The author's conception on a historical personality in Nurlan Sanzhar's novel «The Unexpected Guest – Jochi»

This article examines the author's conception on the historical personality. The material of the research is the novel «The Unexpected Guest – Jochi» by the modern Kazakh writer Nurlan Sanzhar. Moreover, the image of a historical character, given by the author from the perspective of a modern person, was also analyzed. It can be noted that the writer was able to show his era, the nature of that society through the image of a historical character. The plot of the novel is centered at the historical time and focuses on the images of people of that time. These images are caused by the very course of history, they are shown vividly and convincingly through the fate of Turkic women, their children, brought up in the traditions of the steppe life. And these people express the idea of their time and environment. Particular attention is paid to the author's skill in revealing the character of a historical person. For this purpose, the writer has studied history, social relations, the circumstances that influenced the formation of the character of the central image of Jochi. Through the individual fate of Jochi, his mother and grandmother the author shows a difficult period in the history of the Kazakh steppe in times of tragedy.


The concept of a historical personality in fiction is a multifaceted category. First of all, it is reflected in the author's interpretation of the character of a historical person, in the relationship between artistic truth and the truth of history. The study of the concept of personality, which has developed in the literature, contributes to understanding the reasons for the deficit of morality and spirituality, which are gaining relevance today.

The idea of the author's conception should be considered on a much broader scale than the way of understanding and the system of views on personality. In a work of art we find a reflection of the author's position, his worldview, and his understanding of the historical personality. The author's point of view is presented from the position of a person of another time, in which not only historical reality is transformed, but the specifics of the view of a modern person. Not only an important role is played by the subjective system of views of the author, but also by a feature of the traditional literary concept.

A person in a historical novel act as a subject of history, as the main way of self-development of life, and his attitude towards himself, towards people, towards the humanity testifies the attitude of the individual towards the history, which he embodies and creates for others.

The author of the novel, creating the concept of a historical personality, relies not only on facts of past times, but he also studies a specific social type of personality that expresses the characteristic features of a historical reality. At the same time, an important role is played by the writer's artistic vision from the point of view of the present day. And this position adjusts the further development and deployment of the internal laws of the artistic image.

Material and research methods

The material for this study was the novel by the modern Kazakh writer Nurlan Sanzhar «The Unexpected Guest – Jochi». The place of the personality in history, its principles, activities, appearance and its artistic re-creation are associated with the uniqueness of the author's concept. Each image is the result of artistic generalization. The writer, reflecting the past, having studied the psychology, behavior, aspiration, worldview of a historical person, on this basis creates the concept of the character of his hero. Through his-

Corresponding author’s e-mail: torical events, we learn not only the biography of a historical person, but also the character and his worldview.

The author of a novel, talking about the past in depicting a person as a subject of historical reality, must find that artistic truth that does not contradict the historical truth, and carries the truth of images already known to history, but created according to the laws of art.

The main methods of research are as follows: the comparative historical method of analyzing literary phenomena, the forms of psychological, philosophical analysis. The methods of analysis are based on the tradition of the complex study of literature.

Research results

The history of the literature is the history of the representation of human character. Each historical period is characterized by a certain concept of a person, which explains the diversity of the content aspects of the artistic character. And depending on his ideological and artistic concept, the writer identifies and emphasizes certain facets of human existence. Therefore, the image of a person is the main object of a work of fiction, and the concept of a historical personality is one of the most important problems for a novel about the past.

The writer, digging deeply into the essence of the social contradictions of the era, sets the task of reflecting the history of the people in concrete historical images that would carry the characteristic features of the era and objectively represent the main trends of the historical process. Each artistic image in the novel, having in most cases its specific prototype, is to one degree or another typical, endowed with characteristic social features and, accordingly, expresses certain interests. Here the author's speculation goes in line with his concept of history, which gives the novel a special ideological clarity and integrity.

While creating the artistic concept of the character in the novel «The Unexpected Guest – Jochi» Nurlan Sanzhar simultaneously creates the concept of the historical person. The writer with historical accuracy and artistic truthfulness recreates the integral structure of the personality with its philosophical-social and moralspiritual world in complex dialectical connections with the era.

