This article discusses the legal foundations of the formation of Kazakhstan's patriotism in the course of Public Service in the country. The authors point out that patriotism in Kazakhstan is a respectful, humane and friendly attitude of peoples, which has always been characteristic of Kazakhstanis, as well as calling all Kazakhstanis to creative work, to make every effort to preserve peace, unity and independence of our country, creating conditions for the development of education, culture, economy, social sphere in the state of Kazakhstan. In the course of the implementation of the national policy of the country within the framework of the new Kazakhstan patriotism it is assumed that it accounts for the equality of all nationalities, races, confessions in the need to make coordinated decisions, taking into account the interests of different peoples living on the territory of Kazakhstan. The authors analyze the fact that Kazakhstan's patriotism is one of the constitutional ideas reviving it as a common national idea of love for the motherland, as well as respect for its history. The rights of citizens in the Republic of Kazakhstan are provided by the Constitution and norms of the law, ensure their equality before the law, regardless of their social status, ethnicity, official career or other origin, religious affiliation and other differences. In this context the authors note that in the formation of domestic patriotism in the course of public service every citizen of Kazakhstan has the opportunity to contribute to the development of language, traditions, culture, and, in general, all institutions of the state should work to ensure equality of opportunities.
State symbols of any country are a powerful factor in the formation of patriotic and civic qualities of the individual. This process begins at the earliest age of a person: first in the family, then in preschool institutions, educational institutions, labor collectives, and continues in society, that is, it is a continuous process. It is very important for citizens of our country to foster a sense of pride in their country, history, great people, to feel like a continuation of traditions and carriers of certain values of the people. In public life it is implemented through activities aimed at promoting and using the state symbols of Kazakhstan, including holding state and national holidays, promoting the performance of civil and patriotic duty. The formation of patriotism is a priority for any state at all times. State symbols of Kazakhstan are the implementation of the ideas of independence and originality of our country, they contribute to the education of citizens' respect for the foundations of the state, love for the motherland and are an integral part of the formation of Kazakhstan's patriotism [1: 137].
A sense of the state and Kazakhstan concept, a sense of belonging to the places where a person was born and raised, respect for the native language, care for the interests of the motherland, expression of civic feelings and preservation of loyalty to the motherland, pride in social and cultural achievements, preservation of freedom and independence, respect for the historical past of the motherland and the traditions inherited from it, striving to dedicate work, the power and ability to flourish in the motherland — all this are integral parts of Kazakhstan's patriotism, which, first of all, fosters love for the motherland and respect for its state symbols. Kazakhstan's patriotism, a sense of meaningful civil cooperation and participation, interethnic and interpersonal mutual understanding are necessary for the education of a person as a citizen of his country, a patriot, in order to ensure the implementation of the state policy to increase the patriotic consciousness of citizens and respect for the state symbols of the country.
State symbols, being mandatory attributes of all solemn events, state and national holidays inside and outside the Republic reveal the image of Kazakhstan to the whole world, reflect our national and cultural identity and value orientation. True patriotism begins with respect for state symbols — the coat of arms, flag, anthem [2: 14].
Patriotic education of the younger generation should be a unifying force for young people who can prove their love for their native land not only in words but also in practice. Patriotism is aimed at giving a new impetus to the spiritual recovery of the people, increasing national wealth and improving the quality of life. Therefore, the formation and development of patriotism among young people is currently an urgent problem.
Methods and materials
The methodological basis of the research work is the dialectical method of cognition of socio-legal phenomena and practical modern methods of cognition. In the course of the research general logical methods of theoretical analysis, such as analysis, synthesis, generalization and comparison were widely used. At the same time, methods of legal analysis, clarification, and interpretation were used to solve the main tasks in the process of revealing the content. In addition, the research took into account the views of Kazakhstani legislation, scientific works of domestic scientists on legal issues of ways to form Kazakhstan's patriotism in the course of public service.
