The article is devoted to analysis, cataloging of cartographic material of the consolidated catalog of “old” maps on the history of Kazakhstan in the XVII–early XX centuries. The funds of storage of cartographic materials in archives and libraries of Moscow and Orenburg are given and characterized. The functional values of the developed consolidated catalog of “old” maps have been substantiated. The consolidated catalog of cartographic materials can be considered as a kind of “guide” for potential users with the help of which the user can get answers to the following questions: What archives, libraries, museums have the necessary cartographic material for the user and view cartographic bibliographies of “old” maps on the history of Kazakhstan. Based on the intermediate result of the research a consolidated catalog of cartographic materials was prepared, comprising 282 cartographic sources of the XVII–early XX centuries on the history of Kazakhstan, which are of high scientific and social significance. Most of the cartographic materials on the early period of the history of Kazakhstan at the beginning of the XVII century are mainly of foreign origin. To fill with additional possibilities, the consolidated catalog of “old” maps for potential readers is enriched with photo files of cartographic materials accompanying the cartobibliographic record of “old” maps from the consolidated catalog. The identified cartographic materials are subjected to source analysis, assessment, and description. It has been established that cartographic materials on the history of Kazakhstan in the XVII–early XX centuries should not be studied in isolation but as part of the cartography of a certain era in all its interconnections and interdependencies with the development of related areas of knowledge (history, geography, geodesy, etc.).
As part of the research project, work was carried out to identify, analyze and compile cartobibliographies of handwritten and printed maps of the XVII–early XX centuries on the history of Kazakhstan. Revealing “old” maps on the history of Kazakhstan in the XVII–early XX centuries was held in the following funds: State Military — Historical Archive (SMHA, Moscow), Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RSAAA, Moscow), State Historical Museum (SHM, Moscow), Russian State Library (RSL, Moscow), State Public Historical Library (SPHL, Moscow); State Archives of the Orenburg Region (SAOR, Orenburg), Orenburg Regional Universal Scientific Library named after N.K. Krupskaya (ORUSL named after N.K. Krupskaya, Orenburg).
As a basis for the systematization of cartographic materials during their cataloging, we use the territorial and chronological approaches. The studied cards are different not only in time of creation but also in topics. During the preparation of the consolidated catalog of “old” maps on the history of Kazakhstan in modern times, the following types of cartographic works were identified: Administrative maps, as separate counties, regions, in general, the entire territory of Kazakhstan; Military cards; Fortress plans, Fortified line diagrams; Boundary (maps for private land ownership); Road (maps of military, cattle driving, horse-drawn, railways); Historical; City plans; Separate issues of maps in highly specialized areas (engineering, geological and hydrogeological, etc.); Foreign maps compiled by travelers, scientists — researchers.
When creating the consolidated catalog, a unified catalog description of cartographic materials was developed based on the structure, which is primarily associated with the purpose and objectives of the study. When compiling the cartobibliographic information in the consolidated catalog, we used the following structure: Dating the map; Title of the map; Authorship; The originality of the map; Scale; Place of publication; Volume in sheets; Size of the map; The material on which the image is applied; Technique of drawing an image; Contents of the map; Text notes; Additional Information; Decor; Safety of the map. At the end of the
*Corresponding author’s e-mail: email@example.com bibliographic description, the address of the storage of the copy is indicated. A unified sample of cartographic bibliography for the consolidated catalog has been developed.
The prepared consolidated catalog of cartographic materials of the XVII–early XX centuries is a thematic catalog, while events occurring in the history of Kazakhstan in this period are considered as the main topic. Nevertheless, regardless of the profile, the consolidated catalog is considered as an integral object of the past. When preparing a consolidated catalog, cartographic materials on the history of Kazakhstan are divided chronologically according to the XVII, XVIII, XIX, XX centuries (until 1917).
The main problems in identifying cartographic materials were their scattering over the archives, museums and libraries; the impossibility of scanning and photographing some rare, handwritten maps before 1830, which are in a single copy; closedness of some funds, repair of the archive of the SAOR. Despite the existing difficulties, as a result of a scientific search, it was possible to scan cartographic material for a consolidated catalog on the history of Kazakhstan in modern times — 134 maps, different in thematic direction and visually reflecting the development of the history of Kazakhstan in the XVII–early XX centuries.
The proposed analysis of the preparation of a consolidated catalog of cartographic materials on the history of Kazakhstan of the XVII–early XX centuries and their solutions are based on foreign experience, scientific principles and ideas in the field of creating consolidated catalogs, as well as classical works devoted to “old” maps. The conducted research is of an intermediate nature.
The consolidated catalog of “old” maps is considered as the result of methods aimed at identifying, analyzing, comparing, compiling a map bibliography, scientific description, and cataloging of maps. The results of these methods allow for a scientific reconstruction of the history of Kazakhstan in the XVII–early XX centuries.
Implementing the set research objectives based on the methodology on an interdisciplinary approach.
The basis of the research methodology is a systematic method that facilitates to establish cause-and- effect relationships between historical phenomena in the general historical movement, to trace the historical development within the framework of the general processes occurring in this period and to effectively review and analyze the consolidated catalog of cartographic materials on the history of Kazakhstan XVII–early XX centuries. The research is based on the basic principles of historical science — historicism and objectivity. As a special research method, the cartographic method is used, which makes it possible to trace the evolution of ideas and methods of cartography, aimed at obtaining information on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of maps, studying the dynamics of historical events of their relationships and the ability to classify cartographic material. Various techniques of the cartographic method (comparison, description) are used to study phenomena by their images on maps. Comparative analysis contributes to compare maps of different times and effectively assess the historical events of Kazakhstan. The method of describing cartographic material allows for a systematic, logical and orderly search for interesting historical facts. The general geographic method contributes to an objective analysis and assessment of the physical and geographical data of cartographic materials of modern times, to localize certain historical events, trace the geography of the development of historical phenomena and determine the classification of maps by topic and purpose. All of the above methods were used in combination.