An integrated concept of personality with real and fictional shades of human nature and life activity carries an artistic character, it is always richer and more meaningful than any vivid prototype or individual. This is where the incredibly difficult and multifaceted work of the writer in creating artistic characters lies. «The emerging artistic character», writes S.G. Bocharov, “is not just a generalized, «typified» real life character, it is a new character, similar to those who really exist. Generalization and cognition here goes by different way than it happens when the corresponding sciences are engaged in human characters — psychology and sociol- ogy» [1; 316].

N. Sanzhar reveals the multifaceted personality of the protagonist of the novel as a historically conditioned set of vivid human properties, moral, psychological and social traits. Jochi's character develops, moves and enriches in a variety of life situations, discovering new sides. The writer depicts facts from the life of the hero of the novel, its conflicts, highlighting the most essential, focusing on the main, the most important in order to give a vivid idea of Jochi's character in full accordance with the principle of historicism. Faithful reflection of the main facts and events plays an important role in determining the artistic meaning of the novel. Genuine historicism finds its expression in an artistically meaningful interdependent connection between the history and the man. Academician S.S. Kirabaev measures the basic concept of the novel, its ideological power by the depth and effectiveness of the character revealed in the work [2; 18].

The creation of the Kazakh Khanate dates back to 1465, but this history dates back to the period of Chingis Khan. Jochi, the eldest son of Genghis Khan, fell in love with the Kypchak steppe and later laid the foundation for the first Kazakh ulus here. With all his activities on the lands of Sary-Arka, deeply believing in the idea of founding a new state of Ak Orda, he called on all the clans of Sary-Arka to unite: «Announce in auls», he said quietly to everyone. — I collect all the clans of the Turks: Kypchaks, Argyns, Naimans, Zhalaiirs and Kaa-Saks of my ulus for the Kurultai on the Kengir River... Sygnak was destroyed and plundered. We will lay a new city on the Irtysh of our Ak Orda...» [3; 218].

Despite his individual exclusivity, Jochi is a typical character, and his image in the novel is multifaceted. The hero is shown in various situations: in battles, at the reception of Genghis Khan, in a conversation with his mother Borte, among his soldiers, in communication with his younger brother Chagatai. The image of Jochi was created in full accordance with the historical truth. He is shown as a talented and a fair commander, a brave warrior with a courageous, impulsive, strong-willed character, as well as a sensitive and gentle son. Jochi is a man of his era.

The artistic concept of personality represents the evolution of a person's worldview. In the process of creative recreation of personality, the writer depicts a person not dogmatically, but in development, against the background of changes in his environment. The artistic concept of personality sets in motion the entire system of images in a work, determines its genre, plot and composition, and the artistic interpretation of facts is organically linked to the principle of historicity. The writer aesthetically evaluates the image of the protagonist, seeks to determine his place in history. The hero of the novel is a person who made a significant contribution to the history of the Kazakh people, who gained their sovereign territory during the time of the Golden Horde. Recreating the history of society in development with all its progressive political shifts, the author of the novel simultaneously reproduced the real historical basis, with which the formation and development of Jochi's personality was associated. The author, referring to the historical theme, choosing the period of the founding of the Kazakh ulus, reflects the events of the era through the fate of people. These people with their specific social and individual characteristics become an aesthetic material for expressing the spirit of the times.

Recreating the history of development of the Kazakh people in N. Sanzhar also reproduced the real historical situation with which the formation of Jochi's personality was associated. The writer set himself the task of comprehensively showing his era, the nature of society through the image of Jochi Khan. The image of a historical personality is at the center of the plot of the novel and is generally determined by the very course of history, which can be shown vividly and convincingly only through the fate of individual people — the hero of the novel and other representatives of his generation.

The writer's striving for a historically accurate reproduction of the era is due to the task of selecting the factual material that N. Sanzhar used when working on the novel. In the selection of historical material, in the work on recreating the appearance of a historical character one can clearly see the artist's desire to highlight only those phenomena or features of a historical personality that were characteristic of him as an exponent of the progressive trends of that time. «History compels people to perform the most varied and by no means always characteristic actions, while literature only makes them characteristic. Therefore, the writer introduces into the work not every history, not every life, facts confirming his correctness, from history and life» writes A. Belinkov [4; 161].

In the novel, facts play a primary role, they are important for determining the evolution of a character, revealing the inner world of a historical character. Nurlan Sanzhar does not introduce just any facts into the novel. They are carefully selected by the writer; this depends primarily on the actions of the hero, his role in the work. And in the process of interpreting historical facts the author shows his attitude towards the hero. Depicting the events of the period of the conquests of Genghis Khan, the writer gives his understanding, expresses his point of view on this story.

