The article deals with topical issues of teaching Russian as a foreign language in Kazakh language classes. The main focus of the article is on the use of information and communication technologies in distance learning. Special attention is paid to the innovative tools of interconnected learning of all kinds of speech activity. The authors consider the specifics of distance learning in detail and raise the question of solving methodological problems that arise in teaching Russian as a foreign language in this format. The article is devoted to online whiteboards as an effective tool for interconnected learning of all kinds of speech activities. The authors make an overview of the most popular boards, defining their general specifics. In doing so, the Padlet board becomes the subject of consideration. The authors characterize it as one of the most convenient tools for the interrelated teaching of Russian as a foreign language. The article is devoted to concrete examples of Padlet application in the practical Russian as a foreign language classes at university. In particular, lessons on several topics contained in the standard program in Russian, as a foreign language, at a higher educational institution are considered in detail as a sample. These classes have been tested in teaching first-year students of NAO "Medical University of Karaganda". As a result of the analysis, the authors conclude that the Padlet board acts as an effective tool for interconnected learning of all types of speech activity.
Language training in universities of the Republic of Kazakhstan occupies an important place. In light of the implementation of the policy of trilingualism in the country, the training of future specialists of all levels is expected to give knowledge of the foreign language and communicative competence. Language skills allow graduates of colleges and universities to successfully integrate into modern economic conditions, be more competitive in the labor market, continue studying at the next levels of the national education system, having access to information in different languages. However, this requires thorough language training. That is why teachers are faced with the difficult task of choosing the most effective means of forming foreign- language communicative competence. It becomes especially relevant in today's environment when the learning process is tightly integrated with distance technology. Interconnected education of all types of speech activities seems to be the most effective in forming the skill to choose the necessary speech tools in the situation of foreign language communication, which is the main purpose of language learning, including Russian.
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However, while working in a distance education environment, traditional tools are often ineffective. The use of interactive technology, in particular, online boards helps to solve the problems.
Among interactive tools online boards occupy a special place. They have a fairly wide range of functions, which allows to work out all the speech matter. In our article we look at the Padlet online board as a tool for interconnected education of all kinds of speech activities.
The main part
At present, the teaching of Russian as a foreign language both at school and in high school is provided under new conditions. On the one hand, it is the widespread introduction of distance technology and even, as in the current pandemic situation, a complete switch to distance education. On the other hand, this is a new type of learner who perceives information in a completely different way, is not able to focus for a long time on any one subject, has a "clip" mentality. At the same time, modern schools and universities have common mission: to educate and train not just graduates with a set of knowledge in any field, but those capable of critical and creative thinking, improving their competencies in a rapidly changing technological world. Therefore, it seems appropriate to consider the specifics of teaching Russian as a foreign language in a distance system.
In teaching foreign languages, of course, all the components of the modern learning process must be taken into account. Besides, it is necessary to form a personality capable of critical, creative and at the same time systemic thinking, having media literacy (also know informational culture), possessing communicative competence. Teaching a foreign language is designed to form the ability to analyze reality, find appropriate means of communication in a foreign language environment, the ability to navigate in different communication situations. Thus, A.V. Lubsky and V.V. Kovalev believe that “education is not only learning content, but also the ability to communicate with others, in the end, it is the acquisition of social and communicative experience” [1; 38]. Therefore, communication plays a leading role in modern learning, and when teaching languages it is also the ability to communicate in the target language. At first glance, this approach cannot be implemented in a distance education environment, the very name of which contains the concept of "distance" between the participants in the communication process. Before we talk about the peculiarities of communication training in distance education, let us define the term “distance education”.
The problem of distance education has already been the subject of research. A number of works are devoted to the analysis of this term and the peculiarities of distance learning, which considers distance education as a special learning environment. For example, L.V. Pokushalova calls distance education an "educational system of the future" . We do not aim to review the problems of the definition of the term, to which both the above-mentioned works and a number of others are devoted. Let us define only that under distance education researchers unanimously understand, first of all, a complex of educational services provided with the help of specialized information and educational environment based on the means of exchange of educational information at a distance (satellite TV, radio, computer communications, etc.) [3; 13]. At the same time, all the researchers note that distance education is person-centered. In this case, the role of independent cognitive activity of the student, which is active in nature, increases. In this regard, distance technologies have a number of specific didactic principles, which in turn require special tools for their implementation. Considering these features, we believe the most accurate definition of distance education technologies as pedagogical technologies based on a broad application of developmental learning methods, problem-based and research methods, combined with the maximum use of advances in information and communication technologies .
