Linguistic principles and techniques of learning a foreing language in a nonlinguistic universities

Summary

The main skills that students need to master a foreign language are: non-translational reading of literature of their specialty and the ability to talk on professional topics. Students must master the basics of phonetics, grammar, vocabulary, syntax and punctuation of a foreign language in a single holistic system and use the skills which they have learned to construct sentences, monologues and dialogues in the foreign language.

Literary language has various functional styles of speech: official, scientific, publicistic, everyday communication, fiction, which are used in certain areas of public life. Students of non-linguistic universities need to master the features of the scientific style of speech in their specialty, which can be combined with written and oral forms of speech.Learning a foreign language in a non-linguistic university is a difficult process for most students, since they need to master the skills and abilities of another language in spontaneous speech, and also need to learn the conceptual categories and connections that arise from students' learning of a foreign language. Therefore, to overcome such difficulties, it is necessary to know the psychological basis of the process of language communication.

Keywords: a foreign language, non-translational reading, communication, non-linguistic university, literary language, scientific style of speech, linguistics, linguistic principles.

Introduction. The method of teaching a foreign language has its own range of tasks and problems, the development of which requires constant cooperation with related science - linguistics, which solves issues related to the characteristics of the linguistic patterns of the language, the characteristics of its grammatical system, phonetic and lexical system, as well as the issues of selection and organization of language and speech material. The relationship between methodology and linguistics can be traced throughout the history of the development of the methodology as a science and is characterized by opposite directions. Some scholars believe that the methodology of teaching a foreign language is part of the general methodology, pedagogy and didactics, and is only indirectly related to linguistics. Other scientists see the applied field of linguistics. Linguistics, analyzing specific language material gives it a scientifically based interpretation, which is of great importance for the teaching methods. Recently, the interrelationship between methodology and linguistics has intensified significantly, since linguists find favorable conditions in foreign language teaching to verify the data obtained and methodologists often use linguistic theories in solving their problems.

Principles of learning foreign language. Mastering a foreign language should be a means of replenishing students' knowledge of their main specialty in a non-linguistic university. The main abilities and skills in learning foreign language are: non-translational reading of books of their specialty and ability to talk on professional topics. Consequently, a teacher of foreign language in a non-linguistic university should use basic linguistic principles and teaching methods.

The principles of learning are the basic provisions that determine the nature of the learning process which are formed on the basis of the chosen direction and the approaches corresponding to this direction. Clearly formulated teaching principles will help solve the question of how and what content of training to select, what materials and techniques to use.

Linguistic principles: taking into account the influence of the native language on mastering a foreign language; the principle of communicative competence in the process of learning a foreign language; A foreign language must be considered as an integral sound system consisting of separate level structures (alphanumeric, grammatical, syntactic, lexical, phrasal, textual, etc.).

Students must master the basics of phonetics, grammar, vocabulary, syntax and punctuation of a foreign language and use the skills they have learned to construct sentences, phrases, monologues, and dialogues in a foreign language. During the learning process students become acquainted with the individual level structures of the foreign language and learn to integrate them into a single language system necessary for communication.

Linguistics also pays great attention to the real forms of language, as a means of social communication. The main forms of existence of the national language are: literary language, everyday-spoken language, territorial dialects. In order to conduct conversations, university students usually learn the basics of a literary foreign language, as well as the main features of the functioning of spoken language. Literary language performs various functions, the boundaries of its use are much wider. In modern society, people communicate in the literary language which complicates its internal and external structure, there are some changes in the system and functions of the literary language to build stylistic correct monological and dialogical statements.

Language has two material functional forms: sound and graphic. All sounding elements of the language can be depicted through graphics, just as everything that is written can be uttered.

Learning a foreign language, it is necessary to master the features of speaking and writing, which represent a model of the process of real communication: motivation, purposefulness, informational content of the communication process, novelty, situationality, functionality, nature of interaction of students and the system of speech means. Literary language has various functional styles of speech: official, scientific, publicistic, everyday communication, fiction, which are used in certain areas of public life. Students of non-linguistic universities need to master the features of the scientific style of speech in their specialty, which can be combined with written and oral forms of speech. Written speech is used in writing articles (publications), oral speech - speeches in classes, conferences, symposia, congresses, etc.The analysis of the functional stratification of a literary language can help in the development of a linguistic methodical concept of teaching a foreign language. The student should master the style of everyday communication, socio-political and scientific which will allow to communicate in professional, public and household spheres. These styles are associated with oral and written forms of speech, so students need to constantly develop and improve oral and written speech skills. The correctness and culture of speaking and writing should be the leading factors in the whole process of teaching foreign languages at the university.

In the study of a speech act a natural and regular connection of linguistics with psychology, sociology and communication theory occurs which is of great interest in the linguistic analysis of the mechanisms of speech acts. For the formation of students' skills of communication in a foreign language, analytical reading and translation of foreign language literature in the specialty, the linguistic analysis of the mechanism for the occurrence of speech acts and drawing up training situational exercises on this basis is great importance. Speech acts, in turn, have a number of standard conditions: the material form of communication (oral or written), the purpose of communication (communication or information), the field of communication (public, professional, domestic), the topic of communication (events of social and cultural life, phenomena of science), under the influence of which standard forms of verbal communication.

Conclusion. Thus, the use of basic linguistic techniques and principles in the classroom allows the teacher to increase the effectiveness of teaching foreign languages to students in a non-linguistic university. For the formation of students' skills of communication in a foreign language, analytical reading and translation of foreign language literature in the specialty, the linguistic analysis of the mechanism for the occurrence of speech acts and drawing up training situational exercises on this basis is great importance.Learning a foreign language, it is necessary to master the features of speaking and writing, which represent a model of the process of real communication: motivation, purposefulness, informational content of the communication process, novelty, situationality, functionality, nature of interaction of students and the system of speech means. Knowing foreign language helps to students in their future profession.

Bibliography

  1. Borodullina M.K., Karlin A.M., Lurie A.S., Minin N.M. Teaching a foreign language as a specialty (German language) - M .: "High School", 1975. - p. 11-31
  2. Brandes M.P. Stylistic analysis. / on the material of it. and eng. Languages - M .: "High School", 1971 - p. 106118.
  3. Maslova A.M., Weinstein Z.N., Plebeyskaya L.S. Textbook of English for medical schools. - M .: “Liszt New”, 2005. - p. 3-5.
  4. Markovina I.Yu., Maksimova Z.K., Weinstein MB English for medical students. - M .: GEOTAR –Media, 2013 - p. 3-6.
  5. Mukhina V.V. English for dental students. - M .: Edition AST, - p. 3-6.
  6. Muraveiskaya M.S., Orlova L.K. English for doctors. - M .: Flint: "Science", - pp. 3-4.
  7. Churilov L.P., Stroev Yu.I., Utekhin V.I., Skoggins U.J. and others. English for doctors. - SPb .: ELBI - St. Petersburg, 2012 - p. 4-5, 8-14.
Year: 2019
City: Shymkent
Category: Medicine