Results and discussions
The independence of our state is a bright symbol of the pride of our country and Kazakhstan's patriotism. The high and sacred concept of independence is the basis of the unity and national idea of Kazakhstan, which is aimed at uniting our people and can become a valuable heritage of generations that will further form a future-oriented country of Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan's patriotism is one of the first in the post-Soviet era to move forward, build a new state, and be proud of its homeland, surprising foreign politicians and state leaders, as well as their compatriots with its ambitious, large-scale changes. Now a lot is being said about the education of Kazakhstan's patriotism. What is the meaning of this concept? What are its basic principles? In the last decade of the modern history of Kazakhstan, not a single ideological value has been tested, such as patriotism. Kazakhstan's patriotism is associated with Kazakhstan's internationalism, Kazakhstan's interethnic peace. It is based on national and state ideology. We must carry all this together. National ideology is an attitude based on the culture, traditions, language, religion, and history of each nation living in Kazakhstan. It should be attended mainly by Kazakh citizens. State ideology is the policy of the state, which is dictated by the interests of the peoples living in Kazakhstan. More precisely, ideology is a set of social consciousness, political, legal, philosophical, moral, aesthetic and religious views and theoretical ideas representing the interests of classes and social groups [3: 93].
The first President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev in his works “The future of Kazakhstan is in the ideological unity of society” and “On the wave of history” said that it is necessary to consolidate and unite, stressing that traditional institutions, such as education, the family and the labor collective play an important role in the implementation of this task, their influence will be particularly effective. “Therefore, in order to fulfill this task it is necessary to take up the issue of education, to educate people who will promote the future civilized development of our country without reducing the generations, without exposing them to the influence of modern trade and deception”, said the head of state.
In the context of independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan, it is necessary to form the idea of patriotism, national unity, and respect for the state language, which will cover the consciousness of all nations. To do this, representatives of all nationalities in Kazakhstan must feel that it is their own motherland. It is necessary to observe its values and moral principles in order to avoid legal nihilism and chaos in relation its homeland [4: 118].
Kazakhstan's patriotism is that all nations and nationalities, peoples living in Kazakhstan make every effort to preserve peace, unity and independence of our country, creating conditions for the development of education, culture, economy, and social development in order to make the state of Kazakhstan stand out from the world heights. Kazakhstan's patriotism can be described as a call to creative work of all Kazakhstanis, the establishment of prosperity and solidarity. Patriotic spirit is the only force that allows our independent country to join the path of world civilization and take its rightful place in the world community. A country that does not have its own history, culture, art, and economic power is not interested in others. And in order to popularize them, people must first know their dignity, be proud of themself. Everyone should know and respect other peoples, be proud of the good traditions laid down by our ancestors, deeply love their nation. Studying the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev's Annual Messages to the people of Kazakhstan, we see that the social conditions in Kazakhstan are developing from year to year: integration of the national education system into the world education system, housing provision of the population, health issues, the strategy of Kazakhstan's entry into the top 30, 50 most competitive countries in the world, will, undoubtedly, contribute to the further development of moral and spiritual values of the Kazakh people and increase pride of the motherland.
A prerequisite for the existence of any state is the presence of a supreme state law, the Constitution. In any democratic country the Constitution occupies a special place. The reason is the basis for the situation of a person and a citizen, his relations with the state. It offers the legal field to resolve all contradictions in society. The Constitution defines vectors for the development of the legal system, attaches great importance to improving legislation. Not only the Constitution establishes specific rules for the organization of the entire state apparatus, in international relations the Constitution is a kind of passport, business card of the country. The ideas, principles and provisions of the Basic Law form the initial principles of sustainable existence of a person, society and the state. In 1993 the first constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, based on an agreement and of a transitional nature, was adopted. And in 1995 the current Constitution was adopted through a national referendum, which fully completed the process of legal formalization of sovereignty and declared a person, his life, rights and freedoms as the most valuable treasure of the state.
For a modern citizen the question of what constitutional rights he has and, in turn, the sense of responsibility to his country can be attributed to the foundations of civil patriotism. The main directions of the ideology of an independent state, its historical development, thinking and philosophy are the idea of freedom and independent development. Therefore the promotion of the importance of the supreme law of the country contributes to the formation of national self-consciousness among citizens. Of course, a deep knowledge and understanding of the content of the Constitution and its essence increases interest and respect for this important attribute of the life of the state, helps to strengthen patriotic feelings, such as love for the motherland, pride in the achievements of sovereign Kazakhstan, and readiness to faithfully fulfill the civic duty to protect the interests of the native land. In general, what does it mean to be a patriot of your country? Being a patriot is a great honor for anyone who has a sense of pride for their country and native land. At the same time, people are not born patriots, they are formed, and patriotic education in a reliably developing state should not be evaluated only as a creative process. It is also a struggle for young people, for the future of the country, against forced migration, rising crime, drug addiction, extremism and terrorism and other negative phenomena [5: 11].
