In this article the required base for linguistic study of the formation of the conceptual and terminological apparatus of the tourism sphere was clarified. The development of the terminology system of the tourism sector materialize in the conditions of continuous accumulation and systematic organization of quantitative and qualitative changes related both to the process of lexical updating of the body of terms, as well as to the processes of clarifying concepts and transforming existing definitions of terms under the influence of external socio-cultural and historical-political factors. In the light of the systemic approach, the formation of the conceptual and terminological apparatus of the tourism sector is considered as a complex multidimensional process. Its development is determined by the action of a combination of intra-scientific and inter-scientific factors, reflects the general linguistic laws of development and the specifics of enrichment of the terminology of the tourism sector in the manifestation of signs relevant for all types of systems: hierarchical and structural, integrity and unity, connection with the social and historical-cultural environment of the functioning of the language in the society of its users. Terminological changes characterize the conceptual-terminological apparatus primarily from the side of quantitative savings, in other words, they reflect the process of increasing the composition of terms, which is regarded as an enrichment of the conceptual-terminological apparatus of science. The ongoing study of new tourism terms should show the enriching (or possibly different) nature of these changes.
As a result of possible approaches to the study of terminological problems in terminological studies, the necessary base for linguistic study of the formation of the conceptual and terminological apparatus of the tourism sector was clarified. This kind of analysis is a study of the development of terminology, which consists both in the study in several directions (inventory, systematization, primary ordering of terms, analysis) and in the way the characteristic of empirical material is presented. At the same time, understanding the complexity of the characteristic of terminology and the selected syncretic method of analysis does not exclude methods and methods of analysis known in linguistics, but, on the contrary, involves their synthesis in the methodology of the study.
Linguistic analysis is the method which includes assessing the state of the conceptual-terminological system from the point of view of methodological (meaning) and structural-logical (intra-scientific categorical correlation and systematicity) base, as well as from the point of view of terminology studies (descriptive and normative aspects, linguistic specificity). The peculiarity of the analysis is determined by syncretically both in the method of characterizing the object and in the method of selecting empirical material.
The syncretism of the first is demonstrated in an attempt to combine the named terminology research bases of the analysis, to develop as a necessary aspect of the analysis an assessment of the enrichment of the conceptual and terminological system of the tourism sector from the point of view of the culture of scientific speech.
The syncretism of the second is not only consideration of typical terminological units, but also to transitional units (peripheral, stabilizing, on the way to the status of the term); inclusion in the inventory of not only terms in a fixed state, but also in a functioning state; Expanding the traditionally defined boundaries of the terminology context of tourism through electronic media. For many new terms in the field of tourism, not recorded in the lexicographic literature, but functioning in scientific texts, there is no strict categorical affiliation, so at this stage their inventory and systematization in our work, although they are difficult, represent the first terminology description.
With such an integrated approach, the study is difficult to take into account all possible criteria when describing and analyzing a terminological fact (in many cases, this may not be necessary if a small number of features are sufficient to qualify this fact). But it is obvious that the objectivity of the characteristic of the terminological system can be achieved only from the point of view of linguistic analysis. Since the conceptterminology system is subjected to analysis, which has many interconnected, organized elements, united by the commonality of functions and goals, reflecting the dialectics of empirical and theoretical knowledge, the diversity of relations between developing objects of science, the relationship of science with external phenomena of reality, the method is based on a systemic approach. The development of the terminology system of the tourism sector does not stop, it takes place in the conditions of continuous accumulation and systematic organization of quantitative and qualitative changes related both to the process of lexical updating of the body of terms, as well as to the processes of clarifying concepts and transforming existing definitions of terms under the influence of external socio-cultural and historical-political factors.
In the light of the systemic approach, «the formation of the conceptual and terminological apparatus of the tourism sector is considered as a complex multidimensional process» [1; 19]. Its development is determined by the action of a combination of intra-scientific and inter-scientific factors, reflects the general linguistic laws of development and the specifics of enrichment of the terminology of the tourism sector in the manifestation of signs relevant for all types of systems: hierarchical and structural, integrity and unity, connection with the social and historical-cultural environment of the functioning of the language in the society of its speakers.
