Abstract. The article deals with the actual nutrition of students. Medical Institute has analyzed menu-layout. Diet analysers of students allowed to establish that their food is defective as both qualitatively and quantitatively. The study revealed violation of the diet of the vast majority of students, which may further lead to the emergence of alimentary dependent diseases.
Keywords: student nutrition; actual nutrition; daily diet; lifestyle menu-layout.
Nutrition, as a factor in determining human health, is one of the main indicators of lifestyle, which from the moment of birth and on throughout life affect the human body. Food substances are transformed into the structural elements of our cells in the body, which is providing physical and mental performance, determining the health and longevity of a person . The most important power characteristic is his rationality. Nutrition balanced diet, compiled with taking into account gender, age, health, lifestyle, nature of work and human professional activity, the climatic conditions of his accommodation. Properly formulated ration increases the ability of the body to resist negative environmental factors, contributes to the preservation of health, longevity, resistance to fatigue and high performance. The purpose of the study is to assess the daily diet and actual nutrition of medical school students.
Methods.For this, an analysis of the layout menu was carried out. Using a random sampling method, we had selected and analyzed menu layout 200 second-year medical students. Volume of sample population among girls was 73% and 27% among boys.
Results.In assessing the diet, it was found that 90% of students eat three times a day, which does not contradict the norm. However, four meals a day are the most favorable for performing mental and physical work. 10% of students have diet of two meals a day. In this case, not all the necessary nutrients are entering the body, which can later lead to diseases of various organs and systems. In addition, the study found that most of the students (80%) take meal in evening after 18:00 or just before bedtime. Which is totally unacceptable because the main calorie and proper food intake happens in evening time. This emerging habit will certainly promote the development of not only diseases of the digestive and endocrine systems, but also the formation of overweight . Analysis of the number and types of food showed that 40% students consume in their daily diet all eight foods groups, 30% do not consume vegetables, melons, fruits, berries and their processed products, 20% do not consume sugar and confectionery, and 10% students in their daily diet do not have milk and dairy products. The data obtained shows dominance of diet rich in carbohydrates and animal fats (i.e. it is possible to assume that their is an excess in their nutrition of saturated fatty acids, fat, easily digestible carbohydrates), insufficient food intake, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and dietary fibres. Calorie intake does not fully satisfy energy costs for all students. The closest to normal ratio was observed in 90% of respondents. Mostly there is a predominance of energy over the calorie diet. It suggests that students do not receive the required amount of energy as compared to food intake with a fairly active lifestyle. It is necessary to increase the calorie intake by increasing the amount of meals throughout the day. In most cases, the calorie content of the daily diet of students was provided by «fast» food, i.e. so called «Junk Food»: hamburgers and hot dogs. This kind of food does not promote proper digestion, needs energy and difficult to digest. Thus, the analysis of the students ration allowed to predict that their nutrition is inadequate in both qualitative and quantitative aspect. The study found that the vast majority of students eat improperly, which can later lead to digestive disorders. In addition, there is an imbalance in the number of nutrients: there is increased consumption of confectionery, flour products and potatoes. But the share of milk was less than 1/6 of the weight volume of the daily diet, and moreover, its quantity in ration is 3 times less than necessary. Biologically valuable products: like meat, butter, fruit, Juices - are used less frequently. No student eats all those daily products that are a source of essential nutrients.
Conclusion.After analyzing the data, we can say that the habits of students negatively affect their way of life such as the absence of clearly formed habits of regular eating that too in combination with large training load and lack of free time which leads to inefficient distribution of food intake during the day. Students need to correct their diet: to ensure the intake of food with high calorie at lunchtime (for example, lunch at dining room), adding to their diet those products for which they are deficit, reduce the amount of products with excess calories.
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