Facts play a huge role in depicting the character traits of this historical person, and help in revealing the psychology of a historical character. However, the historical facts themselves, passing into the fabric of the work, are subject to artistic change. In a historical work the artistic reconstruction of facts and images is the main task facing the writer. The processing of historical facts with an individuality inherent in each artist is a manifestation of artistic interpretation. The writer resurrects history, connects the ideals of the past with the laws of the life of the society in which he lives.

There is a lot of documentary evidence about Genghis Khan's campaigns (the works of Ata-Melik Juveini, Rashid ad-Din, Guillaume de Rubruk and others), but N. Sanzhar had almost no information about the fate of Jochi on the Kypchak land. The writer is very critical of the historical documents reflecting the life and work of Jochi; he tries not only to identify individual reliable strokes, but also to creatively transform them. When comparing contradictory documents, the historical novelist needs, as A. Tolstoy wrote, to cultivate «a special historical «instinct» that develops in practice» [5; 496]. S. Zlobin also paid special attention to this specific difficulty of artistic interpretation of facts in his work on a historical novel: «It is worth tremendous efforts from variant to variant to work on the selection of facts, to replace the literal accuracy of the fact with a generalized artistic image, replace the chronological sequence of events with a transformed plot structure, the whole book is the look and essence of the historical novel» [6; 53].

The historical personality and the problem of his image occupy a special place in the work of Nurlan Sanzhar. At the beginning of the novel, the author tells about Turkic women — the great mothers Oyan and Borte, violent ethnogenesis between the Caucasian and Mongoloid races, orphaned warriors brought up on the commandment «ana tili». On the pages of the novel, we become witnesses of the history of Jochi's birth, his maturity. The author traces his path from birth to the formation of a military leader and founder of Ak Orda. Although all the episodes reflecting the details of Jochi's personal life are undoubtedly the author's fiction, nevertheless they serve to reveal the character of Jochi, to express the author's concept of a historical personality. The writer recreates the process of the formation and improvement of character under the influence of circumstances, supplementing it with the evolution of the worldview in relation to time, which makes the artistic transmission of the dialectic of character complete. If the mother of Turkic origin played an important role in the upbringing of Jochi, historical circumstances influenced on his formation as a historical personality. With the change of time his worldview, attitude to life, understanding of what was happening changed. It is no coincidence that the writer describes the strong impression that the picture of the massacre of the Khoja near the town of Sygnak makes on Jochi: «Zhoshi is stunned. The picture of the massacre of a holy man is terrible» [3; 187]. And, trying to understand the world around him, to comprehend it with his soul, he wants independence and admits this to his mother: «I want to live on my own — without overlords from above... I want to break the ulus here» [3; 188]. Jochi clearly understands that it is impossible to live in war, subjecting entire people to cruel violence, and he connects his future fate with the fertile land and its people.

In the novel the writer showed the formation of the historical personality of Jochi. In this, a psychologically deep image of his inner world plays an essential role. In the image of the hero of the novel, the social and the personal are inseparable, the social appears in the personal, is refracted through the hero's personal perception of life, and at the same time, people's problems determine their mood and feelings. Jochi's attitude to social events, everyday facts and facts of his personal life is emotionally colored in different ways and creates an idea of the richness of the hero's inner world. Jochi, gradually delving into the essence of the problems of the Kypchak steppe, began to realize his role as a ruler.

Revealing the role of the social environment, psychological and legal aspects of the personality, the writer attaches no less importance to the spiritual quest of the hero, his desires (he dreamed of founding his independent state — Ak Orda). And Borte's speech expresses the position of the deep-thinking Jochi: «The time of barbarism is coming to an end... This is true. It is impossible to continue living by robbery and cruel violence. You have to live differently. But how? The mother loves children, the ruler must honor his people» [3; 190].

The character of the protagonist is revealed in the novel primarily through his perception of the world around him, through relationships with other people. The writer shows Jochi's meetings with his mother, with the sovereign, with his brother, with warriors and the common people artistically vividly and concretely. After going through a series of life trials, having matured and strengthened spiritually, he realized that the strength and significance of the people lies in the valor of its simple warriors — the Kaa-Saks.

