Hazardous food products can create total dangers in the field of healthcare, economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, as result of which risks are threat to the health of each individual. The weaker categories of the population include preschool children, pregnant women, elderly, and people who suffer from gastrointestinal diseases. This article is devoted to the problems of improving quality of baby food. Inadequate supply of quality food products can significantly affect health of children and teenagers, and sustainable growth of the country's economy. The article describes the effect of toxicants contained in food on the children's body. The strategies developed at the state level to ensure food safety are presented.
Key words: baby food, food safety, contamination
The purpose of work is study of the effects of food hazards on health of children and teenagers
Materials and methods. When performing the work, standard and generally accepted research methods were used.
Results and discussion. Food contamination can occur under any circumstances of production or during the sale of products, and food producer is responsible for ensuring safety. Despite this, in many cases, the facts that are related to foodborne diseases are consequence of the fact that rules for handling food at home, at catering establishments, supermarkets and markets were not observed. Food business workers and consumers are not always aware of the importance and need to ensure protection of the health of personal and other people, for example, when purchasing, selling and preparing food, observe the main rules of hygiene.
According to many scientific studies, it follows that among the majority of factors that shape health of children and adolescents, significant role is played by the quality of area of residence, these include: the state of environment, nutrition, lifestyle, sanitary and epidemiological conditions of training, education [1, 2].
Currently, attention to nutrition problems has significantly increased, as the main factor that serves as link in person with the external environment and determines state of the population of children's and adult health. The nutrition, optimized in quantity and quality, creates the conditions for maintaining health, regular growth and development of body, promoting good mental and physical working capacity, normal functional activity of all organs and systems, thereby resisting influence of undesirable environmental circumstances of physical, chemical and biological origin, therefore reduces the risk of developing many diseases.
According to the results of statistics, in recent years, Kazakhstan has indicated stable direction of deterioration in the health of school and preschool children. Most school-age children have an increase in chronic morbidity, in addition, in terms of morbidity, girls get sick by 15% higher than boys. During training, visual impairment increases almost five times, diseases of the digestive tract and musculoskeletal system increase almost three times, heart, arteries and psychological disorders are observed twice as much. Among all schoolchildren, only 5-7% of graduates are actually healthy .
Due to malnutrition, the incidence of diseases has risen significantly in recent years. According to statistics from the Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan, anemia in school-age children has almost doubled, and this indicator is twice as much in adults .
Some studies have shown that the main degree of harmful effect on body of adults and children is incomplete intake of micronutrients in both quantity and quality. The authors' analysis of levels of incidence due to foodborne origin showed a significant increase, especially among school-age children [4,5].
As result of this, the main hygiene task is to optimize qualitative and quantitative composition of food products. At same time, they also have problems that are associated with the guarantee of food safety.
Today, such problems as environmental pollution, in animal husbandry and plant growing, widespread use of pesticides, fertilizers, hormones, antibiotics, use of new food additives, improvement of new technologies, development of genetically modified objects, falsification of food products has become necessary for introduction of food products and raw materials in the field of environmental and analytical control. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 500,000 chemicals are used in enterprises, of which 40,000 are harmful and 12,000 are toxic. For most substances, the maximum permissible concentration has not yet been determined, including for food products [6, 7].
A high level of anthropogenic load with heavy metals in the environment has toxic effect on the child's body and creates high risk of nephropathy in children, contributing to significant prevalence of this pathology.
For example, young children are especially vulnerable to lead poisoning; dose of lead that is 5–6 times less than an adult is sufficient for poisoning. Exposure to lead contaminated soil and dust from battery recycling and mining, and also contamination of drinking water sources, led to mass lead poisoning and numerous fatalities among young children in Nigeria, Senegal and other countries .
Arsenic is heavy metal of greatest concern in terms of environmental and health impacts. Drinking water can be contaminated as result of the use of arsenic-containing pesticides, natural mineral deposits or improper disposal of arsenic-containing chemicals. Intentional consumption of arsenic during suicide attempts or accidental consumption by children can also lead to acute poisoning .
In addition to metals, food flavorings and dyes contained in foods have strong effect on the body. Increasing attention is being paid to nutritional supplements, and there is growing concern about their safety and potential health risks. In particular, their influence on the development and behavior of children is subject of constant discussion [10, 11]. Due to the consumption of artificial nutritional supplements, allergic reactions and food hypersensitivity (including anaphylactic shock), aggravation of asthmatic symptoms, abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting can occur.