Terminological changes characterize the conceptual-terminological apparatus primarily from the side of quantitative savings, in other words, «they reflect the process of increasing the composition of terms, which is regarded as an enrichment of the conceptual-terminological apparatus of science» [2; 36]. The ongoing study of new tourism terms should show the enriching (or possibly different) nature of these changes.
It is important to note that the criterion of «novelty» according to which the selection of the studied units is carried out, is widely understood. With a narrow understanding of novelty, terms characterizing the process of terminological word production fall into the field of view of researchers. The extended interpretation of the novelty of the term makes it possible to distinguish a larger group of terms, which in turn more adequately reflects the diverse process of borrowings of terminology in the field of tourism. In accordance with this, new, firstly, terms are considered that have not previously been noted in scientific use, that is, neologisms, such as a hostel, caravanning, etc. Such terms form the brightest, easily recognized as neologisms and therefore the nuclear group of the terminology studied.
Secondly, the term introduced into terminology as a result of intersystem borrowing is considered new. The sign of the novelty of terms is not an unconditional consequence of the novelty of the word or phrase itself. The new term may be a component of other scientific terminology. Its novelty is determined by the intensification of usage in the language. So there was a borrowing of many socio-political, philosophical, cultural, psychological, economic and other terms. There is no formal artificial separation of this process, specific only for this branch of knowledge, although when using general scientific vocabulary and terminology of other scientific disciplines, we can talk about partial professional conceptualization, about partial change in the meaning of terms, their adaptation to solving problems in the system of professional research.
Results and Discussion
Among the most important thematic groups of the terminology studied are the following:
I. Names of forms and types of tourism (for example, educational tourism, environmental tourism, business tourism, religious tourism, extreme tourism, sustainable tourism, gastronomic tourism, virtual tourism, e-tourism, intensive tourism, cross-border tourism, pilgrimage tour, caravanning, tour realism, etc.).
For example, ecological tourism (or environmentally and socially responsible tourism) is now understood as a form of tourism associated with visiting natural areas unaffected by anthropogenic effects; Responsible travel to natural zones, areas that preserve the environment and support the well-being of local residents: Environmental tourism can be done by whole families so that children from a young age realize that they should not be consumer about the world in which they live (http://rustur.ru).
Compare: definitions of terms of this group, presented in special dictionaries of the latest period: virtual tourism is a type of activity of individuals and legal entities that organize or make virtual tours; Cross-border tourism is a type of tourism activity based on the development of tourism infrastructure, the organization and conduct of routes through cross-border territory, which is an important mechanism for the development of international relations and strengthening economic cooperation; caravanning (эрвинг, RVing from the English. recreational vehicle) — car tourism, car travel; pilgrimage tourism is a type of religious tourism performed by believers of different faiths in holy places.
Compare: The functioning of terms in the modern Russian tourist discourse: In the tourism industry, virtual tours of commercial facilities are in great demand: hotels, car dealerships, clubs, restaurants (http://esperanto-plus.ru); The purpose of cross-border tourism is not only to enjoy the scenery but also to think about relations with neighboring countries (https://worldpics.pro); In Russia, caravanning, car travel using caravan trailers or auto houses, unlike the West, is just beginning to win over its supporters (http://autocamper.ru); The pilgrimage tour service will help you choose a suitable trip — monasteries and other sacred places in Russia and abroad (www.radonez.ru).
II. Designations of concepts that refer to the peculiarities of the organization of tourism infrastructure.
As part of this, the most extensive terminology group in the recent period of the development of the Russian language, there are terminology units of the following thematic subgroups:
denote the concepts of transport support of the tourism industry and their features (for example, air fare, air carrier, charter flight, regular flight, hub, cruise ship, shuttle service, high-speed super-express, REX/APEX tariff; travel package «plane/car,» «train/car,» bus of the semi-tourist class, cruise ship of the third generation, inter-rail, low-cost airline, boarding pass, service according to the formula «euro-knight,» etc.).