Putting his hero in the position of a real face, the writer makes sure that the hero behavior corresponds to his character, serves his disclosure: «And Zhoshi was distinguished by his sober mind and a kind smile on his dark Mongolian face. He matured and turned into a real warrior and commander» [3; 165]. The episode of the siege of Sygnak is of great importance in recreating the character of Jochi. A keen mind, moral purity made it possible not only to understand the low nature of the younger brother, but also to be condescending to the antics of a loved one.

Artistically and vividly, the writer shows the meeting of Jochi with Khosan-Khoja. Jochi's conviction that people are ready to die for their homeland is growing: «People's lives have meanings of life, mother. What is it? We do not know this... Why do the inhabitants of Sygnak agree to die for their Motherland? Not for booty, not for cattle, not for gold and slaves! They went to their deaths for their Motherland!» [3; 189].

The study of artistic character in literature is associated with the problem of the concept of man. The author's concept of the hero in the novel is presented in the depiction of real historical events; it is also determined by its specific national identity. Attention to the national characteristics of his heroes is mandatory for the artist, since «if an artist depicts people in his work, then each of them must belong to a known nation and to a certain era, because a person, outside of nationality, is not a real being but an abstract concept» [7; 642]. Jochi's character is a product of the social environment and life circumstances, as well as a nationally defined phenomenon. Closely, scrupulously examining the gradual accumulation of new qualities in the character and psychology of the protagonist of the novel, N. Sanzhar generalizes the phenomenon of time in this image. Recognizing familiar traits of national character in Jochi, such as nobility and courage, we notice new facets here. The pathos of Jochi's character determines the search for the meaning of the motherland, the native land. Not only cruel people live around Jochi, but also people who personify the best spiritual qualities of the people. These are the wise mother Borte, the noble grandmother Oyan, the courageous Akbala, the pious Khosan-Khoja.

Nurlan Sanzhar reveals the traits in the characters of the heroes through their worldview and attitude to the environment. He creates a character according to his view of the world, penetrates into his psychology. The writer, striving for a comprehensive portrayal of characters, does not show his heroes at once and in more than one plan. The author constantly introduces the characters of the novel and deepens the character of the protagonist with each new meeting. As a result, the character of the historical person appears in its entirety and versatility. And the character most clearly expresses some individual common human traits.

Recreating the character of a historical person in the image of Jochi, the author embodied in him the best features, such as courage, nobility, kindness, and straightforwardness. At the same time, the writer does not modernize his hero, preserves in him the spirit and concepts of his social environment and historical reality.

Many times Kazakh literature has shown its aspiration to portray a strong hero, persistent in achieving goals, with a high degree of human dignity. Undoubtedly, this character reflects the peculiarity of the psychology of the people who found themselves at the crossroads of history, subjected to long-term invasions. N. Sanzhar showed the life of the steppe people who found themselves in a difficult situation. And the people had to unite around their state, defend their independence, preserve the possibility of national and cultural development. The world of a Kazakh nomad, who grew up in the vast expanses of his native steppe, was concentrated in the center of the life of the steppe. This feature of life left an imprint on the uniqueness of the psychology of the heroes Oyan and Borte, as well as on Jochi, who absorbed the best features of the Turkic people with his mother's milk. Important features of the Kazakh national character are manifested in him: endurance, perseverance and vitality. The difficult historical fate of the people could not but affect the formation of the national character of the protagonist of the novel.

The writer portrays a person who, by virtue of his outlook and human duty, honestly serves the ruler Genghis Khan. As the leader of the detachment, he takes part in military campaigns. The talented and smart Jochi understood the policy of the ruler well, but he saw no point in living in war and made the only right decision. Revealing the formation of Jochi's character, his worldview, the author shows his hero in action, from the moment the idea of establishing an ulus was born and the first steps to implement his idea of founding a new state. This approach to reproducing the appearance of an outstanding personality was the only correct one, since it makes it possible to most accurately represent her life as a reflection of the historical era. The writer's attention is drawn not only to external facts and events in Jochi's life, but also to his inner world, his experiences and feelings associated with the image of his homeland: «What is Homeland? Is this my kibitka?» [3; 189].

The character of the protagonist is revealed not only in action, but also in intense reflections on the meaning of life, on the interconnection of his fate with the fate of Sary-Arka, with the life of a people new to him.