After declaration of independence the Republic of Kazakhstan has became an example of successful economic, political and social modernization for many post-Soviet countries. Having natural resources, intellectual potential and political activity of the population, Kazakhstan is taking significant steps towards becoming one of the thirty most developed countries in the world in the near future. In this regard, N.A. Nazarbayev clearly supports the view that “when entering the top 30 developed countries of the world, we need fair competition, justice, the rule of law and a high legal culture”.
Today a lot of work is being done in this direction in the country, in particular, reforms aimed at creating a civil society are being carried out to improve the entire legal system. One example is the concept of Legal Policy for the period from 2010 to 2020: “...legal regulation of scientific and educational activities, which is an important condition for ensuring the industrial and innovative development of the country, increasing its intellectual potential, is an integral part of Legal Policy”.
Kazakhstan's patriotism, which reflects the achievements of a young, independent and successfully formed state in all spheres of activity, has all the necessary prerequisites for its existence as an independent and deep political phenomenon. The entire Kazakh society interested in the further prosperity and well-being of its country should participate in its creation [6: 119].
One of the main goals of Kazakhstan's patriotism is to unite the citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan, and the need to attach importance to the life of every citizen, to awaken their activities, ways and feelings, instilling an attitude and a sense of activity, loyalty. Another goal is the formation of a high patriotic consciousness among citizens, a sense of loyalty to their motherland, the study of historical values and the role of the state in fate, readiness to fulfill a civil duty and constitutional duty to protect the interests of the motherland based on the preservation and development of a sense of pride in their country. In addition, the state reflects the active civic position of the individual, the need for military-patriotic education, various nationalities, races, beliefs, etc. It sets the task of educating tolerance as the principle of interethnic relations, as well as the formation and development of socially significant values of society and the individual. Therefore, today, at the stage of the ideological zone in the system of education civil patriotism based on civil morality, pride for its history, for its native land, country, and traditions becomes particularly important [7: 210].
In modern times, one of the most important priorities for updating the content of education is the modernization and development of civil and patriotic education. When forming a personality, it is necessary to combine civil, legal, and political culture. It is necessary to include programs that define a common strategy, directions and mechanisms for the formation of a free, spiritually rich, strong Kazakhstan in the curriculum. These are programs for patriotic and moral education, which provide practical ways to move forward in order to educate young people.
The purpose of the program of civil-patriotic education in educational institutions is to create conditions for the formation of the personality of a citizen of the Republic of Kazakhstan and a patriot with its inherent values, views, attitudes, motives of activity and behavior. Updating historical dates is very important, as it contributes to a comprehensive correct perception of information and a correct assessment of historical events. Young people synthesize and analyze data obtained from friends, informal organizations in a modern environment rich in information in the world, which can later lead to incorrect perception of this information. Therefore, educational institutions should direct the younger generation to correctly understand and perceive the modern world [8: 11].
The main directions of civil and patriotic education in educational institutions are formed on the basis of the following basic directions:
– Spiritual and moral. The ability of the younger generation to understand high values, ideals and orientations, socially significant processes and phenomena of real life in the process of civil and patriotic education, to be guided by them as defining principles in practical activities.
– Local history. A system of activities aimed at understanding historical and cultural roots, the uniqueness of the motherland, its fate, continuity with it, pride and historical responsibility for the actions of our ancestors and contemporaries, the formation of knowledge about the native land.
– Civil law. These measures contribute to the formation of a legal culture through the system and the observance of the rule of law, the ability to assess political and legal events and processes in society and the state, citizenship, constant readiness to serve their people and fulfill their constitutional duties, respect the state symbols.
– Social and patriotic. Increasing the spiritual, moral, cultural and historical continuity of generations, forming an active life position, showing a sense of nobility and compassion, and caring for the elderly.
– Military-patriotic. Formation of a high patriotic consciousness among young people, the idea of serving the motherland, protecting the armed forces, studying Kazakh military history, military traditions.
– Sport as a sense of patriotism. Development of moral and volitional qualities, the education of endurance, courage, discipline in the process of physical culture and sports, the formation of the experience of serving the motherland and preparation for the defense of it.
– Cultural and patriotic. Developing the creative abilities of young people through familiarization with musical folklore, oral folk art, the world of folk festivals, traditions and customs of other peoples.
In this direction it is necessary to work with the younger generation and set the main goal for the development of citizenship and patriotism among young people, to be prepared for the active manifestation of spiritual, moral and social values, important qualities, skills and abilities in various spheres of life. The main goal is to increase the love of young people for their historical motherland, that is, to form a value system that ensures the development of patriotic feelings and citizenship and patriotism in general. In addition, it is important to combine the efforts of teachers, parents and students .