As M.N. Kutuzov rightly points out, "the effectiveness and success of distance learning depends on the organization and methodological quality of the materials used, as well as how much consideration is given to the specifics of information presentation, the level of training of teachers involved in this process, and how well they understand the features of information presentation and perception within modern virtual communications" . Therefore, in distance learning the role of the teacher is reduced not only to the translation of new knowledge, but, above all, to the management of the student. The teacher organizes the trajectory of learning and determines a set of teaching methods and technologies.
In the practice of teaching Russian as a foreign language, there is a range of proven traditional technologies, methods, techniques and tools. At the same time, distance learning, while not requiring the rejection of those tools, still dictates the need to introduce such techniques of training, which would take into account the specifics of communication in the distance and make it as effective as possible. M.N. Kutuzov notes that “one of the significant drawbacks of distance learning is “artificial communication”. Electronic resources cannot replace live communication. Real human interaction involves verbal and nonverbal forms of speech, colored by emotional and psychological features of perception. Learning is impossible without live communication, but it can be more effective if you vary the tools of communication and optimize the means of delivery and processing of educational information. Infocommunication technologies help to optimize the learning process, freeing teachers from the routine operations of developing and maintaining learning materials, simplifying the control procedure and other processes that can be automated" .
When teaching languages, it is most important to preserve the effect of live communication, to choose those tools that would allow you to improve the skills of speaking in a situation of speech communication. At the same time, it is important to teach all kinds of interrelated speech activities that will allow students to most effectively acquire a foreign language. However, in distance education the application of this methodology presents certain difficulties. First of all, they are related to the fact that it is quite difficult to develop and control writing skills in distance. Moreover, it is difficult to connect the writing process, for example, with reading and speaking. Therefore, the search for the most effective technologies that would solve this problem is currently being actively pursued in the practice of teaching the RFL. It must be said that this process is quite successful. There are even authoring platforms that students can use to study a foreign language on their own. For learning Russian as a foreign language there are already a number of proven effective platforms. It is suffice to mention the "Russian as a foreign language" platform from the company IPR MEDIA. However, it is not our aim to review RFL research platforms. We are interested in the tools that would make the most effective interconnected teaching of speech activities as part of language learning at school or university.
In the process of distance learning, there is already a number of technologies and tools, the effectiveness of which confirms the practice. For example, infographics and Prezi presentations have become popular. In our practice of teaching Russian language to medical students and students of philological specialties of the college such tools as the "Tour Builder" platform, teleconferences, preparation of video clips proved themselves well. One of the most effective tools, in our opinion, are various interactive whiteboards. As A.V. Glotova notes, "The online whiteboard as a teaching tool is recommended for use in practical foreign language classes to organize various forms of group work of students with elements of creative activity. Modern virtual whiteboard web services are not limited to maintaining visual contact for all group members. The resource is convenient for organizing students' learning activities, monitoring, recording progress and mutual verification in a collaborative format. The online whiteboard promotes creativity, critical thinking, and students' independent and collaborative work skills in a practical class" [6; 61].
Indeed, online whiteboards have already proven to be an effective tool that can effectively organize not only the students' activities in the classroom, but also their independent work during a semester or a quarter. Moreover, students can also carry out various types of creative work during vacations, which will allow them to maintain their language level and develop their language skills constantly. In the end, all this will contribute to a more effective learning of all kinds of speech activities. There are different kinds of interactive whiteboards. For example, Miro, Jamboard, Whiteboard Fox, O-whiteboard, Padlet are popular. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. So, the teacher chooses the board that most effectively meets the goals and objectives set by the teacher in teaching the language.
In our opinion, Padlet board can be considered as one of the most convenient in use and effective in application. In our work, we will consider this board as a tool for interconnected learning of speech activities in teaching Russian as a foreign language.