The author's concept of the historical personality of Jochi in the novel coexists with the problem of the social environment, its circumstances and events, with mutual influence of which the character of the protagonist moves. For the depth of the image of the truth of life, undoubtedly, the skill of creating human characters, revealing the features of the character's inner appearance through specific actions and deeds, is of great importance. The writer is characterized by the ability to show the spiritual world of the hero, his inner state, the innermost movements of the soul with extraordinary force of persuasiveness. This can be clearly seen in the following example, which contains the author's explanation combined with Jochi's inner monologue. The writer's description of social reality is combined with an attempt to reveal the inner world of the protagonist. The author shows the impact of external events on the mental structure and behavior of the hero, as a result of which the character develops in accordance with its internal laws and depending on the circumstances. The images of the characters in the novel, put face to face with history, are outlined primarily from the point of view of ethical qualities. The inner appearance of the hero is especially vividly expressed in his actions, in his struggle for the ideas of a new state. The author, in the image of Jochi, emphasizes an essential character trait of a person brought up in respect for the mother, for her native language Ana tili. And this love for the mother, for the history of her people contributes to the understanding of the tragic fate of another nation.

In addition to the author's characterization, internal monologue and dialogue, N. Sanzhar also uses the technique of a direct image through the actions of the hero.

The writer strives to reveal the character of his hero, to express the most intimate movements of his soul, joys and anxiety, doubts and contradictions, thoughts and dreams. The perception and reflection of reality evokes a gamut of feelings and thoughts in Jochi. The author tries to understand the dialectics of the spiritual growth of a historical person. He has not only created the characters of past years, but also revealed the inner world of people of a distant era. Jochi's inner world expanded immeasurably: he saw the cruel policy of Genghis Khan, the bleak life of disadvantaged people, knew betrayal, looked for the meaning of the happiness of human existence, reflected on the purpose and place of man in the stream of history: “When I went through a series of life trials prepared by fate, I realized what the meaning of life is”.

The author of the historical novel tries to capture the slightest shades of the movement of the souls of his heroes, shows their contradictory moments, seeks to understand and reflect the essence of the whole, to create a real picture of reality. Socio-psychological disclosure of personality does not exclude the characteristics of each writer in artistic experience. Their specificity presupposes the creative assimilation of the tradition of the world classics, finding an individual approach to the depiction of historical reality. Each writer has his own measure of talent, his own views on life. Based on the achievements of Kazakh historical novels, NurlanSanzhar presents the concept of a historical personality that depended on historical circumstances.

The writer was able to show the protagonist in such circumstances in which the character traits of the historical personality motivated by actions are most clearly manifested. N. Sanzhar strives to reveal individual character traits of the hero, defining his role as a historical personality. We see the author's position in the selection and assessment of historical events that played a key role in the formation of Jochi's character as a historical person.

The appearance of historical time is created due to the psychological reliability of the character of the historical person. Each of the characters in the novel is distinguished not only by their appearance, but also by their peculiarities of character and disposition. In the novel the heroes are shown in all manifestations of social and psychological motives, emotional states, contradictory moods. «The character is formed depending on the objective social conditions and specific life circumstances, in which a person's life passes, on the basis of his natural properties — first of all temperament — as a result of his actions and deeds» [8; 666].

The character of Jochi develops and unfolds under the influence of objective historical circumstances, specific manifestations of historical events that induce, force action. The character of the hero manifests itself against the background of such events that give rise to an explosion in his mental life, psychology. Jochi's desire to found a state is due to the historical situation of the XIII century: the time of historical changes when the idea of the founding of the Kazakh people and its state was laid. The significance of Jochi is determined by his historical role in the formation of the first Kazakh ulus — Ak Orda, which he will call his homeland.

In historical novels about outstanding figures of the past who played an important role in the fate of the people the main characters are genuine historical figures. In NurlanSanzhar's novel «The Unexpected Guest — Jochi» the problem of the real historical personality as the protagonist is closely related to the image of the positive hero.

The author's undoubted success is the recreation of the image of a historical person in the closest connection with his era, in collision and communication with various people. Moreover, the absence of facts of his biography documented by history is complemented by artistic fiction, which makes it possible to trace the process of the formation of a historical personality. So, having scant information about Jochi's life, the writer uses fiction to make the circumstances of his hero's life look more convincing. The author, creatively reworking the material, depicts the spiritual growth of his hero, who played a decisive role in the further choice on the path of life. The talent of the writer is manifested primarily in the ability to find the exact relationship between fiction and reliable facts. In the novel, not just manifestations of inner life are given, but a continuous illumination of psychological processes that reveal the outlines of the protagonist's character. The novelist solved this problem not by describing detailed information from the biographies of Jochi, but by creating an interest in the character's relationship with the outside world. And for this purpose the author uses an artistic analysis of the actions of the heroes, conditioned by the circumstances.