The materials for the study were cartographic materials of the XVII–early XX centuries from archives, libraries and museums in Moscow and Orenburg cities.
In modern historiography, the issue of preparing a consolidated catalog and describing cartographic materials on the history of Kazakhstan in the XVII–early XX centuries has practically not been studied. Nevertheless, the comprehension of certain aspects of the study was carried out within the framework of the study of the history of cartography and the use of “old” maps in a number of pre-revolutionary, Soviet, Russian, foreign, and Kazakh scientists.
Pre-revolutionary historiography tends to study the history of cartography and use “old” maps. A number of studies are valuable today. M.O. Bender, whose authorship belongs to the unique catalog of the Military–Scientific Archive (Russian State Military–Historical Archive), which still bears the unofficial name “Bender’s Catalog” in archival circles .
Foreign historiography tends to study the history of cartography, strategies, and research terminology for “old” maps. The study of the American Professor, Dr. Mark Bassin is devoted to the problems of Russian cartography and historical geography . Contemporary American scientist V. Kivelson examines the maps of the XVII century. The author notes that the cartographic materials of this period have a certain degree of standardization of technical and artistic methods: The same color palette and similar signs are used to designate villages, forests, roads, rivers, and fields . The German researcher D. Dalman fragmentarily analyzes the “old” maps, notes changing scales were used in the preparation of maps as early as the XVIII century, even if they were made in the workshop of such a cartographer and engraver as Johann Baptist Homann in Nürnberg. He notes in a historical study that territorial delimitations in Asia were formed as a result of the struggle for power and hegemony between the British and Russian Empires .
Work on the study of source studies and the methodology of old cartographic material, the specific features of cartographic documents, prevailed in Soviet historical science. In this regard, the works of such authors as L.A. Goldenberg  and S.I. Sotnikova  are of the greatest interest.
In modern Russian historiography, considerable attention is paid to the systematization and analysis of “old” maps and cartobibliography. The works of the Soviet, Russian historian-cartographer, researcher of old Russian drawings, who laid the foundation for many scientific directions, including the description of maps in the consolidated catalog of cartographic materials, covering the period only up to the XVIII century, are significant for the research of V.S. Kusov [7; 22]. The closest to our problems and ways of solving them are studies of Russian Novosibirsk scientists under the guidance of Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor O.N. Kationov, who study the historiography and problems of consolidated catalogs of cartographic materials of the Urals, Siberia, and the Far East . The experience of Russian scientists, N.I. Smirnov, R.K. Abdullina, Yu.A. Kashaev, and P.S. Foteev, developed the information web resource “Heritage of the Urals cartographers in the mid-XVIII–early XX centuries” .
The work of Kazakhstani historians Zh.B. Abylkhozhin, K.Sh. Alimgazinova, I.V. Erofeeva, S.A. Zhakisheva, S.F. Mazhitova, and B.M. Suzhikova “Essays on the historiography and methodology of the history of Kazakhstan”, which raises theoretical and methodological problems related to the methods of historical and geographical research . The scientific article of the Russian historian I.V. Erofeeva “Geographic maps of the XVIII century: as a source on the history, ethnology and historical toponymy of Kazakhstan” is of serious interest for the study, which provides a description of cartographic materials and highlights the problem of poor study of cartographic sources on the history of Kazakhstan .
Archival materials make up a significant part of the list of used literature. The study of the discussion of the preparation of a consolidated catalog of “old” maps was carried out at the junction of several interrelated disciplines. The interdisciplinarity of the research, due to its “openness”, makes it possible to include in its source arsenal the achievements of the entire spectrum of knowledge, to look for samples and opportunities for the effective preparation of a consolidated catalog in sciences distant from each other.
Based on the results of the first year of research, a consolidated catalog of cartographic materials was prepared, consisting of 282 cartographic sources of the XVII–early XX centuries on the history of Kazakhstan. The identification and scanning of cartographic materials of the XVII–early XX centuries on the history of Kazakhstan into the consolidated catalog was carried out in the fund of the State Historical Museum (SHM, Moscow), which has a specialized department for storing and working with cartographic works. The collection of the “Department of Manuscripts and Early Printed Books” was created in 1919, has over 42,000 storage units and includes various types of cartographic materials of the XVI–XVII centuries, represented mainly by engraved Western European maps and atlases. Unfortunately, there is no cataloging and descriptions of the stored maps in the department of the museum due to the renovation of the premises, and not all maps are available in the electronic version. Nevertheless, handwritten maps of the history of Kazakhstan of the XVI — XVII centuries were revealed mainly by foreign authors — 11 items. The State Historical Museum has a map compiled by the XVI century English ambassador, Anthony Jenkinson. This map was published in 1562 and has been reprinted several times. It was compiled according to new sources of that period, according to Jenkinson’s own observations and inquiries. Jenkinson was one of the first Western European travelers to describe the coast of the Caspian Sea and Central Asia during his expedition to Bukhara in 1558– 1560. The result of these observations was not only official reports but also the most detailed map of the Caspian Sea and Central Asia at that time, published in London. Particularly noteworthy is the image of the Caspian Sea and the rivers flowing into it. However, there are many vague, unclear indications on the map, in particular, the hydrography of the Aral Sea Basin.