There have been quite a few works written about Padlet. Their authors try to formulate the most universal definitions of this tool. E.N. Boyko, E.D. Nikitina, M.K. Logacheva in the article "Internet technologies as modern means of education in higher education. Practical experience (on the example of SIM RANEPA)" in detail consider the history of this issue and formulate the most universal definition of Padlet board. Following the authors of this article, we see Padlet "as an Internet technology tool that allows you to communicate with other users through text messages, photos, links, video and audio recordings, and other learning tools. Each place for communication is called a "wall". We believe that this means of Internet technology is of great interest to students, because it is quite easy to use the "wall", and the possibilities for its application in training are quite large . We agree that Padlet has two undoubted advantages. First, it is easy to use, and second, it contains exactly the tools that allow for interconnected learning of all kinds of speech activities. It allows students to be equal participants in the learning process, contributes to the development of creative abilities, develops communicative competence.
Padlet board is a conditionally free service. There is possibility of creating five boards for free here whic is easy to do. Linking up to Padlet.com teacher will immediately see the registration button. After registering, teacher should click on the "Create a board" icon in the upper right corner. In the settings teacher can select the name of the board, the background, set the order of posts and access options. In the access parameters you should specified that guests can write posts and leave comments on them. And teacher can post materials on the board. Students only need a link to the board, and they can access the board and do tasks at any time without registration. Unlike the built-in Zoom or MS Teams boards, in Padlet teacher can post materials in advance and edit then at any time. They can be shared on social media and even by QR-code. Teacher can save materials at the end of a topic or lesson in PDF format. It is possible to post materials on the board in the form of a post. It is worth noting such a convenient service as Internet search. To do this, teacher types the name of the topic he/she wants in the post window, for example, the topic of the lesson, and click on the three dots in the upper corner. This will open a Google search window. The system automatically shows all the text, audio and video materials on the stated topic. Such service can be not only a good support to teacher training, but also the basis of assignments for the interconnected teaching of all kinds of speech. Thus, students can be given the task of selecting material on a stated topic and processing it for the purpose of presentation, for example, at a conference, in a class and on assemblies. That’s how the student reads and listens to the material, analyzes it, processes it, including making it out in the form of posts and presents it on the board, answering questions. In this way all kinds of speech activities are practiced.
Padlet has the undeniable advantage of posting all kinds of notes. For example, not only text, but also links and hyperlinks, audio and video files created in various programs, photos, Google maps, and images of handwritten text can be placed on the board. All this allows to organize various types of work aimed at developing skills in all kinds of speech activities with Padlet. Padlet can be used to organize various types of group work (brainstorming, Six Thinking Hats, jig-so, case study), create a wall newspaper, a virtual tour of the city, an online exhibition. With Padlet teacher can organize various types of reflection. Throughout the semester you can create a wall of time, or virtual books.
For example, when studying the topic "National Holidays in the Republic of Kazakhstan", first-year medical students were offered the task of creating a presentation on a holiday to defend it at the city council. The conditional jury, which also included students of the group, at this time, determines the criteria for selecting projects and the range of questions that will be asked to the contestants. Then, there is a defense of the projects, their judging. According to the results of the defense, the jury selects the best project. During the task, students select visual materials, create texts, prepare speeches, participate in discussions, i.e., practicing reading, writing, speaking and listening skills.
When studying the topic "My Ideal City," students in groups reflect their idea of it on the board as well. To do this, they had to come up with a name for the city and its concept, make a video and texts in which the main points of the city concept should be reflected. Each group then presented their city and answered questions from the other groups. This activity also helps them practice their writing, reading, listening, and speaking skills. The Padlet board can be an effective tool for pre-textual tasks and for introducing the topic of the lesson. For example, in a lesson on "Problems of the Modern Family," students were asked to analyze a series of pictures posted on the Padlet. The tasks were as follows: 1. Describe what is shown in the pictures. 2. Combine the photos under the same theme. 3. Write key words on the topic. 4. Assume the topic of the class and the reading text. By completing these tasks, students practice their reading, speaking, and writing skills.
The practice of teaching Russian language in college and university has shown that Padlet online board is an effective tool for interconnected education of speech activities. The versatility of the board allows to practice reading, speaking, and listening skills. In addition, Padlet has a set of tools to improve writing skills. This is especially important for distance learning, when on the one hand, practicing writing skills requires, a routine check of photographed notebooks, on the other hand, it practically deprives learners of the opportunity to develop the skill of "spontaneous", unprepared writing.
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