Compare: definitions of the terms of this group, presented in special dictionaries of the latest period: airfare is the cost of transporting one passenger on an aircraft for a certain distance; flat air fare — fare with a fixed price of air tickets, which does not depend on the date of purchase and season, it is valid throughout the year; An inter-rail travel ticket system for travel without restrictions for a certain period; Low-cost airline offering extremely low fares in exchange for the abandonment of most traditional passenger services; hub is hub airport, which has a high percentage of connecting flights.
Compare: the functioning of terms in the modern Russian tourist discourse: Aeroflot Airlines and its subsidiary Russia carry out passenger transportation at flat rates (https://www.biletik.aero); The ticket allows unlimited travel by rail, and some analogue of such a travel document can be an inter-rail «(http://guide.travel.ru); Low cost is a new direction in the Russian air business, the main goal of which is to reduce costs and make flights cheap (https://loukosterov.ru/).
names of the accommodation systems of users of tourist services and their specifics (for example, apart hotel, boutique hotel, club hotel, congress hotel, bungalow, apartments, boarding house, villa, cabana, timeshare hotel, suite, hostel, room release time, family room, hotel location line, room stock, public/private beach, parking, late arrival, etc.).
Compare: An apart hotel is a hotel in which rooms consist of apartments, according to the design of apartments close to modern apartments where there are places for cooking: «…an apartment in an apartment hotel is something between a hotel room and rented apartments: you have the opportunity to feel independently, but at the same time you can count on a certain level of service (https://touristas.academic.ru); room-apartment room in the hotel, providing the possibility of convenient accommodation for a long period; Congress hotel is a type of business class hotel with conference and meeting rooms: Congress hotels have a developed infrastructure: on their territory there are pools, playgrounds, gyms, etc. (https://hotel-inn.ru/); hostel is inexpensive hotel of European format: «Many hostels have opened in Russia, offering comfortable and budget accommodation options for vacationers (http://comfitel.ru); suite — a hotel room of increased comfort and improved layout: «Spacious suites with all the amenities are suitable for family holidays and romantic weekends. Marble bathroom and fitness corner with sauna will allow you to really relax (https://www.lungarnocollection.com); cabana is separate house on the shore or beach; bungalow -one-story house for one family, often with a flat roof and a vast verandah: A magnificent complex of bungalows, living in which guarantees guests unforgettable experiences, is located on the seashore (https://www.ayurtour.ru); a water bungalow type of hotel building, characteristic of island and beach resort regions, providing romantic recreation due to nature (usually located on piles directly in the water, near the coast (http://actravel.ru/).
names of phenomena and concepts from the food sphere of international tours (for example, English breakfast, continental breakfast, full board, half board, accommodation without meals, European plan, dutyfree, mini-bar, a la carte service, a party menu, tableau, catering, lobby bar, snack bar, etc.).
Compare: a duty-free is duty-free shop: A duty-free shop is synonymous with a profitable purchase: the location of such shops in the airport saves them from paying duties, which makes it possible to offer expensive brands at low prices (https://34travel.com); Lobby bar — a bar located on the first floor of the hotel, not far from the administrator's desk: «In a cozy lobby bar you can always relax, read fresh press, have a business meeting or enjoy a cup of aromatic coffee» (https://hotelvidgof.ru); The «a part» menu is a method of serving a guest, which involves servicing on a pre-order within a set period of time; often found in holiday homes and resort hotels: «We will offer you our own menu option (a la carte, a parta), carefully listen and carefully fulfill your wishes» (https://amici-grandhotel.ru); Table d'hote — a method of serving guests at the same time and on the same menu: «The table d'hote method helps speed up guest service: first, drinks, bread, buns, cold snacks are put on plates in small portions, the rest of the dishes are served in European» (www.new-hotel.ru); American breakfast, usually including muesli, buns, eggs, cheese and/or sausage cuts, sausages, pancakes, omelette; English breakfast including juice, ham eggs, toast, butter, jam and coffee or tea; continental breakfast light breakfast consisting of coffee or tea, juice, buns, butter and jam; catering — on-site customer service; snack bar — the small cafe offering the choice of snack.