According to the developed unified catalog description of the “old” maps, the consolidated catalog on the history of Kazakhstan in the XVII–early XX centuries begins with the map: “Russiae, Moscoviae et Tartariae Descriptio. Auctore Antonio Jenkensono Anglo, edita Londini Anno 1562. & dedicata Illustruß: D. Henrico Sydneo Wallie presidi” /Compiled by Anthony Jenkinson. — [England, London], [1588–1612]. — 1 l. multicolor; 42.2x54. Paper, engraving, watercolor. From Atlas A. Ortelius Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Scale: 1: 5,000,000. Shown: The coast of the Caspian Sea and Central Asia during their expedition to Bukhara in 1558–1560. Additional information: Dedicated to His Excellency Henry Sydney, President of Welsh, and shedding light on areas in the heart of Eurasia that are almost inaccessible to Europeans. State of preservation: satisfactory. Storage cipher — SHM. GO-5926/1 .
Of interest for research and preparation of the consolidated catalog is the map of F.I. Stralenberg, found in the State Historical Museum, where there is important information on the geography of the area and the boundaries of the settlement of the Kazakh people of the XVIII century: “Nova deseriptio geographica Tartariae Magnae” /Compiled by Strallenberg. — [Sweden, Stogkolm], . — 1 sheet: b/w. The engraved map is in Latin. Shown: An extensive river network and large lakes, forests, large mountain ranges. Coast of the Caspian Sea, Aral Sea. Central Asia. A large number of cities and towns are given. There are images of roads without names. The boundaries drawn on the map are conditional and do not correspond to a strict administrative or political division: in the European part of Russia, the author singled out six parts, Siberia was divided into thirteen provinces. Great Tartary, which occupies the lower half of the map, is divided into Great and Little Tartary, includes Bukhara, Mongolia, Tibet, and the lands of individual peoples. The advantage of the map is the many explanatory inscriptions of a historical, geographical, political and economic nature. State of preservation: satisfactory. Storage cipher — SHM. GO 6094/1 .
Research to identify cartographic materials on the history of Kazakhstan in the XVII–early XX centuries was carried out in the Russian State Military-Historical Archives of the Russian Federation (RSMHA, Moscow) in fund 846 (formerly the Military-Scientific Archive), which contains documents on the state of the lands of Asian Russia. 12 handwritten and printed maps were identified, work was carried out to compile a map bibliography and describe the maps. For example: “A map representing a part of Siberia and a touch to it of the Chinese state, the former Zengor Kalmyks, the possession and the entire steppe, the nomadic Kirghiz — Kaisaks, and to it the adjacent Aral and Karakalpatskago with a part of the Khiva possessions and parts of Big and Small Bukhara” / Compiled by not specified. — [Russia], [к. XVIII century]. — 1 sheet: color. The map is handwritten, general geographic. Scale: None. There is a degree grid (marked north latitude 30 ° — 55 °; east longitude 60 ° — 160 °). Shown: Branched hydrography is marked on the map. Cities: Orenburg, Iletsky town, Turkestan, Khiva, Otrar, Yassy, Inar, Sauran. Fortresses: Orsk, Zverinogolovskaya, St. Peter and Paul, Omsk, Zhelezinskaya, Koryakovskaya, Yamyshevskaya, Semipalatinskaya, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Aralskaya upper fortress. The road from the Orsk fortress to the south to Bukhara. The map shows the location of the “Steppe of the Wandering Kirghiz — the Kaisaks of the Lesser Horde”, “The Steppe of the Wandering Kirghiz — the Kaisaks of the Middle Horde”, “The Steppe of the Wandering Kirghiz — the Kaisaks of the Great Horde” and “Zengar Kalmyks”. Decor: available. State of preservation: good. The storage code is RSMHA. F. 846. Op. 16.V.3. D. 20261 .
On the handwritten map № 203000, prepared in 1821 and identified in the RSMHA F. 846, a rich historical material was found on burial sites, archaeological sites and winter quarters of Kazakhs: “Map of a part of the steppe Kirgiz-Kaisatskaya and Turkestan, compiled by inquiries and reconnaissance” / Compiled by Captain Baron Meyendorf, 1st Lieutenant Volkhovsky, Captain Timofeev. — [Russia], . — 1 sheet: color. Handwritten. Scale: 100 versts per inch. Shown: Geographical objects, lakes, fresh traces of fresh rivers, roads, forts, fortifications, settlements, fortifications, mountain ranges, mountains, wells, sands, the grave of Khoja Kashtan of the Aral Sea to the northeast, the grave of “Koip Khan” near the Kara-Yar tract and the ruins of Dzharkent, wintering grounds, ancient ruins, the Ayban grave, Buigin’s grave, coal deposits east of the Iletsk defense, the Khan’s grave near the Iletsk defense. The path from the Iletsk defense and the eastern side of the Aral Sea and Turkestan, as well as the fortification line from the Guryev town to Bukhtarminskaya, is best shown. Text: “Tugoshkon 'tract on the Ulu-Irgiz river, 48°”; “Lake Khojakul — 47°”; “The Kara-Tyube tract on the Syr-Darya river — 45°”. Additional information: “There is a certificate of the places of which the geographical position was determined by astronomical observations in 1820. Map of the military topographic depot”. State of preservation: satisfactory. The storage code is RSMHA. F. 846. – Op. 16. – T. 3. – Op. 16. – D. 203000 .