One of the leading places in the formation of patriotic feelings of young people is occupied by state symbols. Addressing students in educational work is one of the most difficult tasks in the formation of their national consciousness, based on their integrity around national values.
Now, when we look at the root foundations of cultural development, we see that it consists of various complex interrelations. Culture is the spiritual perfection of a person. Culture forms the highest human qualities in a person, such as unity, honor, shame, virtue, honesty, self-respect. An integral part of spiritual culture is legal knowledge. Legal culture is the level of legal regulation of social relations achieved by society, respect for the freedom and rights of the individual, and the establishment of order. As the foundations of the rule of law are laid and the process of formation of the rule of law is underway in Kazakhstan, the requirements for our legal culture are also increasing. Our culture is a system of spiritual well-being, traditions, customs, knowledge and beliefs of our people, which has been accumulated over many centuries, absorbed in the blood of generations, the face of a social group, people, nation in life, intelligence, competence, distinctive, distinct from other peoples, races, and conscious views on life.
The main guarantee for the broad development of democracy is the comprehensive development of legal culture. It is public relations that are regulated to a certain extent by law and order. The rule of law and democracy are concomitant phenomena. Only in the state, when all citizens are equal before the law, does the law rise above all else. In his thoughts on state power the great Abai justified the rule of law in the policy of government of the country, the high position of the rule of law in all spheres of society. Abai proposed to implement democracy through law. It was believed that the state bodies should be responsible to the general population. In order to improve the legal culture of citizens in Kazakhstan the resolution of the President of the of Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev “On measures to organize Universal Legal Education in the Republic of Kazakhstan” was published. As it is shown here, the objectives of Universal Legal Education are:
- improving the legal culture of employees of industrial organizations, the state apparatus;
- to explain to the population the need to observe order in all areas of public relations;
- tools of the public apparatus: consideration of opportunities for effective use of television and radio, written publications;
- coordination of actions of state bodies and public institutions in the organization of legal education to work with each other, activation of the work of coordination and methodological councils.
Another meaning of state symbols is closely related to the concept of sovereignty in the political sense. They reflect the values, principles and priorities of the country, its historical destiny and are an element of the state's position in the international arena.
The symbolism of sovereign Kazakhstan reflects the main directions of the ideology of an independent state, its historical development, thinking and philosophy, it is the embodiment of the centuries-old dreams of the Kazakh people and the path of freedom, independent development of a multi-ethnic society. Therefore its promotion and proper use at the state level contribute to the formation of national consciousness of citizens based on patriotism, love for the motherland, the desire to serve its interests and readiness to defend it .
The formation of patriotism is impossible without state identity. In Kazakhstan the principle of state identity is enshrined in the following constitutional concepts: “We are the people of Kazakhstan” and “the people are the sole bearer of sovereignty and the source of state power”. The identity of the state presupposes a sense of unity and solidarity of all citizens of the Republic on the basis of the commonality of past cultural- historical and socio-political realities, regardless of national, racial, religious and other group divisions. In this context, Kazakhstan's patriotism should contribute to the identification of citizens of the Republic not only with a certain ethnic or territorial education, but also with the laws determined by its political and economic system, all-Kazakhstan values and goals, methods and means, lifestyle and socio-cultural truth, history and national destiny. All of them, together, can provide a sense of belonging to the Kazakh society. Another important issue of the culture of interethnic relations is socio-political stability and social harmony which is one of the main democratic achievements of Kazakhstan over the years of independence. As an example we can cite cases when the usual domestic conflict between representatives of different nationalities is presented as an interethnic conflict. Nevertheless, Kazakhstanis have repeatedly shown restraint, wisdom and tolerance [11: 79].
Kazakhstan has become a native land for many national and ethnic groups, where they have managed to find housing, work, create an international family, and all of them are working for the prosperity of Kazakhstan. Such free development of all peoples living in our state brought together representatives of different nationalities, laid the foundation for the prosperity, peace and strengthening of the state of Kazakhstan. It determines that is these moments the processes in the field of national relations take place without contradictions, tension and without pain. The people of Kazakhstan should be a single people with their national idea, sense of patriotism, moral and ethical code, bearing the Eurasian image of thought and Eurasian spiritual and aesthetic characteristics and stereotypes of behavior. Therefore, to strengthen it, the following actions are needed:
– First, it is impossible to have and develop a sense of patriotism without a homeland, that is, our main task is to preserve our motherland — Kazakhstan.