- Designations of the concepts of information and excursion support for international tourism (for example, attractions, excursions, leisure animation, hotel animation, animated tourist route, American roulette, theme park, Disneyland, aquarium, zoo, water park, etc.): aqua park- water park with attractions, water slides, swimming pools: Water parks in Russia appeared at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries. The water park is currently a huge entertainment complex with various slides and water attractions, SPA zones and restaurants. Here you can exercise or relax (http://akva-gid.ru/); Hotel Animation -Hotel leisure: Hotel Animation offers a wide variety of opportunities for relaxation (http://www.arfa-hotel.ru); theme park — a recreation and entertainment center located on the same territory: Theme parks in the modern world are a favorite place for families with children, fans of extreme attractions and those who want to raise their mood, forgetting about gray everyday life (https://www.tourister.ru).
- names of the phenomena of the sphere of documentary providing (e.g., the agency contract, the tourist voucher, the customs declaration, traveler's checks, the card of arrival, the combined ticket, the visa, the previsa, the tourist certificate, the gift tourist certificate, the boarding pass, the visa, the Schengen visa and etc.): the combined ticket- the ticket for a trip with use of several vehicles (for example, the plane train, the train bus, etc.): The idea of selling combined train-aircraft tickets, which is used in European countries, has also been applied in us, in Russia (https://www.kids-in-trips.ru); previsa — a simplified visa, which is issued within one working day in electronic form: «Entry to some countries is possible if there is a anticipation issued online» (www.asiavc.ru); a gift tourist certificate, an official gift document certifying the owner's rights to travel services; An arrival card completed by the tourist upon arrival in another country and presented at the border checkpoint; Schengen visa is a single visa, which makes it possible to freely move around the territory of the Schengen countries during the validity of the visa: Now, thanks to the Schengen visa, it is not necessary to obtain many different visas to visit a large number of countries; boarding pass card issued to passengers on air and sea lines, which they are required to hand over to the control service during boarding.
- Designations of organizers and participants in tourism activities:
- the nominations of the subjects which are carrying out activity in the sphere of tourism (e.g., the hotel guide, the dayv-guide, tour operator, the travel agent, tourist agency, travel company, travel agency, host, a reception, the tourist's broker, the manager-animator, the performer of tourist services, the contractor, the tourism manager, the supervisor of travel agency and excursions, the methodologist — the guide, hotel corporation, etc.).
Compare: definitions of the terms of this group, presented in special dictionaries of the latest period: the receiving party is an organization that receives tourists who arrived at the place of rest; Reception room in the hotel for reception, check-in and registration of guests, as well as execution of various kinds of assignments of hotel guests; Tourism manager specialist providing development of tours and organization of tourist services on tourist routes; tourism manager specialist involved in the organization, planning and conduct of tourist trips of clients; dive guide — diver instructor who conducts an underwater excursion.
Compare: The functioning of terms in the modern Russian tourist discourse: «When a foreign citizen is placed in a hotel, the hotel administration is the host for him» (https://www.sunmar.ru/info-pamyatki/); The word reception means an administrative area, or registration area, which includes a reception counter and reception area: The main obligation of the reception employees to meet guests and take care of their accommodation (http://hotelpedia.ru); Requirements for the tourism manager: sociability, the highest stress resistance, the ability to solve unforeseen problems in a short time without getting out of the work schedule (http://actravel.ru); Dive Guide conducts dive planning and gives instructions before diving. He knows where and when the highest chance is to see sharks, where to find the current or how to avoid it, as well as where to lead newcomers and experienced divers (http://actravel.ru).
naming users of tourist services (e.g., tourist, individual tourist, diver, ecotourist, cruise passenger, caravan, skipper; FIT-tourist (English Foreign Independent Traveler «foreign independent traveler»), business class passenger, etc.).
