporary education. [10, с. 75].

For its visual presentation, it is worth mentioning the symbolic-graphic image of the communicative subject, reproducing it in a generalized model form (Figure 1). But for the start, it is necessary to determine the place of the communicative subject in the communicative organization of education as a social system.

  1. Communicative organization of the modern educational system

The place of the communicative subject is displayed as the concentration of inter-subjective- interactive, situational-conversational «live» pedagogical communication in the structural- communicative organization of education as a social system.

Within the framework of the proposed model-schematic representation of the communicative subject, positions 1), 2), 3), 4), 5) denote the following:

  1. the socio-communicative organization of education as a process of personality activity development, where communication appears as a set of communication channels between various elements and levels of social organization of the educational system;
  2. intergenerational-intercultural communication through «age barriers»;
  3. mass organization of communicative informational sources and media streams (media, fiction and educational books);
  4. organizational (structural) communication of participants of educational process with purposeful functional positions of a teacher and a student, a social teacher and a psychologist;
  5. a communicative subject uniting and distributing in the process of situational-conversational pedagogical communication, informational flows of the education system, as well as creating a communicative-informational training and upbringing (in the diagram it is represented as a circle covering all the above components of the communicative organization of the educational system).

It is important to determine the place of the communicative subject in the communicative organization of the educational environment. This creates the prerequisite for the proposed synthetic model that integrates four theoretical constructions put forward by L.S.Vygotsky, M.M.Bakhtin, J.Habermas and the representatives of «pedagogical cooperation».

The proposed model of the communicative organization of the present day educational system requires theoretical comprehension of the existing doctrines and research on the problems of the communicative subject. All the above-mentioned theoretical constructions in the integral model of the communicative subject are united on the general basis of the discursive practice of situational- conversational inter-subjective communication.

Proceeding out of the above-mentioned statement, it would be legitimate to declare that our research is interdisciplinary in nature, since it is built at the juncture of pedagogy and psychology.

Firstly, the research is focused on solving the problems of the educational process, which are mostly related to the pedagogical psychology.

Secondly, out of the diversity of forms of communication represented in the organizational structures of the educational process the forms of «live», inter-subjective pedagogical communication are investigated, which are in great extent saturated with «psychologisms» - «entity-subjectivity».

Thirdly, the implementation of the author's model is limited by the framework of the object of research itself, which appears as the set of communicative acts of «live» pedagogical communication stretched out between the subjects of the educational process.

Conclusion.Summarizing the above presented information the following conclusions should be made:

  • the consciousness and psychology of a person are constructed and developed in the forms of various kinds of speech practices;
  • various models of speech practice, recreated by us operating the works of L.S.Vygotsky, M.M.Bakhtin, J.Habermas, demonstrate the possibility of obtaining by researchers of an extremely high level of self-awareness, self-identification as a creator and a master;
  • reflexive procedures in the framework of analytical judgments of the basics of speech practice lead out to the discovery of a deep level of comprehension of the world, namely, the level of understanding and meaning;
  • an attempt to prove and develop the rules of speech practice directs the researcher to the fundamental setting - «ethos» («I» and «Others») or «moral and practical discourse» governing active communication between people;
  • «moral and practical discourse» can serve as a form of expression of public interests and public opinion, i.e. the reality of civil society.

Thus, the analysis of sources enables us to give the essential characteristics of the communicative organization of the modern system.

Such a model of the communicative organization of the educational system constitutes the basis of the communicative paradigm of dual-oriented learning.



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Year: 2019
City: Almaty
Category: Economy