The search for cartographic materials was carried out in the State Archive of Ancient Acts (RSAAA, Moscow), which stores military-historical cartographic documents from the XI to the beginning of the XX centuries. The archive’s funds include materials from institutions of higher, central and local government of the Russian Empire, funds of the central boundary institutions of Russia in the XVIII–early XIX centuries, documents of state and public figures, early printed and rare editions of the XV–early XIX centuries. The research was carried out in fund 192 “Cartographic department”, fund 248 “Senate and its institutions” and fund 1354 “Plans for dachas of the General and Special Land Survey, 1746–1917”. It was revealed 28 handwritten and printed rare maps on the history of Kazakhstan in the XVII–early XX centuries. When compiling the map bibliography, all information located on the map and having historical value for a particular region was considered. For example: “Map of the road by the engineer topographer Lieutenant Ivan Gelman to the Kyrgyz Horde from Orenburg to the Temir River and back”. / No compiler specified. — [Russia], . — 1 sheet; color. The map is handwritten, color, general geographic. No author. Scale: 60 versts per inch. Oriented to the north. There is a degree grid. Shown: On a handwritten and color landmap, a detailed hydraulic network of the “Kyrgyz Horde” is depicted with the names of rivers and tributaries, mountains, settlements, names of tracts and wintering grounds of Kazakhs are indicated. Rivers are marked: Ilek, Uil, Temir, Karacha, Tersakan. The dotted line shows the path of Lieutenant Ivan Gelman to the “Kyrgyz Horde” from Orenburg to the Temir River and back. The following settlements are marked on the map: Orenburg and Iletskaya salt. The following tracts are marked: On the river Malaya Khobda (Korsanbasha); on the Tersakan River (Tersakan Basha); on the river Bolshaya Khobda (Bashtau). The land map contains the location data of two rates at the mouth of the Karasu River with the names “Astana” and “Astana Batak Yanta”, which are absent on other maps of the XVIII century. A fragment of the Orenburg fortification line was marked. State of preservation: satisfactory. Restored. Storage cipher — RSAAA. F. 192. – Op. 1. – D. 7–1 .
Of interest to historians is the first thematic map from the fund 192 of the Russian State Archive of Architecture under No. 11, which was one of the first to have the term “Historical Map” in its title. It displays historical phenomena and events regarding geographic factors. Scientific information related to the history of Kazakhstan is displayed in the comments under item VII, located at the edges of the map: “Historical Map of the Russian Empire” / Compiler not specified. — [Russia], [September 2, 1793]. — 1 sheet: color. Handwritten historical map. Scale: none. The map is oriented to the north. There is a degree grid in 5 degrees in latitude and longitude (marked north latitude 40° — 75°; east longitude 80° — 175°). Shown: Caspian Sea, Aral Sea. Rivers: Ural, Emba, Tobol, Irtysh. Cities: Guryev, Orenburg, Omsk, Orsk, Turkestan. Fortresses: Ust — Uiskaya, Zverinogolovskaya, St. Peter, Zhelezenskaya, Chernoyarskaya, Yamyshevskaya, Semiyarskaya, Semipalatinskaya and Ust-Kamenogorskaya. Uluk Tan ridge (Tien Shan). The location of the Younger, Middle and Senior zhuzes of the Kazakhs is noted (“The steppe of nomadic Kirghiz kaisaks of the mensha horde”, “The steppe of nomadic Kirghiz Kaisaks among the horde”, “The Great Kirghiz Kaisak horde”). The location of “Karakalpaki lower” (to the east of the Aral Sea) is marked. Light purple paint shows the borders of the Russian Empire at the beginning of the XVIII century. (Caspian Sea, Emba River, Gorkaya Line, Irtysh), light yellow paint shows the areas acquired during the reign of Peter I (the eastern end of the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, the territory up to the Elder Zhuz). Text: “After the Russians took possession of Siberia with the Chinese Empire alone, a border was established, starting from the Eastern Ocean and ending in the Sayan Mountains. From this place to the west to the Caspian Sea, due to the circumstances of neighboring peoples, the borders changed many times at different times for security from raids from the Omsk fortress down the Irtysh, and westward along the Tobol, and along the Uy river to the Urals, and along the Urals to Guryev fortresses built then formed the Russian border. But then the small and medium Kyrgyz Horde came under the auspices of the Russian Scepter, and the latter, after the destruction of the Zhungar villages by the Chinese, spread to the Irtysh River and the Ulun-tan ridge. That is, their nomad camps and uluses are now reckoned with the Russian Empire, and from the Sayan mountains through the mountains to the Ulun-tan ridge, and to the Caspian Sea, the border has been established, which is marked with orange paint”. Decor: available. State of preservation: good. Storage cipher — RSAAA. F. 192. – Op.1. – D. 11 .
