The problem of production biofuel in Kazakhstan

In urban areas, large concentrations of chemical compounds are emitted into the atmosphere by industries, vehicles and other human activities. Nearly 3000 different compounds, mostly organic, resulting from human activity have been identified in the atmosphere. This complex mixture of pollutants can have impacts on health and the environment. Thus, the systematic determination of air quality should be, for practical reasons, limited to a restricted number of pollutants, defined in terms of their importance and the human and material resources available to identify and measure them. Generally, pollutants chosen to serve as indicators of air quality are the currently regulated and universally occurring compounds: sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). They are chosen due to their frequency of occurrence and adverse effects on the environment. Thus, the effects of air pollution can be characterized by a deterioration of good quality environmental conditions and the exacerbation of existing problems, which can manifest themselves in health, population welfare, vegetation, fauna, and urban structures. The attention of regulatory authorities and researchers must not only look to the standards of air quality. There are compounds that despite being unregulated deserve attention because of the damage they cause to the environment and, especially, to human health [1-2].

The annual volume of air pollution produced in Kazakhstan, varies between 5-7 million tons, of which the share of the transport sector (mainly road transport ) account for more than a third. According to the national environmental authorities, almost all regional and large industrial centers of the country have elevated levels of air pollution. In cities such as Almaty, Balkhash, Taraz, Ziryanovsk Ridder, Temirtau, Ust- Kamenogorsk and Shymkent air pollution index (API) regularly exceeds the allowable rate. Starting from the 80s, three of Cities - Almaty, Taraz and Shymkent became characteristic systematic excess API standard ratio of more than three times. From these sources, it follows that the share of road transport in air pollution cities in Kazakhstan is essential for twelve cities it is significant. In Astana, Taraz, Karaganda, Pavlo- gift , Petropavlovsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Shymkent contribution car - transport in air pollution is 20-40 %, and in the cities of Aktobe, Almaty, Atyrau , Kostanai and Semipalatinsk exceed 50% of the total[1-2] .

Effect of road transport pollution and negative effects on the population (obviously) is even more important than it may seem from the above official of quantitative assessments. The fact is that, firstly, the main activity of road transport is concentrated in areas with high population density - cities, industrial centers. Secondly, the harmful emissions of cars manufactured from the lowest, the surface layers of the atmosphere, where the main human activity takes place and where The conditions for their dissipation are the worst. Third, the exhaust gases of engines of automobiles contain highly toxic components, which are the main atmospheric pollutants. Time during which the harmful substances naturally co- stored in the atmosphere , estimated from ten days to six months .

In motor vehicles exhaust contains more than 200 toxic chemical compounds, most of which represent various hydrocarbons. In view of this diversity and complexity of the identification of individual compounds to consider taking – are usually the most representative components or groups Apart from the direct negative impact on human emissions from motor vehicles cause or consequential damages. Thus, increasing the concentration of the final product Auto-Motor fuel combustion – carbon dioxide, by the way, a natural component of atmospheric lead to a rise in global temperature of the Earth's atmosphere ( the so-called greenhouse effect). According to many experts, this is a consequence of such natural disasters of recent times, as the scale – fires in Southeast Asia, America, Siberia , flooding in Europe and Asia.

Sulfur compounds and nitrogen oxides released into the atmosphere with gases from the engine - running vehicles, undergo chemical transformations to form various acids and salts. Such substances is returned to earth as " acid " rain. It is now proven that cause acid rain damage to sensitive aquatic ecosystems, ve - FLS to the destruction of fauna, cause increased corrosion of metals and destruction of building structures. Moreover, nitrogen oxides, a method of air exist in the color of brown color, and in combination with various aerosol mist cause mud (smog), impairing visibility. Real quantitative estimates of emissions from the automobile transport in Kazakhstan is extremely difficult. This is due to the fact that the car is a mobile source with unsteady processes catfish releasing hazardous substances, and in the country there is not any equipment that allows you to conduct research on environmental – like objects. Information on this aspect of the Russian manufacturers of cars that make up the overwhelming majority of the park car assets in Kazakhstan, is contradictory and is not always objective. Using any quantitative indicators adoptedin the developed world, can not be due to the correctness ethyl significant technological backwardness of the Soviet cars and post-Soviet production.

Table 1 – The number of vehicles on areas of Kazakhstan in 2011

Name areas

Total

cars

trucks

buses

total

1

Republic of Kazakhstan

2686,7

397598

93956

494241

2

Akmola

114,8

23568

2883

26566

3

Aktobe

121,6

19118

3915

23155

4

Almaty

313,7

55833

8795

64942

5

Atyrau

56,5

12690

6126

18872

6

West Kazakhstan region

103,1

18580

5540

24223

7

Zhambyl

102,2

15202

3944

19248

8

Karaganda

209,9

29498

7019

36727

9

Kostanay

153,0

28631

3716

32500

10

Kyzylorda

74,9

18653

4582

23310

11

Mangistau

91,7

17183

4356

21631

12

South Kazakhstan

332,5

41546

13804

55683

13

Pavlodar

138,3

20714

4583

25435

14

North Kazakhstan

78,4

14424

1831

16333

15

East Kazakhstan

172,0

26534

5593

32299

16

Astana

177,3

19883

5116

25176

17

Almaty

446,9

35541

12153

48141

The main reasons for the increased air pollution by road are:

  • Auto-Motor poor quality fuel;
  • Low technical and operational indicators autotransformer park the vehicle.

