Microbiological analysis of leaves and fruits of grapes cultivated in the crimea

Grapes (botanical species Vitis vinifera, and V. labrusca) has long been a valuable and promising medicinal food plant. Leaves, fruits (berries) and products of their processing are currently widely used in dietary and functional nutrition, as well as in ampelo- and enotherapy [1, 2]. Plants different varieties of food and technical direction of the culture, as well as all others, is a natural habitat for the microorganismsMicrobiota composition depends on the species and varietal origin of the plant, age, stem height, soil type, growing conditions. The negative consequences of using contaminated plant materials can be a decrease or complete loss of biological and therapeutic value, the development of infectious diseases, and the ingestion of toxic products. Therefore, it is especially important to conduct a microbiological analysis of plant raw materials for food and medicinal crops.

The purpose of the article is to analyze the qualitative composition of microorganisms of grape leaves and berries by the time of their harvest. The objects of study are varieties of table and technical directions of use: Marinovsky, Merlot, White Muscat, Riesling, Pinot Noir, Lydia, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, grows in Western- th foothill- Primorsk th district of Piedmont natural zone of Crimea. Macroscopic, microscopic, biological analyzes as components of pharmacognostic analysis, as well as phytopathological and cultural research methods are used in the work.

Studies have shown that the largest number of epiphytic microbiota is Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola), an antagonist of soft rot pathogens, as well as Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. Normally, a small amount of fungi is found, including yeasts (Aspergillus sp., Saccharomyces sp.). Such microorganisms do not penetrate into tissues; they grow due to ordinary secretions and organic contamination of the plant surface. They are resistant to phytoncides, drying and ultraviolet radiation, and prevent the penetration of phytopathogenic microorganisms into plant tissues.

By the appearance of the samples of the studied plant materials, the following types of lesions by phytopathogens were identified: necrosis (spotting) and plaque on leaves and berries, the etiological agents of which are fungi and fungi-like organisms. The table shows the specific structure of causal and a brief description of diseases of grapes, growth in the Western- th foothill- Primorsk th district of Piedmont natural zone of Crimea.

Thus, the most harmful disease of grapes is mildew in the conditions of the Crimea, and oidium is the second most common fungal disease of grapes.

Both pathogens Plasmopara viticola Berl. et Toni, syn . Peronospora viticola de Bary

(Oomycota) and Oidium tuckeri Berk, syn. Uncinula necator Link (Ascomycota) is an obligate parasite and is more or less a threat to Crimean vineyards. In addition, an optional parasite, the causative agent of gray berry rot Botrytis cinerea Pers. (Ascomycota). Epiphytic microorganisms leaves By and berries 8 investigated botanical species grapes Vitis vinifera and V. labrusca, growth in the Western- th foothill- Primorsk th district of Piedmont natural zone of Crimea are bacteria Pantoea agglomerans (of Erwinia herbicola), of Pseudomonas sp., of Bacillus sp. and fungi Aspergillus sp., Saccharomyces sp.

Table - 1 Mycologiсal and phytopathological characterization of grapes cultivated in the Western- th foothill-

Primorsk th district of Crimea

Name of the disease, causative agent

The nature of the defeat

Degree of defeat

Leaves *

Obligate parasites

Downy Mildew ( milda )

Plasmopara viticola Berl. et

Toni, syn. Peronospora viticola de Bary, Oomycota

In front surface formed pale yellow oily stains and, after deposition of dew or mist on the underside surface of the leaf appears plaque patients, after a time it becomes brown and dry.

Annually, average

Powdery mildew ( oidium )

Oidium tuckeri Berk, syn. Uncinula necator Link, Ascomycota

On the leaves a white or grayish-ash powdery coating of conidial sporulation of the fungus

Yearly, weak

Fruit *

The Optional second parasite Gray rot

Botrytis cinerea Pers., Ascomycota

Affected berries turn brown, the skin shrinks them and coating the e tsya thick fluffy touch of gray th color

In some years, rarely

Note: * - plant parts used as food, technical and medicinal plant raw materials.

A certain threat to the human body is represented by molds of the genus Aspergillus, which can cause aspergillosis in immunodeficient conditions (for example, in cancer patients) and mycotoxicosis when the products of their vital activity enter the gastrointestinal tract.


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Year: 2020
City: Shymkent
Category: Medicine