Research in F. 1354 RSAAA “Plans for dachas of the General and Special Land Survey, 1746–1917” (collection) were complicated by the fact that the boundary plans have a large format. In this regard, scanning them is not possible, and photographing is prohibited. Nevertheless, several plans were identified and scanned: “Land-plan of the Turgai region of the Irgiz district and the city of Irgiz and its pasture lands” / Compiled by the surveyor of the 1st category of the land-survey office, adviser Ukhvatov. — [Russia], . — 1 sheet: color. Shown: The plan shows the town of Irgiz with its surroundings. Text: “Under the estates of Irgiz there were — 1080 fathoms, under the city garden — 3 tithes 840 fathoms, under the gardens — 5 acres, under the pasture — 423 tithes, 1800 fathoms; under hay mowing — 120 sazhens, 10 acres of 2280 sazhens were allocated for livestock feed. In the city of Irgiz there is the following number of souls: hereditary nobles — 108, clergy — 1, hereditary honorary citizens — 4, Kyrgyz and bourgeois — 54, villagers and Cossacks — 83, military estates — 166, reserve and retired lower ranks with their families — 43, foreign nationals — 94, temporarily residing Tatars, peasants, Bashkirs and Kirghiz — 66, spare Cossacks — 11, and there are 547 souls in total”. The boundary plan was certified “from the Kirghiz of the Kizilyar volost of the first aul Amen Tbeshkanbaev, who, due to illiteracy, attached his tamga, from the Kirghiz of the 2 aul Berden Taibeshtbekbaev, from the Kirghiz of the Amankul volost of the fourth aul Kungbai Baimuratov, etc. Completed by the specialist Konkov dated June 21, 1891, No. 3799. The work was carried out by the land surveyor of the 1st category of the land survey office, advisor Ukhvatov”. State of preservation: good. Storage cipher — RSAAA. F. 1354. – Op. 1. – D.1 .
The research was conducted in the Russian State Library (RSL, Moscow) in the department of cartographic publications. The reading room of the department of cartographic publications contains 250 thousand items from the XVI century until now. The main fund includes atlases, plans, schematic maps, maps. The collection contains cards on sheets and fabrics, wall cards, in rolls, on cardboard, relief, in the form of postcards and calendars. A large volume of handwritten, printed cartographic publications of the XIX–early XX centuries, reflecting the history of Kazakhstan, was found in the funds of this department. There are many maps with the same name, but with some corrections and therefore having different storage units. Despite the difficulties and limitations of work in the department of cartography (scanning and photographing rare maps made earlier than 1830 is prohibited). Revealed — 125 storage units on the history of Kazakhstan XVII– early XX centuries and cataloging of maps were carried out. In the course of the identification in the cartography department of the RSL, there were maps already identified in the RSAA. Therefore, when preparing the map bibliography, all found storage ciphers were indicated. For example: “Map of the Russian State. Map of a part of Central Asia, the Land of the Kirghiz-Kaisaks, Karakalpaks, Trukhmen and Bukharians” / Compiled by the Depot of maps. — [Russia], . — 1 sheet: color. The map is handwritten, general geographic. The image of the terrain is presented in perspective, strokes and hillshade. Scale: English inch 100 versts. There is a degree grid (marked north latitude 45° — 55°; east longitude 45° — 86°). Shown: The map shows detailed hydrography of all rivers with tributaries, the names of lakes, seas, springs, fords, etc. The mountain range and hills of Kazakhstan are depicted. Roads. Towns and fortresses: Guryev, Uralsk, Iletsk town, Orsk, Petropavlovsk, Omsk, Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk. An extensive network of urban settlements is noted in the south: Turkestan, Savran, Yassu, Shald, Egestan, Tashanak, Suzak, Tugustan, Saganak, Otrar (Farab), Vassa, Savran, Tunkat, Sairam, Chigiment, Bolak (Borakat) Birkent, Danbu, Zhity Kent, Tashkent, Khojent, Pishket, Uzkent, Aush, Bukand, Etzam. Kzan, koba, Kukan, Margelan, Khovakand, Kukan, Kazhan, etc. Socio-economic objects are indicated: Copper mine in the interfluve of Malaya Nura and the Karasu river; Copper mine Kambau on the left bank of the Irtysh, opposite the Lebyazhy redoubt; Copper and lead mine in the Kayan Tau mountains, near the Karaga river; Iron ore mine east of Lake Zerenda; Copper mine near the river. Kunarzdy (Ak Tau mountains); Dwelling of Sabakty (Babatu) to the south — west of Lake Sikirlik and Lake Karakol; Copper mine north of Tugustan; Copper mine between the Malaya Nura and the Karasu river. Additional information: The legend contains conventional signs: soil, forest types, roads, fortresses, redoubts, borders. An inventory of places is given, the position of which is determined by astronomical observations. An explanation of the abbreviations is given. Symbols of the fortress, outposts of the Chinese military guards, cities, mines, ruins. State of preservation: good. Storage ciphers — RSAAA. F. 192.Op.1. D. No. 63; RSL. Dept. cartographer. ed. Ko 10 / VIII-14 .
An administrative large-scale map of Asian Russia -1893 on 13 sheets is of interest for the study. Due to its large scale, the map contains detailed information on the location of geographic objects and the administrative-territorial division of Kazakhstan of the new era: “Administrative large-scale map of Asian Russia” / Compiled by court adviser A.N. Petrovsky. — [Russia, St. Petersburg.], . — 13 sheets: col. Large scale. Ilyin’s cartographic establishment. General geographic map. Scale: 15 versts in English inch. There is a degree grid. Shown: Geographic objects are marked on the map: hydroscheme, mountains, ferries, passes; Roads: postal, caravan, pack, nomadic; Settlements: cities, farms, fords. Roads: military, caravan, nomadic, telegraph, etc. The map shows the administrative boundaries between regions, counties, volosts, the boundaries of cities, settlements, the distribution of Kazakhs, graves, wells, former fortifications, pickets, telegraph lines, post stations, iron smelters, gold deposits, copper and silver mines; Mineral deposits: iron, copper, silver, coal. Archaeological sites. Socio-economic objects: Place of the Tainchikul fair; Wintering near Lake Tarankul; Silver deposit Sergievskoe near the Akchavsky ridge; The Popov Copper Mine to the west of Karasorsky Peak; Alkasorsky copper mine north of Lake Espe — tuz; Popov’s plant (copper smelter, near Lake Telemes-sor); Botovskaya fair near Kuyandinsky peak; Deposits of copper ores near the Siirlinsky peak; The Bogoslovsky mine north of Tleu-tana mountain; Borders are shown on the map. Text: «The map was compiled by the cartographer of the Central Statistical Committee, court adviser A.N. Petrovsky». State of preservation: good. Storage cipher — RSL. Dept. cartographer. ed. Кo 7 / IV-3 .