In a modern historical novel, the specificity of reflecting life consists in portraying past events as the personal fate of their specific participants. And this makes it necessary to reveal the spiritual world of the hero, the originality of his character, makes it necessary to take into account the patterns of their behavior and actions in connection with the significant phenomena of social life of the depicted era. «Human character, all these bizarre combinations of traits, is generated by those social conditions in which the character is formed» [9; 54].

Creating an artistic image of this or that historical figure, the writer comprehends their diverse and sometimes contradictory features and qualities, seeks to reveal the innermost essence in the multifaceted complexity of the human personality, to discard or explain a number of features that run counter to the logic of the character of the hero, to «conjecture» those important features that were not always noticed or hidden by an impartial chronicler. N. Sanzhar approaches the selection of material from the biography of the protagonist very scrupulously, selects the most important facts, often strengthening certain aspects of his character in order to depict in him the key features of the historical personality with greater artistic expressiveness. The author reflected in the novel Jochi's idea of establishing states on Kazakh land. And this idea of the historical past is directly connected with modern Kazakhstan, the foundation of the Kazakh Khanate by the descendants of Genghis Khan, Zhanibek and Kerey.

Understanding of a person in Kazakh literature, enriched with various forms and methods of psychological analysis, goes from a holistic image of certain social types to the study of various facets of a human character. Nurlan Sanzhar, through the individual fate of people, shows the complex events of social life, seeks to embody in a specific person the national, psychological traits inherent in many people of that time. The writer, depicting various human characters, shows acute social conflicts and life situations in full accordance with the principles of a realistic depiction of history. Gradually and deeply revealing the character of the historical person in the novel, the author shows, using the example of Jochi's fate, the important changes that took place in him under the influence of the dramatic events of the 13th century. The events reflected in the novel «The Unexpected Guest – Jochi» bear the imprint of artistic conjecture, but correspond to historical reality.

The author's concept of the character of a historical personality in the novel is closely related to the problem of time, epoch, its circumstances and events, in mutual influence with which the character of the hero develops. The concept of a historical personality is motivated by the character of Jochi as the main character of N. Sanzhar's novel «The Unexpected Guest – Jochi» and is formed under the influence of events of the distant past. The character of Jochi, formed under the influence of wartime situations, becomes strong, acquiring not only physical, but also spiritual and moral strength. The biography of the historical personality and the era interpenetrate each other, and this connection of the hero's life with the fate of the future homeland is the main leitmotif of the novel.

A comprehensive study of human actions, identification of their causes and effects, attitudes towards life, other people allowed the author to identify and reflect ideological attitudes and psychological characteristics of character in the act of a historical personality. The skill of the writer lies in the fact that, creating various gradations of the behavior of a historical person, he was able to recreate an integral artistic image. The image as an aesthetic category is the most convenient and capacious form of concentration of ideas. The history of the founding of the state, the difficult fate of Turkic women, «ana tili» appears in the novel not in abstract terms, but in the form of ideas of the time, the birth of the Kazakh people. Facts, documentary materials have played a huge role in an accurate, truthful depiction of a real historical person.


The author's concept of the character of a historical person in Nurlan Sanzhar's novel «The Unexpected Guest – Jochi» is presented as a dialectical relationship between the individual and the general, manifested in a very complex form of contacts between the individual and society, man and history. The writer connects the problem of character Jochi, first of all, with the history of the Kazakh people, with the idea of the formation of the state of Ak Orda. The author does not modernize his hero, he preserves in him the spirit and concepts of that historical reality.