Compare: Eco tourist — one who is engaged in environmental tourism: monitoring natural objects and phenomena and communication with nature: Altai has long become a pilgrimage site for eco tourists, where mountains and coniferous forests, serene lakes and stormy mountain rivers amaze pristine beauty (http://rustur.ru/); If you like to travel, but would like to leave behind the trace of the discoverer, and not the «carbon footprint,» then use the rules of the eco tourist (https://lifehacker.ru); Caravaner — one who travels by caravan: Having a trailer-cottage, you can plan a trip to any state; at the same time, the cost of leisure in the style of caravans is equated with travel in Russia; skipper guest who left, leaving an unpaid check; FIT- tourist — individual tourist: The service of booking tickets to theaters, concerts and sports events significantly expands the boundaries of the potential FIT — tourist (www.interpares.ru); diver scuba diver, man diving with scuba diving.
Names of activities of the tourism industry participants and their specifics.
In the composition of this terminology group there are verbal signs belonging to subgroups:
nominations of the main events and services provided in the field of international tourism (for example, charter chain, congress tour, shop tour, package tour, group inclusive tour, advertiser (study tour), trekking, tubing, yachting, dive safari, photo safari, pre-registration, transfer, all inclusive (English all-inclusive), etc.)
Compare: the definitions of terms of this group presented in special dictionaries of the latest period: the charter chain (charter chain) a type of a charter at which the chartered plane arrives to point of the beginning of charter transportations and from this point makes charter flights to one or several destinations according to the scheme «there and back»; dive safari (diving safari, diving safari) safari, organized to visit places remote from the shore and/or ports for diving; daily diving, or daytime diving, is a version of a dive package consisting, as a rule, of two dives, in which the dive sites are reached by delivering a diver from the shore (in flippers), on a motorboat or on a ship; tubing -riding from a mountain on car chambers; A package tour - comprising at least two tourist services; trekking hiking in rough terrain.
Compare: The functioning of terms in the modern Russian tourist discourse: The execution of the charter chain assumes that tourists should have a return ticket (https://profi.travel) on hand when they go on vacation; A trip to the advertising tour is a great opportunity to appreciate... We have selected the best advertisers for you this year! (https://r-express.ru); if you are the one for whom dive safari is new, you used to dive only in daily diving mode. Then this information will be useful to you (http://www.chocolate-tour.ru); One of the advantages of daily diving is that the client lives in a hotel and can fully enjoy the color of the country (https://opensea.ru).
names of technologies, receptions and methods on formation, advance and realization of a tourist product (e.g., advance of complex tourist services, tourist marketing, tourism management, management of hospitality, management of a tur operating, tourist's-management, tourist's computer science, diversification of a tourist product, search of the new tourist directions, the system of cheap air passenger traffic, financial leasing, etc.).
Compare: definitions of the terms of this group, presented in special dictionaries of the latest period: promotion of the tourist product a set of measures aimed at the sale of the tourist product; tourism marketing — a system of continuously offered services in the recreation market in order to profit the tourist enterprise and meet the needs of its customers; marketing of holiday destinations throughout the country or region, combining a system of market research tools and advertising methods in the fight for customers who have a wide choice of vacation destinations; diversifying the tourism product into a wide variety of tours that meet the needs of even the smallest market segments; tour management is a specialized section of tourism management, the purpose of which is to organize wholesale trade in tours and retail sales; hospitality management is part of tourism management, ensuring the integrity of the tourist service process; tour management system of measures aimed at solving the issues of tour operators activity management in the tourism business and relations of tour operators with tourism service manufacturers, travel agents and tourists.
- designation of the characteristics of the activities of tour operators and travel agents (for example, cancellation of the tour, confirmation of booking, double booking, registration of a passport, conclusion of medical insurance contracts, tourist service, stopping of sales of the tour, service with the help of companies assistant, tourist exhibition, transfer, meeting and wires, etc.): cancellation of the tour -termination of the contract by the tourist organization in the presence of force majeure circumstances preventing the tour or provision double booking confirmation of booking to additional groups or individual tourists; tourist marketing event associated with the demonstration of a new tourist product by tour operators; sales stop — no available rooms in the hotel according to the quota that the hotel allocated to the tour operator; tourism service is the result of the activity of the tourism enterprise to meet the tourist needs of tourists; transfer transport of the tourist inside the tourist center; Meeting and staging in tourism: a set of services provided to tourists when they are delivered from the train station, from the airport or seaport to the hotel and back.