A certain difficulty in the preparation of the consolidated catalog was caused by cartographic material without publication dates. It was necessary to carry out additional source analysis, which made it possible to establish an approximate dating, relying mainly on the administrative division, the image of fortification lines, fortresses, etc. The RSL has a large number of foreign maps, including those on the history of Kazakhstan. For example: “Sibirien, Turkestan und das jetzige Europaische Russland” / “Red. Von prof. Dr. J.I. Kettler”. — [Germany: 2-te Aufl.Berlin-Glogau, Flemming], [early. XX century]. — 1 sheet: c.v. Printing, paper. Grid, longitude from Greenwich. Scale: 100 km in 1 cm. Shown: Rivers, drying up rivers, dry river beds, elevation and depth marks, sands, swamps, centers of provinces, borders (state and provincial), railways, roadways, telegraph lines; relief shading. State of preservation: good. Storage cipher — RSL. Dept. cartographer. ed. Ki 29 / VI-19 .
Of interest for scientists studying the socio-economic history of Kazakhstan in modern times is the map under the code Ko 15 / I-1. A detailed large-format map shows all livestock routes and locations of veterinary points: “Map of Asian Russia with the designation of railways, livestock routes, veterinary points and quarantines, cattle fairs and routes of veterinary expeditions to Mongolia” / Compiled by V.D. Goryunova, P.G. Kobensky. — [Russia, SPb], . — 1 sheet: multicolor. Printed copy. There is a legend. Scale: in eng. inch 100 versts. Shown: Railways open, under construction, post roads, main directions of movement of livestock, cattle driving, veterinary points, quarantines, fairs indicating the number of sales of heads of cattle, veterinary expeditions, administrative boundaries between regions, settlements, geographical objects, lakes, rivers, mountains. Text: “Publication of the Veterinary Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Chromo — lithograph by V.D. Goryunova, P.G. Kobensky”. State of preservation: good. Storage cipher — RSL. Dept. cartographer. ed. Ko 15 / I-1 .
The identification of cartographic materials of the XVII–early XX centuries on the history of Kazakhstan in the consolidated catalog was carried out in the State Archives of the Orenburg region (SAOR, Orenburg). The main difficulty in working in this archive was the renovation of the building. Therefore, many of the archive’s funds were not available. Nevertheless, as a result of the professional work of the archive’s employees, the cataloging of “old” maps and their scanning was conducted in the archive, which allows efficiently and quickly revealing all the cartographic material on the history of Kazakhstan. Recorded on disk — 66 storage units of cartographic material from fund 124 “Cartographic documents of permanent storage 1759–1918. Orenburg boundary commission of the city of Orenburg, Orenburg province”. The description of cartographic material on the history of Kazakhstan in the XVIII–early XIX centuries was carried out. For example: “Plan of the new Orenburg border line” / Compiled by Pnevsky. — [Russia], . — 1 sheet. color: 137x90. (140x93). Typographic copy. Scale: 25 versts per inch. Shown: Border line, fortresses, outposts, settlements. Hydrography. State of preservation: good. The storage code is SAOO. Form 124. Op. 2. D. 6998 .
Of interest are the maps of the formation of administrative-territorial boundaries: “Outline of the border separating the possession of the Cossacks of the Alabuga detachment of the Orenburg Cossack army from the territory of Western Siberia” /Compiled by Shorokhov. — [Russia], . — 1 sheet. color: 60x40. (62x42). Handwritten copy. Scale: 1 verst in inch. Shown: Border, Alabuga detachment. State of preservation: good. The storage code is SAOO. Form 124. Op. 6. D. 154 .
There are a large number of resettlement cards in fund 124 (SAOO): “Map of the Kustanai district of the Turgai — Ural resettlement region”. / Compiled by Shiryaev. — [Russia], [early. XX]. — 1 sheet. color: 62x81. Typographic copy. Scale: 15 versts per inch. Shown: Rivers, lakes, roads, cities, fortresses, villages, borders. Numbers and names of “Kyrgyz” volosts in the districts of the Turgai and Ural regions. State of preservation: good. The storage code is SAOR. F 124. – Op. 2. – D. 4298 .