N. Sanzhar was able to show his era, the nature of society through the image of Jochi. The image of a historical personality stands at the center of the plot of the novel and is generally conditioned by the very course of history, which can be shown vividly and convincingly only through the fate of individuals expressing the idea of their time and their environment. To reveal the character of a historical personality, the writer needed to understand his social connections, to know the circumstances that influenced the formation of character. The author, through the individual fate of a person, shows the complex events of social life, seeks to embody the national class and psychological features inherent in many people of that time in a specific person. Depicting a historical character, his worldview, the writer shows his hero in action, telling about his future plans, about the interconnection of his fate with the fate of the Motherland, with the life of a people new to him. The novelist's attention is drawn not only to external facts and events in the life of the hero of the novel, but also to his inner world, his experiences and feelings, which bore the imprint of changes in the social and political life of the people and the new state. The author's concept of the historical personality in the novel coexists with the problem of the social environment, its circumstances and events, which mutually influences the character of the protagonist.

The skill of the historical novelist manifested itself in the fact that, when confronting the hero with various circumstances, he showed not just a participant in certain events, but described the hero's reaction to these events. Here you can see the whole person and at the same time every action, state of mind. And solving this problem, the writer depicts not only open manifestations of social conflict between opposing forces, all events that take place are reflected in the form of experiences, thoughts, defending their interests, life principles and moral foundations of the hero. The personality of the historical character is revealed through his actions, in dialogues and disputes with others.

The basis of Nurlan Sanzhar's artistic method is the depiction of the fate of the Great Steppe in connection with major historical events. The writer's description of social reality is combined with an attempt to reveal the inner world of historical figures. The author depicts the change in the character of the heroes under the influence of external events, as a result of which their character develops in accordance with their internal laws and depending on the circumstances. The image of the historical personality in the novel, put face to face with history, is outlined primarily from the point of view of ethical qualities. Women-mothers of the Turkic tribe are endowed with high moral qualities: sensitivity, disinterested attitude, desire to act in accordance with conscience, nobility, compassion, love and respect for their language.

The author was faced with a difficult task to show, using specific human characters, how the events of reality were refracted in the fates of the heroes, how in the turbulent whirlpool of history a person matured, how he fought, what he experienced. It is precisely by this quality, the ability to penetrate into the inner world of a person, the writer differs from the scientist-historian. The main principle of depicting a person in the novel «The Unexpected Guest – Jochi» is the artistic awareness of the inextricable connection of human fate with the necessary movement of history, with the ideological and cultural life of the era. In depicting a historical personality, Nurlan Sanzhar focuses on such human qualities as kindness, compassion, mercy, conscience, honor, courage that are so important for the formation of the artistic world of the younger generation.



  1. Bocharov, S. (1962). Kharaktery i obstoiatelstva [Personalities and circumstances]. Teoriia literatury. Osnovnye problemy v istoricheskom osveshchenii. Obraz, metod, kharakter — Literature theory. Major problems in historical coverage. Image, method, character. Moscow: Nauka [in Russian].
  2. Kirabaev, S.S. (1985). Vysokoe naznachenie: Stati, kriticheskie ocherki [High purpose: Articles, critical essays]. Almaty: Zhazushy [in Russian].
  3. Sanzhar, N. (2019). Nezhdannyi gost — Dzhuchi [Unexpected guest — Jochi]. Almaty: Meloman Publishing [in Russian].
  4. Belinkov, A. (1960). Yurii Tynianov [Yuri Tynyanov]. Moscow: Sovetskii pisatel [in Russian].
  5. Tolstoy, A. (1949). Polnoe sobranie sochinenii [Full composition of writings]. Vols.1–15. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatelstvo khudozhestvennoi literatury [in Russian].
  6. Zlobin, S. (1965). Zadachi romana [Tasks of the novel]. Voprosy literatury — Questions of the literature, 9, 53–58 [in Russian].
  7. Belinsky, V.G. (1846). Vzgliad na russkuiu literaturu [A look at the Russian literature]. Vols. 1–3. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatelstvo khudozhestvennoi literatury [in Russian].
  8. Rubinstein, S.L. (1946). Osnovy obshchei psikhologii [Fundamentals of General Psychology]. Moscow: GosUchpedgiz Ministerstva Prosveshcheniia RSFSR [in Russian].
  9. Petrov, S. (1965). Pravda zhizni i pravda iskusstva [The truth of life and the truth of art]. Moscow: Sovetskii pisatel [in Russian].
  10. Gyulnazarian, N.E. (2009). Khudozhestvennaia kontseptsiia lichnosti v istoricheskom romane XX veka [The artistic concept of personality in the historical novel of the 20 th century]. Candidate's thesis. Krasnodar [in Russian].
Year: 2021
City: Karaganda
Category: Philology