Prosthesis, modern view on the problem

The topicality: in Russia every year about one million people become disabled at working age, therefore, involvement in sports and physical education is considered as one of the factors of “socialization” of people with disabilities. In addition to psychological elements, participation in the sports movement contributes to the activation of all body systems, motor correction and the formation of a number of necessary motor compensations [1].

The purpose: to study the possibility of using cybernetic prostheses in Paralympic sports.

Materials and methods: the present study used data from literary sources and Internet resources on the problem of prosthetics and the use of prostheses in Paralympic games.

Results: The Paralympic Games are the second in scale and significance, after the Olympic Games, the world sports forum. The term "Paralympic" in relation to competitions for disabled athletes became official in 1988. The name itself comes from the Greek preposition "para" (from the Greek. "Along") and the words "Olympic"[3].

At present, Paralympic support programs continue to develop: training of athletes with disabilities is provided, financial assistance is provided for the development and strengthening of the material and scientific and methodological base of physical culture and sports for disabled people and people with disabilities, and jobs are being created for social adaptation of disabled sportsmen [1,2].

In addition, rehabilitation is particularly important, as well as the development of technologies that allow people with disabilities to achieve a high quality of life.

Rehabilitation after amputation of limbs is not included in the stages of the operation, but it is an important condition for a person to return to normal life.

It can be divided into several general stages:

  1. Selection of prosthesis.
  2. Selection of the first temporary prosthesis can begin approximately 6–8 weeks after amputation.
  3. Life training with a prosthesis. The first days to use the prosthesis can be very difficult and even painful, however, the termination of training at this stage is not acceptable. After a few days the pain passes, skills of using the prosthesis appear.
  4. Self-service training. After amputation, an important goal for a person is to restore self-care skills, not to feel helpless.
  5. Work with a psychologist. Often, after such a difficult operation, a person becomes withdrawn into himself, considers himself as defective, loses the meaning of life. Working with a psychologist will help to regain faith in yourself, restore motivation, see new opportunities and return to an active social life.
  6. Work on simulators. To restore muscle tone, learn to work with a prosthesis and restore walking skills, we use simulators that work on the principle of biofeedback (BF). A body support system such as Vector allows patient to restore limbs quickly after amputation.
  7. Physiotherapy procedures can improve blood circulation, restore muscle tone of the stump, relieve pain, reduce swelling.

Depending on the preferences and wishes of the patient, his weight, age and features of the stump, the prosthetic technicians create special reliable prostheses for running, physical education or professional sports [4, 5].

As a result of the study, it was found that for athletes who had undergone an operation to amputate the limbs, the necessary conditions for further sports were created, new prostheses were developed, which completely compensate for the lost functions of the athlete.

Conclusion: currently there is a large number of specialized prostheses that are being developed at the same time, which, in turn, provide not only comfort for the athlete, but also increase its efficiency and allow to achieve outstanding athletic results.

The list of references:

  1. Baumgartner Rene i Bota Per Amputatsiya i protezirovanie nizhnih konechnostey. Prakticheskoe posobie. M.: Meditsina. 2002. 504s.
  2. Kondrashin N. I., Sanin V. G. Amputatsiya konechnostey i pervichnoe protezirovanie. M.: Meditsina. 1984. 160 s.
  3. Morozov A.M., Kadyikov V.A., Peltihina O.V., Askerov E.M., Morozova A.D. O vozmozhnostyah opredeleniya aktualnosti temyi nauchnogo issledovaniya // Sinergiya nauk. 2018. # 19.
  4. Ostroverhov G.E. Operativnaya hirurgiya i topograficheskaya anatomiya. M.: MIA. 2005. s. 264-289
  5. Nikolaev A.V. Topograficheskaya anatomiya i operativnaya hirurgiya. Uchebnik. M.: GEOTAR. 2007. s. 159254
Year: 2018
City: Shymkent
Category: Medicine