Book maps and cartographic materials were found in the Orenburg Regional Universal Scientific Library named after N.K. Krupskaya (ORUSL named after N.K. Krupskaya, Orenburg). The library contains a large number of rare editions, over 13 thousand documents. The collection of local history publications, numbering 16 thousand documents, is of great value. These editions contain book cards that are of great value in the study of the history of Kazakhstan in modern times. Revealed — 40 storage units of book cards on the history of Kazakhstan of the XVII — early XX centuries. The library contains a rare edition “Atlas of the All-Russian Empire: Collection of maps by I.K. Kirilov” (1722–1737), maps from this edition: “Part of the Astrakhan possession and the Kalmyk of the Russian and their tributaries and with them the bordering Bukhara, Khiva and other provinces, even to the Persian and Mongolian possessions and a lake called the Aral Sea and noble rivers and it flowing into and out of it, where in former times the river flowed into the Caspian Sea” / Compiled by I.K. Kirilov. — [Russia, SPb], . — P. 14. — 1 sheet: b/w; 41x50. Etching, cutter. Graduated by Alexey Zubov. Scale 1:5600000. Shown: The outlines of the Aral Sea do not correspond to reality. At the upper reaches of the river. Syr-Darya depicts sands and next to the inscription “Here they take gold from the sand”. The double dashed line depicts the dry channel of the Amu Darya in the swampy floodplain between the Aral and the Caspian seas. The text “The position of the river, which in the old days flowed, along which to this day the trees stand and in places water” has been added. State of preservation: satisfactory. The storage code is OUSLB. A26. 89 (2 Ros) // Atlas of the All-Russian Empire: Collection of maps by I.K. Kirilov. — SPb. — 1722–1737. — 41 p. [26; 14].
Of interest to archaeologists and researchers is a rare book map to the antiquities of the Kyrgyz steppes and the Orenburg region: “Explanatory map to the antiquities of the Kyrgyz steppes and the Orenburg region” / Compiled by M.I. Ivanin. — [Russia], . — 1 sheet: multicolor. Copy. Printing, paper. Scale: 50 versts per inch. Shown: Orenburg province with administrative boundaries and corresponding hydrography. Additional information: From the book “Antiquities of the Orenburg province”: “Along the Iletsky tract on the right side, 60 versts from Orenburg, in a space of ½ verst, there are up to 30 mounds at a distance of 74 – 134 sazhens with sandy and loamy soils of embankments. All these mounds are very small, from 15 to 27 fathoms in circumference and from 1 ½ arshin to 1 ¼ fathoms in height”. State of preservation: satisfactory. The storage code is ORUSL. RF-S-67426. // Antiquities of the Orenburg province. — B.M. — B.G. — 8 p. / Ignatiev R.G. Proceedings of the first archaeological congress in Moscow in 1869. — Vol. 1. — p. 153 [27; 5].
The library contains “Materials on Kyrgyz land use...” with book maps: “Map of the administrative division of the Irgiz district of the Turgai region” / Compiled by the statistical party of the Turgai-Ural Resettlement region. — [Russia, Orenburg], . — 1 sheet: h / w. Copy. Printing, paper. Scale: 80 versts per inch. Shown: 14 volosts and Kazakh clans, their location on the territory of the Irgiz district. Rivers, lakes, settlements, roads, telegraph line. State of preservation: good. The storage code is ORUSL. OR 461 / M34– 9511719 // Materials on Kyrgyz land use, Irgiz district, 1913. Collected and developed by the statistical party of the Turgaysko-Uralsky Resettlement region. — Orenburg: Yakovlev’s printing house. — 1912. — P. 23 [28; 23].
An important condition for the successful preparation of a consolidated catalog of cartographic materials on the history of Kazakhstan of the XVII–early XX centuries is the compilation of a general list of maps. Research is of an intermediate nature. The study continues.
Consolidated catalog of cartographic materials of the XVII–early XX centuries on the history of Kazakhstan provides a capacious and visual material on the evolution of the political and administrative structure, the settlement of the Kazakh population, the dynamics of the formation of settlements, the resettlement movement, the socio-economic situation, etc.
Regularities in the preparation of the consolidated catalog are noted that the cartographic material until the first half of the XIX century is largely comprised of documents — military reconnaissance of the region’s territory, and later, at the end of the XIX century, the results of research expeditions. The volume of cartographic materials increases in the second half of the XIX century, which is naturally associated with the ever-growing geopolitical significance and economic development of the territory of Kazakhstan.
The research recommendations are as follows: When using cartographic materials on the history of Kazakhstan in the XVII–early XX centuries of the consolidated catalog, they should be subjected to source critical analysis, do not treat them as simple illustrations, which is often the case. Due to the fact that they were mainly created by cartographers of the Russian Empire, which pursued a colonial policy in relation to Kazakhstan; The consolidated catalog of cartographic materials can serve as a fundamental scientific tool for research in various areas of the history of Kazakhstan, provide information support for research; Methodological support of the research can be used for cataloging cartographic material in archives and libraries of Kazakhstan; The consolidated catalog and scientific description of cartographic sources and their more active inclusion in local history studies seems to be a promising direction in the process of studying the historical past of Kazakhstan; Scientific research results are of a general nature and can be applied to the analysis of “old” maps for all classifications and directions; The cartographic material accumulated as a result of the research can become a solid basis for creating interactive maps, modeling the processes of the historical past of Kazakhstan, which will make it possible to discover and use information that is not contained in other types of sources; Cartographic materials make it possible to identify the preconditions of the formations, the system of settlement and development of settlements that operated in modern times on the territory of Kazakhstan; So that cartographic works are not lost in the mass of books and periodicals of the library, to increase the demand of readers for atlases and maps available in each library, thereby increasing the return of these publications, it is advisable to single out cartographic works in the unified alphabetical catalog of the library as a special type of print in a separate row of the catalog behind the separator “Cartographic works”.
Thus, the consolidated catalog of cartographic materials on the history of Kazakhstan in the XVII–early XX centuries, prepared as a result of research and scientific search in foreign archives, museums and libraries, will help to generate and use knowledge resources both in the education system and in further research of the scientific community of Kazakhstan.