In the market of the Republic of Kazakhstan, every year the number of components that are obtained by synthetic method increases, and accordingly, natural and traditional food products are reduced, which international organizations concluded that human body was significantly affected. In this regard, in 2008, FAO, during study over 4 years, made ABSTRACT that in all countries it is necessary to develop agriculture in terms of environmentally friendly. This type of economy allows to harmonize the relationship between economic activities of person and nature, and thereby solve significant environmental and social problems, and also contributes to the health of the country's population through the creation of organic products.
Taking into account the foregoing, can conclude that in the future the priority will be enhanced development of the food and processing industry, ensuring quality and safety of food products, especially for children. Safety issues regarding food products produced in the Republic of Kazakhstan are still poorly understood.
In his message to the people of Kazakhstan (October 5, 2018), the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev noted that the health of nation is the main priority of the state. This means that Kazakhstan people must consume quality products. He entrusted the Committee for Quality and Safety Control of Goods and Services from January 2019 with thorough examination of food products, medicines, drinking water, children's goods, and medical services.
Malnutrition in children leads to the formation of acute infectious and gastrointestinal diseases, which are the primary causes of mortality in childhood. The most common diseases among children in Kazakhstan seem to be anemia and iodine deficiency, which can lead to dangerous violations of immune protection. For development of baby food market, following factors must be taken into account: fertility rate and material well-being of the population.
Baby food products are divided into the following types: milk formulas, mashed potatoes, dairy and sour- milk products, cereals, baby juices, tea, etc. To date, the first in terms of sales of baby food products are mixtures and mashed potatoes, respectively, then after them they rank sales of children's fermented milk products and further fruit juices.
The actual direction in the development of technology for baby food is production of dairy products, which activate digestive tract, normalize intestines, and increase absorption of the baby’s nutrients. Sour-milk products are also characterized by bactericidal properties, such as active lactic acid bacteria, which are contained in products that prevent the development of pathogens and putrefactive microorganisms in the intestines. During the process of ripening, vitamins are accumulated in them, which are in bound state with the protein, as result of which the best digestibility of the child’s body occurs. Due to the foregoing, the beneficial characteristics of dairy products can be used to nutrition of healthy children and children in infancy with various gastric diseases .
For baby food, the main raw materials can be milk, grain crops (wheat, corn, buckwheat, barley, oats, rye) and various additive components (fruits and vegetables, minerals, vitamins, etc.). Recently, more attention has been paid to use of milk of other animal species in household. The most promising is mare’s milk, which in some respects has advantages over cow’s milk, which makes it possible to consider them as an alternative under certain conditions.
Dairy products are the most highly nutritious foods. Especially milk and sour-milk products should be beginning of diet for children of all age categories: early, preschool and school. Milk and dairy products, in addition to easily digestible proteins, must contain easily digestible forms of calcium and magnesium salts, vitamins A and B2.
Milk production in Kazakhstan is well established and has large volumes. In accordance with statistics of the Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of food industry for 2015, 5.18 million tons of milk were produced in Kazakhstan (40% of milk was processed), in 2014 - 5.06 million tons of milk (40% of milk was processed) , 2013 - 4.93 million tons of milk (41%), 2012 - 4.85 million tons of milk (35%). The best producers of milk are: South Kazakhstan, East Kazakhstan, Almaty, North Kazakhstan regions.
According to the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union, following requirements are imposed on baby food: stringent requirements on the microbiological composition, presence of antibiotics, hormones and pesticides, prohibited components - artificial colors and flavors, components obtained using genetically modified raw materials; limited list of food additives approved for use in baby food; regulated forms of micronutrients.
Conclusion. The Kazakhstan food market for infants is represented mainly by foreign brands and manufacturers (mainly Russia (41%), Switzerland (19%), the Netherlands (13%)). In 2010, the Amiran plant (Kazakh Academy of Nutrition) entered the Almaty market; it amounted to about 35% of the market of the Republic of Kazakhstan, which produces dairy products for infants (starting from 6 months), and also for pregnant women and nursing mothers. This production will at least affect the volume of consumption of baby food in the republic.
Thus, the implementation of quality management systems that meet the international requirements of ISO 9000 series standards helps to increase the competitiveness of dairy products in the Republic of Kazakhstan. A special feature of the dairy industry is that 100% quality of the finished product is directly related to the quality and safety of the raw materials used, therefore it is necessary to directly analyze the quality of the final dairy products, depending on the quality of the animal raw materials.
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