- Names of international tourism resources:
- names of natural and climatic resources (for example, low season, dead season, peak season, seasonality, thalassotherapy, landscape therapy, climatotherapy, riviera, fjords, skerries, national park, reserve, thermal waters, balneological resort, etc.).
Compare: definitions of the terms of this group, presented in special dictionaries of the latest period: the peak of the season is the period of the busiest rest place, characterized by maximum prices; dead season period of least attendance by tourists of a certain region; thalassotherapy health treatments using seawater and algae properties; balneological resort treatment and restoration of the body with the help of water procedures: «Rest in balneological resorts has long been deservedly popular. To come to a medical resort is always nice and useful, because in this case you can combine rest with useful medical procedures «(http://travel.vesti.ru); Climatotherapy uses climatic-weather factors for therapeutic and preventive purposes: Climatotherapy can be considered a type of recreational tourism. It is known that the climate has a positive effect on the human body (http://the-portal.ru).
- names of historical and cultural resources (for example, pyramid, monument, carnival, museum program, etc.),
- names of socio-economic resources (for example, investments, creation of special economic zones, high threshold for entering the industry of international tourism, etc.),
- names of information resources (e.g. computer reservation system, online booking, e-travel, dynamic price list; 3D check-in; 3D hotel models; interactive flight map; self-service sensor terminals, etc.).
Compare: Definitions of the terms of this group, presented in the journalistic discourse of the latest period: 3D registration for the flight system for choosing a seat on board the aircraft from the moment the ticket is issued directly on the tour operator's website (https://www.bg.market); interactive flight map -map showing the online movement of aircraft. This interactive map allows you to independently monitor the flight in real time, while you can scale it and monitor the movement of the aircraft online (http://www.kassodrom.ru). 3D Hotel model — an online operation that allows you to choose a hotel, room and necessary services (https://www.librahospitality.com); Dynamic Price List — A price list that displays the actual cost of the tour based on demand and availability (http://bstur.ru/searchtur/).
As the analysis of the actual material showed, most of the terms of this thematic subgroup have not been fixed in existing tourist dictionaries, which is explained by their very high level of novelty.
Designations of forms, methods and principles of state regulation of activities in the field of tourism (for example, licensing, certification of a tourist product, commission agreement, charter agreement, passenger transportation contract, holiday and travel insurance, financing, tax regulation, federal law, target program, etc.).
Compare: definitions of the terms of this group, presented in special dictionaries of the latest period: commission contract — a tourist contract, according to which one party undertakes, on behalf of the other party, to make one or more transactions; Passenger contract of carriage — a contract between the tour operator and the carrier, according to which the carrier undertakes to transport the passenger and his baggage to the destination; charter agreement — (1) a document defining the terms and conditions of employment of a ship or aircraft; 2) a contract under which one party undertakes to provide the other party with a vehicle for the carriage of passengers and baggage for a fee; Leave and travel insurance, with a variety of risks that may arise during the leave period.
The analysis showed that most borrowings of the term system «tourism» go through two stages of adaptation to the Russian language system: «entry» into the receiving language (phonetic and graphic level) and the actual development of the borrowed term by the receiving language (semantic level). Summing up the lexical and semantic analysis of tourist terminology, it should be noted that, on the one hand, it is at the lexical level that a more mature state of English terminology of the tourism sector and the emerging state of Russian is observed. On the other hand, recently there is a tendency to parallelism in the lexical and semantic processes of English and Russian languages. Most clearly, this «mirror reflection» is manifested in the methods of semantic derivation and borrowing. Thus, it can be stated that tourism terminology is characterized by the internationality of its components, which is primarily due to the globalization processes that led to the convergence of conceptual and terminological systems, that is, to the emergence of some common part of the terminological vocabulary for both languages.
Of course, the thematic groups listed in the terminology of tourism are very different in terms of content and significance, as well as in the nature of the terminology units that make up them.
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