The article was prepared within the framework of the project on grant financing of the Science Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan IRN No. AR09259247.
- Bender, M.O. (1910). Katalog voenno-uchenogo arkhiva Glavnogo upravleniia Glavnogo shtaba [Catalog of the military- scientific archive of the Main Directorate of the General Staff]. Saint Petersburg [in Russian].
- Bassin, M. (1999). Impeuial Visions: Nationalist Imagination and Geographical Expansion in the Russian Far East, 1840– 1865. York: Cambridge Studies Press.
- Kivelson, V. (2006). Cartographies of Tsardom: the land and its meanings in Seventeenth-Century Russia XIV. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
- Dalman, D. (2009). Siberiten vom16. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart. Munchen: Ferdinand [in German].
- Goldenberg, L.A. (1975). K voprosu o kartograficheskom istochnikovedenii [On the issue of cartographic source study]. Istoricheskaia geografiia Rossii XII v. — nachalа XX v. — Historical geography of Russia XII–early XX century, 217–233 [in Russian].
- Sotnikova, S.I. (1989). Kartograficheskie dokumenty gosudarstvennykh arkhivov: nauchno-spravochnoe posobie [Cartographic documents of the state archives: Scientific reference manual]. Moscow: Glavarhiv SSSR [in Russian].
- Kusov, V.S. (2007). Moskovskoe gosudarstvo XVI v. – nachala XVIII v.: Svodnyi katalog russkikh geograficheskikh chertezhei [The Moscow State of the XVI — early XVIII century: a consolidated catalog of Russian geographical drawings]. Moscow: Russkii mir [in Russian].
- Kationov, O.N. (2012). V poiskakh starykh kart Urala, Sibiri i Dalnego Vostoka [In search of old maps of the Urals, Siberia and the Far East]. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniia — Modern problems of science and education. Retrieved from http://www.science-education.ru/ru/article/view? id=8097 pdf [in Russian].
- Smirnov, N.I. (2018). Razrabotka informatsionnogo web-resursa «Nasledie kartografov Urala serediny XVIII – nachala XX vv.» [Development of an informational web resource «Heritage of cartographers of the Urals of the mid-XVIII — early XX cen- turies»]. Kartografiia i geoinformatika — Cartography and geoinformatics, 3, 115–126 [in Russian].
- Abylkhozhin, Zh.B. (2007). Ocherki po istoriografii i metodologii istorii Kazakhstana [Essays on historiography and methodology of the history of Kazakhstan]. Almaty: Daik-Press [in Russian].
- Erofeeva, I.V. (2011). Geograficheskie karty XVIII veka kak istochnik po istorii, etnologii i istoricheskoi toponimike Kazakhstana [Geographical maps of the XVIII century: as a source on the history, ethnology and historical toponymy of Kazakhstan]. Istoriia Kazakhstana v dokumentakh i materialakh — The history of Kazakhstan in documents and materials], 330 [in Russian].
- Gosudarstvennyi istoricheskii muzei [State Historical Museum]. GO. 5926/1 [in Russian].
- Gosudarstvennyi istoricheskii muzei [State Historical Museum]. GO. 6094/1 [in Russian].
- Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi voenno-istoricheskii arkhiv [Russian State Military Historical Archive]. F. 846. Op. 16. D. 20261 [in Russian].
- Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi voenno-istoricheskii arkhiv [Russian State Military Historical Archive]. F. 846. Op. 16. D. 203000 [in Russian].
- Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi arkhiv drevnikh aktov [Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts]. F. 192. Op. 1. D. 7 [in Russian].
- Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi arkhiv drevnikh aktov [Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts]. F. 192. Op. 1. D. 11 [in Russian].
- Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi arkhiv drevnikh aktov [Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts]. F. 1354. Op. 1. D. 1 [in Russian].
- Rossiiskaia gosudarstvennaia biblioteka [Russian State Library]. Ko. 10 /VIII-14 [in Russian].
- Rossiiskaia gosudarstvennaia biblioteka [Russian State Library]. Ko. 7 / IV-3 [in Russian].
- Rossiiskaia gosudarstvennaia biblioteka [Russian State Library]. Ki. 29 /VI-19 [in Russian].
- Rossiiskaia gosudarstvennaia biblioteka [Russian State Library]. Ko. 15/I-1 [in Russian].
- Gosudarstvennyy arkhiv Orenburgskoy oblasti [The State Archive of the Orenburg region]. F. 124. Op. 2. D. 6998 [in Russian].
- Gosudarstvennyi arkhiv Orenburgskoi oblasti [The State Archive of the Orenburg region]. F. 124. Op. 6. D. 154 [in Russian].
- Gosudarstvennyi arkhiv Orenburgskoi oblasti [The State Archive of the Orenburg region]. F. 124. Op.2. D. 4298[in Russian].
- Orenburgskaia oblastnaia universalnaia nauchnaia biblioteka imeni N.K. Krupskoi [Orenburg Regional Universal Scientific Library named after N.K. Krupskaya]. М. 26. 89. 2 [in Russian].
- Orenburgskaia oblastnaia universalnaia nauchnaia biblioteka imeni N.K. Krupskoi [Orenburg Regional Universal Scientific Library named after N.K. Krupskaya]. RF. Р. 67426 [in Russian].
- Orenburgskaia oblastnaia universalnaia nauchnaia biblioteka imeni N.K. Krupskoi [Orenburg Regional Universal Scientific Library named after N.K. Krupskaya]. Or. 461. M. 34–9511719 [in Russian].