Both of these factors affect the air pollution as directly (for example, due to inefficient combustion) and indirectly (due to unreasonably high fuel consumption).

As seen from Table 1, the number of the number of cars in the last 5 years increased by 1088.9 thousand units. Amid rising number of cars in Kazakhstan the share used, long exploited, in particular foreign production.

Table 2 – Availability of rolling stock transport in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2008 - 2012 year (thousands of units)

Vehicles

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

cars

2576,6

2656,8

3087,6

3553,8

3642,8

Bus

89,2

94,8

94,0

98,4

97,3

trucks

414,3

410,8

397,6

414,0

428,9

Total:

3080,1

3162,4

3579,2

4066,2

4169,0

Table 3 - Availability of passenger cars in the Republic of Kazakhstan

According to the type of fuel

Year of production vehicles

petrol

3 614 728

less than 3 years

95 485

diesel

32 198

over three years but not more than 7 years

367 437

gaz

2 779

more than 7 years but not more than 10 years

266 165

Mixed

29 249

over 10 years

2 912 890

Electric

134

Other

37 111

Total:

3 679 088

The main problems associated with the quality car are:

  • Low octane rating of gasoline sold mostly ;
  • Low production of winter varieties of diesel fuel.

The search for alternative fuels to reduce dependence on petroleum and emission of pollutants into the atmosphere has stimulated many scientific studies. The goal is to develop fuels that can be used in existing vehicles without the need for major changes in their engines. A term often used for fuel derived from renewable sources is 'biofuel', which has strong links with the concept of sustainability, whereby the use of natural resources to meet current needs should not compromise the needs of future generations. of this handbook describes different biofuels in detail. All transport fuels can be classified in fossil fuels and renewable fuels. The process chains for all transport fuels are shown in Figure 7. For the production of fossil and renewable transport fuels different primary energy sources are needed. Although mainly crude oil is used for the production of transport fuels today, the figure shows various opportunities for the production of biofuels. Thereby the utilization of biomass as feedstock source does not necessarily create a different fuel type than today. For instance, biodiesel is similar to fossil diesel and bioethanol has similar properties as petrol. This is a great advantage, since existing infrastructure does not have to be intensively modified.

However, there exists a large variety of different feedstock sources, biofuels, process technologies and utilizations of biofuels. Thus, PPO and biodiesel (FAME, FAEE) can be produced directly from oil containing plants. Ethanol can be processed from sugar, starch and cellulose. In addition, biomass can be liquefied to yield “bio crude” or gasified. A promising application for the future is the utilization of biomethane for transport.

In contrast, the use of other renewable energies, like electricity from wind or photovoltaic, is more complicated to use with today’s infrastructure. Hydrogen can be used in very different ways, directly for vehicle propulsion in a combustion engine or preferably in a fuel cell or indirectly as a component for the production of other fuels. However, hydrogen requires far-reaching changes in technology and infrastructure. In particular, energy effective use of hydrogen requires the introduction of fuel cells instead of internal combustion engines. This presents another technology and cost challenge. According to the vision report of the EC, hydrogen from renewables for fuel cell driven vehicles might be a long term option (EC 2006a p. 20).

Feedstock sources can be divided into animal fats, oil crops, sugar plants, starchy plants, cellulosic biomass and wet biomass. During processing theses feedstocks, they can be transformed into liquid and gaseous biofuels. Another classification of biofuels can be applied to first generation and second generation biofuels. PPO, biodiesel, ETBE and bioethanol are first generation biofuels since the conversion and engine technologies are widely developed and approved in practice. They offer the greatest short-term potentials of biofuels today. Although they differ in properties, technical requirements, economical aspects and potential, they can contribute to guarantee long-term mobility. Second generation biofuels are not yet commercial available since their conversion technologies have to be improved. They include e.g. BTL fuels and ethanol from lingo- cellulose. BtL fuels are a promising option for the future, but will not achieve relevance to the market before 2015. However, the boundaries first and second generation fuels are fluently and not exactly defined. Currently, the use of biomethane in the transport sector shifts from 2nd to 1st generation biofuel. First biomethane stations are built at the moment.

References

  1. Isaeva A.U., Dayrabaeva A.Zh., Zhaksybek K.K The influence of pesticides on soil microorganisms, ТМНПК «Ауэзовские чтения – 18: к 175-летию Абая Кунанбаева Шымкент: ЮКГУ им. М.Ауэзова. 2020, C. 133-139.
  2. Dairabaeva A., Abduova A., Dusenova S., Askerbekova A. Momin Saya Optimization and organization agrolandscapes sustainable agroecosystems.: Materiály XVI Mezinárodní vĕdecko-praktická konference «Zprávy výdecké ideje -2020», Volume 5: Praha. Publishing House «Education and Science» – 7-9 s.
Year: 2021
City: Shymkent
Category: Medicine