– Second, it is important to take into account the need to foster patriotism in the minds of citizens with great responsibility, only then we can say that pride in the motherland is real.
– Third, the development and support of culture, stimulating the patriotic movement of Kazakhstanis.
– Fourth, we need principles and approaches to organizing the educational process in the spirit of Kazakhstan's patriotism around the responsibility for the fate of our multinational state as the basis of culture and citizenship of interethnic relations.
Thus, it can be noted that the concept of “Kazakhstan's patriotism” is not sufficiently scientifically studied, taking into account various objective conditions, including the above. But we are sure that the problem of Kazakhstan's patriotism as a leading factor in the unification of society is currently relevant for the state, because Kazakhstan's patriotism is one of the powerful pillars that protect the strength and vitality of the state, its well-being and integrity [12: 276].
The formation of a high sense of patriotism and responsibility in the worldview of Kazakhstanis is not only the task of state bodies, but also the sacred duty of each of us. After all, the foundations of such concepts as respect for the symbols of the country, “patriotism”, “love for the motherland” are laid in the family. Therefore, this aspect cannot be ruled out either. The words of the great thinker Al-Farabi “…education without education can turn against humanity” are still relevant today. In one of his speeches, President N. Nazarbayev said: “How do I imagine Kazakhstan after 33 years? Our young state will grow up and grow up, and our children and grandchildren will grow up with it. They will be responsible and energetic representatives of their generation. They will be ready to work in the conditions of a modern market economy, preserving the traditions of their ancestors. They will be equally well versed in Kazakh, Russian and English. They will become patriots of a peaceful, prosperous, fast-growing country, known and respected all over the world. Therefore, we must do all the work to improve education in the spirit of democracy, legality, responsibility, mutual respect and respect for the principles of Kazakhstan's patriotism, which is now of vital importance”. In this regard, teaching three languages is the minimum of language competence required for every citizen of Kazakhstan today. This gives the advantage of competitiveness, good education, work, communication, cultural and economic ties. Kazakhstan has a good experience in bilingualism, and English is being learned at a good pace. English is developing at an extraordinary pace among the younger generation, and in general, for most Kazakhstanis mastering three languages is not a problem. It is noted that the process of expanding language competence is represented by very active young people learning new languages. Opportunities for this are being created to the maximum. The transition to the Latin alphabet has a number of advantages in expanding the language space of Kazakhstanis. It is necessary to correctly understand that the basic foundations of knowledge in Cyrillic should not be lost. If we set the task of learning three languages, they are built in two graphs — Cyrillic and Latin letters, both graphs will be stored and developed in the language and information space of Kazakhstan [13: 143].
Summing up, it should be noted that only with a comprehensive use of all the components of patriotic education can a deep sense of continuity with the native land, its inextricable connection with its nature, history, culture, native language, constitution, territory, and lifestyle be established. Many of these components are used to foster patriotism in Kazakhstan. The policy of the head of state is aimed at improving the social status of patriotic education, forming “We, the people of Kazakhstan” as a single ethnic and political community, preserving and maintaining civil peace and interethnic harmony in general.
Considering Kazakhstan's patriotism, the following key points can be identified:
- formation of citizens' high patriotic consciousness, a sense of loyalty to their motherland, readiness to fulfill their civic duty and constitutional duties to protect the interests of the motherland on the basis of studying historical values and the role of the state in the fate of the world, preserving and developing a sense of pride for their country;
- education of an active civic position of the individual;
- military-patriotic education;
- patriotic education and education of tolerance as a national question, the principle of interrelation of different nationalities, races, confessional affiliations;
- formation and development of socially significant values of society and the individual.
Now let's move on from the goals of patriotism to the specific tasks of patriotism and the tasks for the development of patriotism in Kazakhstan.
Among the first tasks a positive direction of patriotism can be put. This means developing the patriotism of the citizens of the Republic and directing it not to the channel of destruction of patriotism, but to the right channel, both in public life and in power. One of the most important issues that does not allow the direction of patriotism is the issue of national security. The problem of fostering patriotism is a problem of national security. If one is united in one environment and the fate of one's own republic is left without responsibility, then significant results cannot be achieved. Here we can also include civil and patriotic education: promotion of state symbols, respect for the army, law enforcement agencies, and all state institutions. This is the legal education of young people who should know their rights and obligations, as well as the prevention of offenses and promotion of a healthy lifestyle.
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