Annotation modern information technologies are increasingly used in the field of healthcare, it is convenient, and sometimes it is simply necessary. Thanks to this, medicine, including non-traditional medicine, is acquiring completely new features today. In many medical studies, it is simply impossible to do without a computer and special software for it. This process is accompanied by significant changes in medical theory and practice associated with making adjustments both at the stage of training medical professionals and for medical practice.
It is difficult to find an area in which information technology is not being used now. The industry leaders in the introduction of computer technologies are architecture (architectural design), mechanical engineering, education, banking and, belatedly, medicine.
The life path of each person intersects to one degree or another with doctors, to whom we entrust our health and life. But the image of a medical worker and medicine in general has been undergoing serious changes lately, and this is largely due to the development of information technology.
And although the presence of information technology is already becoming noticeable for the patient, nevertheless, this is only a small visible part of the iceberg. So, medicine and computer technology - what binds these concepts together and how does this duo work today abroad and in our country?
Over the past 20 years, the level of use of computers in medicine has increased. Practical medicine is becoming more and more automated.
There are two types of computer software: software, hardware.
The software includes system and application. The system software includes a network interface that provides access to data on the server. The data entered into the computer is organized, as a rule, into a database, which, in turn, is controlled by the database management application program (DBMS) and may contain, in particular, medical histories, X-rays in digitized form, statistical reports on the hospital, accounting.
Application software is the software for which, in fact, the computer is intended. These are calculations, processing of research results, various kinds of calculations, exchange of information between computers. Complex modern research in medicine is unthinkable without the use of computer technology. Such studies include computed tomography, tomography using the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasonography, studies using isotopes. The amount of information that is obtained with such research is so huge that without a computer, a person would be able to perceive and process it.
The developed medical information systems can be divided according to the following criteria: Medical systems that include programs that solve the narrow tasks of specialist doctors, such as radiologist, ultrasound, etc.
Medical systems for organizing doctors' office work and processing medical statistics. Hospital information systems. The system of collecting and processing information in modern medical centers should perform a lot of different functions there that cannot even be described, much less automated in any short time.
Telemedicine is a branch of modern medicine that has developed in parallel with the improvement of knowledge about the body and human health along with the development of information technology. Modern medical diagnostics involves obtaining visual information about the patient's health. Therefore, for the formation of telemedicine, information tools were needed to allow the doctor to "see" the patient. Currently, clinical telemedicine programs exist in many informationally developed countries of the world. Computer science is a field of science that studies the structure and general properties of scientific information, as well as issues related to its collection, storage, search, processing, transformation, dissemination and use in various spheres of human activity. Its medical branch, formed as a result of the introduction of information technologies into one of the oldest areas of human activity, is today becoming one of the most important areas of intellectual breakthrough of medicine to new frontiers. Today, most dental clinics have a computer. Computer software systems of digital (digital) radiography, the so—called radio ideographs, are widely distributed in the dental market. The systems allow you to study in detail various fragments of the tooth and periodontal image, increase or decrease the size and contrast of the images, save all the information in the database and transfer it (if necessary) to paper using a printer. The most famous programs are: Gendex, Trophy. The second group of programs are systems for working with dental video cameras. Such programs include: Vem Image, Acu Cam, Vista Cam, Telecom DMD.
Electronic document management modernizes the exchange of information within the dental clinic. The varying degree of access of doctors and patients, the mandatory use of an encryption system for encoding diagnoses, examination results, therapeutic, surgical, orthodontic, and other procedures makes it possible to reliably protect any information.
A method of studying the state of the human body, in which a consistent, very frequent measurement of thin layers of internal organs is performed. These data are recorded into a computer, which builds a full three-dimensional image based on them. The physical bases of measurements are diverse: X-ray, magnetic, ultrasonic, nuclear, etc. Tomography is one of the main examples of the introduction of new information technologies in medicine. It would be impossible to create this method without powerful computers.
When using a computer in laboratory medical research, a certain diagnostic algorithm is embedded in the program. A database of diseases is being created, where certain symptoms or syndromes correspond to each disease. During the testing process, using an algorithm, a person is asked questions. Based on her answers, the symptoms (syndromes) of the most appropriate group of diseases are selected. At the end of the test, this group of diseases is given with a percentage designation — how likely this disease is for this test. The higher the percentages, the higher the probability of this disease. Attempts are also being made to create such a system (algorithm) that would give out not several, but one diagnosis. But all this is still at the development and testing stage. In general, more than 200 computer expert systems have been created in the world today. The software (software) for digital fluorographic installations developed at the Scientific Research Center of Medical Radiology contains three main components: a complex control module, a module for recording and processing X-ray images, including a block for creating a formalized protocol, and an information storage module containing a block for transmitting information over a distance. Such a software structure allows you to use it to get an image, process it, store it on various media and print hard copies.
The use of new information technologies in modern medical centers will make it easy to keep a full record of all services provided, tests performed, prescriptions written. Also, when automating a medical institution, electronic outpatient cards and medical records are filled in, reports are compiled and medical statistics are maintained. Automation of medical institutions is the creation of a single information space of medical institutions, which, in turn, allows you to create automated workplaces for doctors, organize the work of the medical statistics department, create databases, keep electronic medical records and combine all medical, diagnostic, administrative, economic and financial processes into a single whole. The use of information technologies in the work of polyclinics or hospitals greatly simplifies a number of work processes and increases their efficiency in providing medical care to residents of our region.